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Gas Gathering

Workshop
In this example, a gas gathering system located on varied terrain is simulated using
the steady state capabilities of Aspen HYSYS. The following figure shows the
physical configuration of this system superimposed on a topographic map. The
system consists of four wells distributed over an area of approximately 2.0 square
km, connected to a gas plant by a network of pipelines.
Figure 1

The gas in this case is varied; both sour and sweet gases are being combined in the
pipeline, as well as a gas condensate mixture. A Mixer combines all of the incoming
gas streams from the outlying wells into one common header. Flowlines extending
from this central site to each of the individual wells are modeled in Aspen HYSYS
using the Pipe Segment operation. Since the plant is located in an area with mixed
terrain, the elevation changes must be accounted for in the Pipe Segments.
Additional Mixer operations are used to model mixing points where flows from
remote wells are combined in common lines.

Learning Objectives
After you have completed this module, you will be able to use the Pipe Segment in
Aspen HYSYS to model pipelines.

Prerequisites
Before beginning this module, you need to know how to add streams and unit
operations. You also need to complete the Oil Characterization Module.

Process Overview
Pipe Diameters for each of the branches are:
Pipe Branch

Diameter

Branch 1

76.2 mm (3)

Branch 2

101.6 mm (4)

Branch 3

76.2 mm (3)

Branch 4

101.6 mm (4)

Branch 5

76.2 mm (3)

Branch 6

152 mm (6)

Branch 7

152 mm (6)

Schedule 40 steel pipe is used throughout and all branches are buried at a depth of 1
m (3 ft). All pipes are uninsulated.

Elevation data for each of the branches are provided in the following table. Branches
that traverse undulating terrain have been subdivided into a number of segments with
elevation points assigned at locations where there is a significant slope change. Such
locations in the network are labeled on the schematic diagram with the elevation
value in italics.
Branch

Segment

Branch 1

GasWell 1

Branch 2

Branch 4

Branch 6

6 (15)

125 (410)

636.5 (2089)

-8.5 (-21)

100 (325)

637 (2090)

0.5 (1)

GasWell 2

614 (2015)
200 (665)

GasWell 3

637 (2090)

23 (75)

635.5 (2085)

160 (525)

648 (2125)

12.5 (40)

100 (325)

634 (2080)

-14 (-45)

205 (670)

633 (2077)

-1 (-3)

Branch 1 & 2

637 (2090)
355 (1165)

GasWell 4

633 (2077)

-4 (-13)

632.5 (2075)

180 (590)

625 (2050)

-7.5 (-25)

165 (540)

617 (2025)

-8 (-25)

Branch 3 & 4

633 (2077)
300 (985)

Branch 5 & 6
1

639 (2095)
645 (2110)

1
Branch 7

Elevation
Change
meters (feet)

150 (500)

1
Branch 5

Elevation
meters (feet)

1
Branch 3

Length
meters
(feet)

617 (2025)

633 (2077)
-16 (-52)

617 (2025)
340 (1115)

604 (1980)

-13 (-45)

Process Overview

Building the Simulation


The gas field will be modeled using the Peng-Robinson property package.
Rather than adding the components and the oil again, open the case from the Oil
Characterization module. This case contains the four Gas Well streams.
The following components should display in the fluid package:

If you are using Field units,


the oil components will
have different names,
corresponding to the
different NBP.

Nitrogen

n-Pentane

H2S

n-Hexane

CO2

C7+*

Methane

H2O

Ethane

NBP[0]92*

Propane

NBP[0]171*

i-Butane

NBP[0]243*

n-Butane

NBP[0]322*

i-Pentane

NBP[0]432*

The four streams should have the following values:


GasWell 1

GasWell 2

GasWell 3

GasWell 4

Temperature C (F)

40 (105)

45 (115)

45 (115)

35 (95)

Pressure kPa (psia)

4135 (600)

3450 (500)

<empty>

<empty>

Flow kgmole/h
(lbmole/hr)

425 (935)

375 (825)

575 (1270)

545 (1200)

Adding the Pipe Segments


The pipe segment is used to simulate a wide variety of piping situations ranging from
single/multiphase plant piping with rigorous heat transfer estimation, to largecapacity, looped pipeline problems. It offers the common pressure drop correlations
developed by Gregory, Aziz, and Mandhane, and Beggs and Brill. A third option,
OLGAS, is also available as a gradient method. In addition, there are a large number
of specialty pressure drop correlations available. Consult the online help and the
manual for more information on these methods. Four levels of complexity in heat
transfer estimation allow you to find a solution as rigorously as required while
allowing for quick generalized solutions to well-known problems.

The pipe segment offers three calculation modes: Pressure Drop, Flow, and
Length; the appropriate mode will automatically be selected depending on the
information supplied. In order to solve the pipe, you must supply enough information
to completely define both the material balance and energy balance.
In this simulation, we will be using seven individual pipe segment operations in the
gathering system. In addition, each Pipe Operation may contain multiple segments to
represent the various elevation rises and drops.

Adding the first Pipe Segment


1.
Pipe Segment icon

Double-click the Pipe Segment icon.

Connections page
On the Connections page, the Inlet (Feed), Product, and Outlet (Energy) stream
connections are made.
2.

Complete the Connections page as shown in the following figure:

Figure 2

Parameters page
On this page, you can select the gradient method that will be used for two- phase
(VL) flow calculations. The options are:
Aziz, Govier & Fogarasi
Baxendell & Thomas
Beggs & Brill
Duns & Ros
Gregory, Aziz, Mandhane
Hagedorn & Brown
HTFS, Liquid Slip
HTFS, Homogeneous Flow
OLGAS2000_2P
OLGAS2000_3P
Orkiszewski
Poettman & Carpenter
For single phase streams,
the Darcy equation is used
for pressure drop
predictions.

Tacite Hydrodynamic Module


Tulsa99
For all of the pipes in this example, use the Beggs and Brill correlation for twophase flow.
The pressure drop for the pipe can be supplied on the Parameters page. In this
example, it will be left empty and calculated.

Rating tab
Sizing page
On the Sizing page, you construct the length-elevation profile for the Pipe Segment.
Each pipe section and fitting is labeled as a segment. To fully define the pipe
sections segments, you must also specify pipe schedule, diameters, pipe material and
a number of increments.
The first pipe, Branch 1 is broken into three segments.
3.

Horizontal pipe sections


have an Elevation of 0.
Positive elevation indicates
that the outlet is higher
than the inlet.

Add the first segment to the pipe unit operation by clicking the Append
Segment button. Specify the following information for the segment.

In this cell...

Enter...

Fitting/Pipe

Pipe

Length

150 m (500 ft)

Elevation Change

6 m (15 ft)

4.

To specify the diameter, click the View Segment button.

5.

Select Schedule 40 as the Pipe Schedule.


Figure 3

Aspen HYSYS contains a


database for three pipe
schedules, 40, 80, and
160.

6.

From the Available Nominal Diameters group, select 76.20 mm (3 inch)


diameter pipe and click the Specify button. The Outer and Inner Diameter will
be calculated by Aspen HYSYS.

7.

Use the default Pipe Material, Mild Steel, and the default Roughness, 4.572e- 5
m (0.0018 inch).

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8.

Two more segments are needed to complete the branch.

In this cell...

Enter...

Enter...

Segment

Fitting/Pipe

Pipe

Pipe

Length

125 m (410 ft)

100 m (325 ft)

Elevation

-6.5 m (-21 ft)

0.5 m (1 ft)

Schedule

40

40

Nominal Diameter

76.2 mm (3 inch)

76.2 mm (3 inch)

When all three segments have been added and defined, the view should look like the
following figure:
Figure 4

The Pipe Segment is not yet able to solve because we have not specified any
information about the heat transfer properties of the pipe.

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Heat Transfer page


On this page, you select the method that Aspen HYSYS will use for the heat transfer
calculations.
You have the option of specifying the heat transfer information By Segment or
Overall.
By Segment. You specify the Ambient Temperature and HTC (Heat
Transfer Coefficient) for each segment that was created on the Dimensions
page.
Overall. One of four heat transfer methods will be applied to the whole
pipe segment.
o

Duty Method. If the Overall heat duty of the segment is known,


the energy balance can be calculated immediately. Each increment
is assumed to have the same heat loss.

Stream Temperatures. If both inlet and outlet and ambient


temperatures are specified, a linear profile is assumed and the
overall heat duty can be calculated.

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Specified. If the overall HTC


and Ambient Temperature are known, then rigorous heat transfer
calculations are performed on each increment of the pipe.

Heat Transfer Coefficient Estimation. The overall HTC can be


found from its component parts.
Inside Film Convection
Outside Conduction/Convection
Conduction through Insulation

For all pipes in this simulation, use the Estimate HTC method.
9.
When using the Estimate
HTC option, you have to
specify the Ambient Temp
on the Overall HTC page

On the Rating page, click Heat Transfer.

10. Switch to the Overall HTC radio button, and enter an Ambient Temperature of
5C (40F).

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11. Switch to the Estimate HTC page, and complete it as shown in the following

figure:
Figure 5

What is the outlet pressure of Branch 1? __________________________________________

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Completing the Simulation


Now add the remaining unit operations to your case.
1.

Add two Pipe Segments with the following values:

In this cell...

Enter...

Connections
Name

Branch 2

Inlet

GasWell 2

Outlet

B2 Out

Energy

B2-Q

Dimensions
Segment 1
Length

200 m (655 ft)

Elevation

23 m (75 ft)

Nominal Diameter

101.6 mm (4 in)
Schedule 40

Heat Transfer
Estimate the Inner, Outer, and Pipe
Wall HTC
5 C Ambient temperature

In this cell...

Enter...

Connections
Name

Branch 3

Inlet

GasWell 3

Outlet

B3 Out

Energy

B3-Q

Dimensions
Segment 1
Length

160 m (525 ft)

Elevation

12.5 m (40 ft)

Nominal Diameter

76.2 mm (3 in)

Segment 2
Length

100 m (325 ft)

Elevation

-14 m (-45 ft)

Nominal Diameter

76.2 mm (3 in)

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In this cell...

Enter...

Segment 3
Length

205 m (670 ft)

Elevation

-1 m (-3 ft)

Nominal Diameter

76.2 mm (3 in)

Heat Transfer
Estimate the Inner, Outer, and Pipe
Wall HTC

2.

Add a Mixer with the following information:

In this cell...

Enter...

Connections
Name

Junction 1

Inlets

B1 Out, B2 Out

Outlet

J1 Out

Parameters
Pressure Assignment

3.

Set Outlet to Lowest Inlet

Add two Pipe Segments to your case with the values provided in the following
tables.

In this cell...

Enter...

Connections
Name

Branch 4

Inlet

J1 Out

Outlet

B4 Out

Energy

B4-Q

Dimensions
Segment 1
Length

355 m (1165 ft)

Elevation

-4 m (-13 ft)

Nominal Diameter

101.6 mm (4 in)

Heat Transfer
Estimate the Inner, Outer, and Pipe
Wall HTC

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In this cell...

Enter...

Connections
Name

Branch 5

Inlet

GasWell 4

Outlet

B5 Out

Energy

B5-Q

Dimensions
Segment 1
Length

180 m (590 ft)

Elevation

-7.5 m (-25 ft)

Nominal Diameter

76.2 mm (3 in)

Segment 2
Length

165 m (540 ft)

Elevation

-8 m (-25 ft)

Nominal Diameter

76.2 mm (3 in)

Heat Transfer
Estimate the Inner, Outer, and Pipe
Wall HTC

4.

Add a second Mixer to your case.

In this cell...

Enter...

Connections
Name

Junction 2

Inlets

B3 Out, B4 Out

Outlet

J2 Out

Parameters
Pressure Assignment

Equalize All

What is the pressure of GasWell 3? ______________________________________________


How was this calculated? ______________________________________________________

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5.

Add a Pipe Segment to your case.

In this cell...

Enter...

Connections
Name

Branch 6

Inlet

J2 Out

Outlet

B6 Out

Energy

B6-Q

Dimensions
Segment 1
Length

300 m (985 ft)

Elevation

-16 m (-52 ft)

Nominal Diameter

152.4 mm (6 in)

Heat Transfer
Estimate the Inner, Outer, and Pipe
Wall HTC

6.

Add a Mixer to the simulation.

In this cell...

Enter...

Connections
Name

Junction 3

Inlets

B5 Out, B6 Out

Outlet

J3 Out

Parameters
Pressure Assignment

Equalize All

What is the pressure of GasWell 4? ______________________________________________


How was this calculated? ______________________________________________________

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7.

Add another Pipe Segment to the simulation with the following values:

In this cell...

Enter...

Connections
Name

Branch 7

Inlet

J3 Out

Outlet

B7 Out

Energy

B7-Q

Dimensions
Segment 1
Length

340 m (1115 ft)

Elevation

-13 m (-45 ft)

Nominal Diameter

152.4 mm (6 in)

Heat Transfer
Estimate the Inner, Outer, and Pipe
Wall HTC

Save your case!

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