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Mara Cristina Corrales

Experta en Contenido

Albenis Corts
Asesora Pedaggica

Hctor Jair Neira


Diseador Grfico

Juan Carlos Velsquez


Editor y Corrector de Estilo

Todos los Derechos Reservados 2010. Propiedad de Compensar Unipanamericana Institucin Universitaria con Apoyo Acadmico de
MondragonUnibertsitatea (MU).

ACTIVIDAD DE APRENDIZAJE 2
Programa Acadmico
Transversal
Asignatura
Emprendimiento I

Metodologa Activa

Duracin

Estudio de Casos
Las simulaciones son reproducciones simplificadas de la vida real en las que se eliminan la mayor parte de la informacin irrelevante, se
secuencian las fases y se permite a los alumnos ser los verdaderos actores de la situacin, enfrentndose a la necesidad de tomar
decisiones y valorar sus resultados. (Martn, 1983).

Al finalizar esta actividad estar en capacidad de


Analizar el caso propuesto para esta actividad. A partir de la lectura del siguiente artculo y
de los conocimientos adquiridos durante el semestre,

A continuacin se presenta el artculo en ingls Self-administration de Peter F. Drucker


extrado de Management Challenges of the XXI Century, Ed Sudamericana, captulo 6, en el
cual, el autor realiza un anlisis de la importancia y la necesidad de gerenciarse a s mismo,
como una cualidad que nos puede convertir en grandes hacedores, es decir en
emprendedores.

Resultados de aprendizaje

Reconocer los factores que favorecen el espritu empresarial y de aprendizaje.

Identificar las caractersticas, habilidades y cualidades asociadas a la iniciativa


emprendedora.

Nombre del entrevistado: Diego Garca.


Nombre de la empresa: M&D Consultores de servicios financieros.
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Planteamiento de la situacin

Fecha de la entrevista: Junio de 2010.


Lugar: Bogot D.C.
Entrevistador: Luis Rojas.
Presentacin
Diego Garca comenz su empresa con escasos recursos y en slo unos aos construy un
negocio altamente exitoso en el sector de la consultora financiera, un sector muy competitivo
y por esto mismo difcil de penetrar. Por qu tuvo tanto xito? En vez de desarrollar su
propio negocio de la forma tradicional, independiente y cerrada, la organiz como un sistema
social conformado por unidades semi-autnomas que actualmente constituyen una empresa
de auto-desarrollo.
Desarrollo de la entrevista:
1) Luis Rojas - L.R.: Ha existido algn empresario en su familia?
Diego Garca - D.G.: Mi abuelo materno tena una miscelnea en el pueblo donde viva, Tuta
(Boyac).
2) L.R.: A qu se dedican sus padres?
D.G.: Mi madre se dedicaba a cuidarnos y a las labores del hogar, mi padre trabajaba en
labores del campo.
3) L.R.: Cunteme acerca de su educacin?
D.G.: Me gradu de bachiller en Tunja y decid venirme a estudiar una carrera profesional a
Bogot, estudi por la noche contadura en la Unipanamericana, mientras en el da trabajaba
en una empresa como mensajero y despus como auxiliar contable. De hecho, desde el
colegio deba trabajar para costearme mis estudios, mi familia no posee muchos recursos

padres siempre nos recomendaban que estudiramos para salir adelante. Una vez me
gradu de la universidad, tuve la oportunidad de ocupar el cargo de asistente de contabilidad,
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econmicos y eso dificult la posibilidad de apoyarnos ms en este sentido, sin embargo, mis

pero despus la empresa quebr y me qued desempleado, busque por mucho tiempo
trabajo en mi profesin, pero me fue muy difcil encontrar una buena opcin, mientras tanto
llevaba algunas contabilidades a pequeas empresas y realizaba trabajos en ventas para
complementar los ingresos econmicos.
Una vez en la empresa de uno de mis clientes encontr un prospecto para un seminario de
entrenamiento personal o autocouching y decid hacerlo, desde entonces tome ms
conciencia de mi proyecto de vida y de mis decisiones, me propuse plantearme yo mismo
otras alternativas que pudieran mejorar mi proyecto de vida y busque las oportunidades que
me llevaran a lograr mis objetivos.
4) L.R.: Cmo comenz su compaa?
D.G.: Como le coment, hubo un tiempo que me qued sin trabajo y me tocaba rebuscarme
los ingresos, por fortuna los dos clientes que tenia me permitan seguirme relacionando y
profundizando no solamente en los aspectos de la contabilidad general de una empresa, sino
tambin en el financiero, pude darme cuenta que las personas necesitan una orientacin
acerca de cmo invertir mejor sus recursos, su dinero, as que empec justo con estas dos
empresas y luego les solicit algunos referidos que visitar, comenc a construir mi lista de
clientes, casi todos con dificultades en la toma de decisiones al momento de invertir. Yo no
tena una oficina, trabajaba desde mi casa y tena un computador con configuracin bsica.
Poco a poco me fueron llamando de diferentes empresas y ya no tena tiempo para cubrirlos
a todos, as que hice una lista de algunos profesionales que poda llamar cuando tuviese
mucho trabajo o en caso de que surgiera un trabajo adicional o con otras necesidades
puntuales de los clientes, as fue como comenz M&D Consultores de servicios financieros.
5) L.R.: Lo pens por mucho tiempo antes de comenzar el negocio? Haba ya antes

D.G.: S y no. Lo haba considerado antes, pero no muy seriamente. Slo ocurri.
6) L.R.: Cuntenos acerca de sus comienzos.
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considerado la opcin de dedicarse a los negocios?

D.G.: Necesit pedir dinero prestado para comenzar, como le coment el computador estaba
desactualizado y necesitaba alquilar un espacio para poderme reunir con mis clientes,
mobiliario, y algunas cosas bsicas para arrancar el negocio. Para ese entonces ya estaba
viviendo con mi esposa, no tenamos hijos. Ella era profesora de un colegio. Aunque los dos
contribuamos con los gastos de la casa, ella ganaba ms que yo, as que muchas veces, le
tocaba asumir los gastos de la casa, porque a mi apenas me alcanzaba para mantener la
oficina y las deudas que an tenia del crdito de la universidad. Todo se fue dando poco a
poco. Mi primo, que haba trabajado en al rea de contabilidad durante muchos aos, se
qued sin trabajo, comenz tambin en la oficina, me ayud muchsimo. Los dos
trabajbamos con mucho empeo y constancia. Despus de dos aos, comenzamos a hacer
ms trabajos y a ver que ya tenamos demanda, esto tambin le dio la posibilidad a l de
realizar la carrera a nivel profesional.

Cuando comenc a vislumbrar mi empresa, no tena ni idea de crear un negocio, slo tena la
idea de hacer algo diferente no solamente en los servicios ofrecidos, sino tambin en la
organizacin y estructura empresarial, as que consult mucho hasta que encontr la
propuesta de estructuras sociales, decid concentrarme en ella, as que conceb la empresa
como un sistema social en s misma, una empresa que tuviera algo que ofrecerle a todos
sus empleados.

Al cabo de dos aos y medio, ya tena tres colaboradores. Cuando miro atrs, esos dos aos
fueron un perodo de ensayo y error. Para ese entonces trataba de entender el mercado y
de descubrir la manera de dirigir un negocio. Cuando regres de vacaciones, despus del
tercer ao decid concentrarme definitivamente en las asesoras financieras y en una
estructura organizacional en la cual todo el mundo contribuira y se beneficiara. Me tom un
ao el ponerlo en marcha y todava presenta fallas. Todos hemos trabajado duro. Despus

dedicamos principalmente a la consultora financiera en diferentes campos y con diferentes


tipos de clientes.
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de cinco aos de funcionamiento, la empresa ya cuenta con un grupo de 45 empleados. Nos

Operamos en Bogot y estamos posicionndonos en Cali, nuestro nombre ya es reconocido


en el sector. Nuestra fortaleza est precisamente en el recurso humano, hemos desarrollado
un sistema de seleccin de personal especializado invirtiendo mucho tiempo en l, ya que
nuestro personal es nuestro recurso ms importante.
7) L.R.: Qu criterios utiliza para la seleccin del personal?
D.G.: Valores humanos principalmente. El conocimiento es muy importante en este negocio,
pero el entrenamiento y la calidad humana, lo es ms. Lo importante es encontrar personas
que estn dispuestas a aprender. El conocimiento es aproximadamente el 50%, ya que el
resto depende de los propios individuos. Lo que piensan, si congenian con los dems, si
comparten nuestros valores, si son leales, si se puede confiar en ellos.

Despus de seis o siete entrevistas, los candidatos deben resolver un problema real de la
empresa, que se haya presentado en el pasado o que estemos tratando de resolver en el
presente, ellos deben proponer una o dos soluciones que sean realistas, aplicables y
aceptables. Algunas veces, ya en este momento, podemos identificar el rea de trabajo para
el cual son ms aptos. Tambin se les pide que diseen una estrategia para la compaa y
despus de todo esto, hablamos con ellos, en todo este proceso nos damos cuenta y
valoramos sus capacidades.

Cuando te has reunido con alguien por lo menos seis o siete veces por una o dos horas cada
vez, sobre todo cuando la persona se encuentra en una posicin de vulnerabilidad, uno se
puede hacer una idea de ella. Tambin les informamos acerca del capital de la empresa.
Ellos pueden ver lo que hemos hecho. Nos concentramos en conocer quines son para as
determinar si se adaptarn o no. Hay muchas personas que quieren trabajar, pero que no

Todo esto requiere de mucho tiempo pero creemos que vale la pena para seguir creciendo,
beneficindonos mutuamente y brindando mejores servicios, al final si el candidato no es el

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quieren involucrarse ni tampoco ser creativos en su trabajo.

adecuado no hacemos la oferta. No queremos arriesgarnos a romper un sistema en el cual


todo el mundo se encuentra tan motivado.
8) L.R.: He escuchado que se tiende a asociar la palabra entrenamiento con su empresa.
D.G.: Nuestros empleados deben tomar una hora de entrenamiento semanal. Lo cual
representa mensualmente la mitad de una jornada de trabajo. Los nuevos empleados reciben
cinco das de entrenamiento obligatorio en un saln de clases y cinco das de entrenamiento
prctico. Es como un perodo de prueba. A pesar de nuestro riguroso sistema de seleccin,
despus de este perodo de prueba nos vemos en la necesidad de eliminar el 8 10% de
nuestros candidatos. Una vez que han terminado el entrenamiento introductorio, los nuevos
empleados pueden escoger los cursos que tomarn.

Todos los cursos son prcticos y fueron diseados especficamente para la empresa, en las
reas de gerencia, gerencia de recursos humanos y estrategia, entre otras. Este tipo de
aprendizaje permanente ayuda a nuestra gente a ser mejores profesionales en todos los
sentidos. Ellos aprenden a hacer bien su trabajo, a seleccionar personal, a tratar con los
clientes, a vender la empresa, a vender nuestros servicios, a administrar su tiempo, a trabajar
con calidad y a ser productivos. Al principio, contratbamos a un consultor para que nos
diseara los cursos de entrenamiento. El ao pasado el consultor comenz a trabajar de
tiempo completo con nosotros.
9) L.R.: Hblenos acerca de su sistema. Se basa ste en alguna ideologa?
D.G.: Es un sistema semi-democrtico donde todo el mundo es miembro de dos grupos: un
mdulo de trabajo y un grupo de plan de accin. La persona que cre el mdulo o grupo es
asignada como coordinador principal y las elecciones se llevan a cabo cada ao. Las
asignaciones deben ser ratificadas por el Comit Ejecutivo, el cual est formado por todos los

actividades a cargo del mercadeo y publicidad, los servicios, la calidad, la inspeccin y el


seguimiento, etc. Los lderes son asignados por el coordinador electo. Ellos se encargan de

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coordinadores y mi persona. Cada mdulo es como una mini-empresa, con lderes de

las actividades gerenciales adems de su propio trabajo. Cada mdulo se compone de 5


personas y pueden emplear a personas que trabajen medio tiempo o personal por
temporadas si es necesario. Cada mdulo opera en un rea geogrfica especfica de la
ciudad y ahora en Cali. Todo el sistema se centra en ofrecer calidad. Cada mdulo tiene que
desarrollar su propio mercado, asignar sus propios recursos y tomar las decisiones, todo
dentro de unas normas generales para toda la empresa.

Por ejemplo, hay procedimientos especficos para la seleccin del personal, la evaluacin,
ofertas y control de calidad. Todo el mundo se involucra. Ellos son los que permiten que el
sistema funcione. Cuanta mayor responsabilidad tienen, ms interesados se vuelven. Las
ganancias se reparten de la misma forma. No hay dos empleados que ganen lo mismo. La
remuneracin no se basa en la antigedad, sino en el trabajo, as como tambin tenemos un
sistema de bonificaciones sustentado en las ganancias que cada individuo genera para la
compaa. Por ejemplo, si el empleado introduce a un nuevo cliente, recibir el cinco por
ciento de las ganancias del primer ao, lo que equivale a la mitad de las ganancias. Los
grupos de plan de accin se renen una vez al mes. Estos grupos los conforman las
personas de los distintos mdulos quienes discuten posibles mejoras y cambios en el
sistema y hacen recomendaciones al Comit Ejecutivo. Una persona que slo quiera hacer
su trabajo no sirve para este tipo de sistema. Tienes que participar, involucrarte y contribuir,
crecer como persona y contribuir al crecimiento de la empresa como un todo.
10) L.R.: No es ste un sistema totalitario?
D.G.: Las personas son libres de decidir si quieren o no ser parte de la compaa y si lo
hacen tienen que seguir las normas. Una empresa productiva tiene que tener un sistema
donde todo el mundo vaya en la misma direccin.

D.G.: Mi trabajo es el de moderar y dar a conocer la direccin a seguir a travs de una visin
especfica. Tengo que pasar mucho tiempo entendiendo, investigando y trabajando el

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11) L.R.: Cul es su trabajo en todo esto?

mercado. Esto implica investigacin y anlisis de mercado, reuniones con clientes,


mercadeo, ventas y pensar acerca de cmo vender nuestro producto. Se podra decir que
mi trabajo diario es mercadeo y finanzas.

12) L.R.: Cmo definira usted el servicio que sus clientes le compran?
D.G.: Nuestros clientes compran calidad. Ellos compran nuestra posicin en el mercado y
nuestra seriedad y confiabilidad, hacemos nuestro trabajo como se debe y siempre
cumplimos con lo que se nos pide, con lo que el cliente quiere y necesita.
13) L.R.: Considera usted que ese es un factor clave?
D.G.: Pienso que lo ms importante es tener una estrategia. Tienes que saber a dnde vas.
Tienes que ser diferente, no slo en el mercado, sino tambin en la forma en que organizas y
diriges tu compaa. ste es un elemento fundamental. Tener una visin y plantearse nuevas
metas cada ao. Contratar a las personas adecuadas, tener un sistema que te permita usar
todo el poder mental y remunerar de manera justa. Todo el mundo tiene que ganar en este
sistema. No somos millonarios, pero vivimos bien. Trabajamos en un ambiente de cordialidad
que, a la vez, nos permite tener un buen nivel de vida.
14) L.R.: Usted manifiesta que se plantea nuevas metas cada ao que son muy ambiciosas
Se han quejado los empleados de las ambiciosas metas de la compaa?
D.G.: No, porque ellos mismos las proponen. Hay muchas formas de incrementar el ingreso
si se trabaja para M&D, por ejemplo, t puedes disear una estrategia para un cliente
durante una parte de la jornada y buscar nuevos clientes en el otro tiempo. Nuestras metas
podran ser mucho ms ambiciosas, pero para financiar un crecimiento ms rpido

15) L.R.: Ha tenido que aprender y desarrollar muchas habilidades gerenciales para sacar
adelante su empresa?

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tendramos que contar con ms dinero del que disponemos.

D.G.: Soy un gerente, pero tambin soy un emprendedor, ese es un buen complemento. Si
aprendes a ser un emprendedor las cosas te saldrn bien. Si no aprendes, te ir mal. Una
empresa es un sistema social. Una empresa necesita direccin, pero para que salga
adelante y sea exitosa, tambin requiere de un empresario capaz de ubicarse donde las
cosas se vean ms claramente y a la vez ser capaces de hacer malabares con los
problemas, echar una mano en donde se necesite y trabajar en equipo para buscar
soluciones.

El problema no lo resolvers por ti mismo. Uno tiene que crecer como persona y ayudar a los
otros a hacer lo mismo. Uno tiene que aprender a alejarse de las cosas. Suena muy fcil,
pero toma su tiempo. Puedo imaginarme la posicin en la que me encontrar cuando la
empresa se haya duplicado, triplicado y cuadruplicado. Esta es la razn por la cual no le
pongo lmites al crecimiento, pero trato de ser cuidadoso. Si tenemos xito o no, ese ya es
otro asunto. Podramos empezar a perder dinero. El futuro lo dir. Es todo parte del riesgo.
16) L.R.: Cules son las principales fortalezas y debilidades de su empresa?
D.G.: Nuestras debilidades son siempre temporales. Se deben al crecimiento. En principio,
nos las ingeniamos para superarlas. Algunas veces toma tiempo hacerles entender a algunos
coordinadores que tienen que controlar sus gastos. Con respecto a las fortalezas, dira que la
principal es la calidad de nuestra gente y el hecho que les asignamos trabajos productivos.
Esta es la esencia de las cosas. La informacin es tambin una fortaleza. Necesitamos tener
una informacin precisa acerca de lo que est pasando en el mercado, tanto dentro de la
empresa como fuera de ella. Algunas veces, viajo a otros lugares para ver cmo est el
sector en que nos movemos. Siempre hay algo nuevo que nos puede interesar. La
disponibilidad de informacin interna es tambin una de nuestras fortalezas. Todo el mundo

17) L.R.: Usted dice estar bien informado, lo cual es una fortaleza. Cmo obtiene
informacin acerca de lo que est pasando en la empresa y cmo hace para llevar el
control?
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sabe lo que est pasando. Los registros estn disponibles para todos los empleados.

10

D.G.: Uno tiene que confiar en la gente, de lo contrario sta no confiar en uno. Hubo un
momento en que les dije que tenan que supervisar las cosas por s mismos. Tenemos un
sistema en el cual cada mdulo es responsable de s mismo. Una persona se encarga de
llevar la contabilidad, otra el control de calidad, etc.

El mes pasado, acordamos poner a uno de los empleados a trabajar medio tiempo para que
pudiese disear un mejor sistema de inspeccin y seguimiento a los servicios que prestamos
a nuestros clientes. Tambin tenemos sistemas presupuestarios muy ajustados. Dira que
comprende el 90% de nuestro control general y el resto se da en las discusiones. Yo
superviso muy poco. Confo en las personas. La atmsfera que uno crea es mucho ms
importante que cualquier control que se pudiese imponer. Si las personas quieren robar o
ausentarse de sus trabajos, encontrarn la forma, pero de todas formas tratamos de que no
les resulte tan fcil.
18) L.R.: Tengo una serie de preguntas finales que hacerle relacionadas con su rol de
emprendedor. Qu es lo que le produce mayor satisfaccin en el proceso empresarial?
D.G.: Todo, el slo hecho de serlo. Si no disfrutara lo que hago, sera terrible. Pienso que el
hecho que me guste representa el 90% de mi motivacin.
19) L.R.: Hay algo ms especfico que lo motive?
D. G.: La participacin de todo el mundo. Es muy importante para m ver que el resto de las
personas tambin sienten placer con el progreso de la empresa.
20) L.R.: Qu lo inspira?
D.G.: Me inspira alejarme de los problemas. Creo que las mejores ideas se me ocurren

21) L.R.: Qu quiere decir?

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cuando estoy haciendo otra cosa que no sea trabajar.

11

D.G.: Cuando tomo vacaciones, cuando ando en bicicleta, cuando doy un paseo por el
campo. Siempre se me ocurren muchas ideas en esos momentos. Nunca trabajo los fines de
semana. He aprendido que las vacaciones son vitales. A pesar de que trato de no pensar en
la empresa cuando me voy de viaje, siempre tengo muchas ideas cuando regreso.
35) L.R.: Qu le dira a alguien que est pensando en comenzar un negocio?
D.G.: Algunas personas comienzan un negocio sin tener buenas ideas y por lo general, todo
resulta ser un desastre. Si tienes las ideas y las capacidades para hacer algo, entonces hazlo
y no mires atrs, pero eso s, preprate bien. Reflexiona, pregntate: Qu vas a hacer que
sea diferente? Quines son tus clientes? Quin es tu competencia? Qu es lo que
puedes hacer mejor que ellos? Cul es tu visin? Y sobre todo Quin eres t?, con tus
fortalezas y tus debilidades, de dnde vienes y a dnde quieres llegar, con estas cosas
claras, sigue siempre adelante. Pienso que ste es el mejor consejo que puedo dar.
L.R.: Gracias!
Material adaptado de:
http://www.uv.es/motiva/MarDelPlata06/infoem/documents/4_CasosEmprendedores_S
AE.pdf. Fecha y hora de consulta: julio 15 de 2010, 14:45.

Aspectos a considerar para analizar el estudio de caso

Teniendo en cuenta el perfil del emprendedor y los elementos encontrados en el artculo selfadministration, analice los siguientes aspectos y consolide los resultados correspondientes
en un documento de Word que cumpla con los criterios bsicos y las normas tcnicas
vigentes para la presentacin de informes escritos, el cual debe ser enviado al tutor por el

a) Cul es la actitud de este empresario con respecto a su labor como gerente y


emprendedor?

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enlace de esta actividad:

12

b) En una tabla, realice una sntesis donde describa las caractersticas personales del
empresario, sus habilidades sociales y sus habilidades de direccin.
c) Identifique las fortalezas y debilidades con que cuenta Diego Garca.
d) Establezca la imagen que Diego tiene de su entorno interno (empresa) y de su entorno
externo. Son congruentes con la imagen que puede tener de s mismo? Explique.
e) Proyecte el futuro de este empresario y de su empresa, en otras palabras, describa su
visin y determine si tiene posibilidades de convertirse en realidad y bajo qu
fundamentos.
f) Realice un resumen critico del sistema de operaciones del empresario, basndose en
la forma como retoma o no sus aprendizajes y oportunidades de crecimiento personal
y del negocio.
g) Sugiera algunos aportes que ayudaran al empresario a perfeccionar su estilo y
sistema emprendedor.
h) Proponga las conclusiones pertinentes.
Etapas
Tarea

Responsable

Tiempo

Presentacin de la actividad y del estudio del caso.

Tutor.

10 min.

Resolucin de inquietudes y preguntas.

Estudiantes y tutor.

15 min.

Trabajo individual en la lectura del artculo en ingls y Estudiantes.


el estudio de caso.

5 horas.

Anlisis de la informacin.

Estudiantes.

3 horas.

Respuesta a las preguntas sugeridas para el estudio de Estudiantes.


caso.

3 horas.

Elaboracin del documento escrito y envo al enlace Estudiantes.


indicado para esta actividad.
Revisin de los trabajos escritos y retroalimentacin Tutor.
para la socializacin.

3 horas.

Preparacin de las socializaciones en encuentro Estudiantes.


sincrnico.

1 hora.

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8 horas.

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Socializacin de los resultados y aportes de todos los Tutor y estudiantes.


estudiantes al estudio de caso.

1 hora
30 min.

Momento de socializacin entre los actores

La socializacin de los informes se har a travs de un encuentro sincrnico entre los


estudiantes y el tutor.

Cada uno de los estudiantes presentar los diferentes enfoques y anlisis frente al caso
formulado. Durante el encuentro, estudiantes y tutor, harn las preguntas o aportes a los
comentarios de los compaeros, con el fin de enriquecer el anlisis y aprendizaje acerca del
ejercicio propuesto, establecer puntos en comn y conclusiones generales.

Matriz de evaluacin

Informe escrito

Encuentro
Sincrnico

Criterios

Puntos

Implementacin de normas tcnicas vigentes para la


presentacin de informes escritos.
Maneja los conceptos vistos e identificados en el artculo seladministration.
Analiza la informacin, de acuerdo a los lineamientos
propuestos para el estudio de caso.
Descubre los factores que favorecen el espritu empresarial y
de aprendizaje, en el estudio del caso propuesto.

Reconoce las caractersticas, habilidades y cualidades


asociadas a la iniciativa emprendedora.
Participacin y sustentacin de los respectivos argumentos y
anlisis realizados en torno al caso de Diego Garca.

3
3
3

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Evidencia

14

Self-administration
Peter F. Drucker.

The great doers of history, Napoleon, Da Vinci, Mozart knew it handled themselves. This
quality, in large part, is what made them great doers. But it is exceptional cases, so unusual
for his talents and achievements that could be considered outside

the limits of ordinary

human beings. However, from now on, the Most of us, even the less gifted, we must learn to
manage and develop. A place ourselves in the place from which we can make the biggest
contribution. Y we must be mentally alert and engaged during a working life of 50 years,
which means knowing how and when to change the work we do.
What are my strengths?
Many people think they know what they are good. But in general, are wrong. With often
know what is not good and, even then, there are more wrong than you are right. However,
you can only build on the strengths. Nobody can base their performance on weaknesses, let
alone what it is unable to do.

Throughout history, people had little need to know your

strengths. A person born into a position, and spent a lifetime in it: the farmer's son would
also be a peasant; the daughter of an artisan would be the wife of another craftsman, and so
on. Today, People have choices. And we need to know what our strengths in order to know
what instead belong.

The only way to discover them is by analyzing the results (feedback analysis). Each Once
you make a decision or a key measure, type what you thinks will happen. Nine or 12 months
later, compare actual results with your expectations. I have practiced this method for 20
years and every time I do, I am surprised.

I showed, for example,

I have an intuitive

correspondence with the technicians, whether engineers, accountants or market researchers.

Analysis of feedback is not new. It was invented around the fourteenth century by a
theologian, and picked up some 150 years later by John Calvin and Ignatius of Loyola, who
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He also showed me that I do not identify easily with generalists.

15

as joined the practice of his followers. In fact, the focus on performance and results generated
by this habit explain why the institutions founded by these two men, the Calvinist Church and
the Jesuit order, came to dominate Europe for 30 years.
If practiced consistently, this simple method will indicate in a relatively short period - maybe
two or three years, what are its strengths. It also lets you know what things, which and it fails
to do-it forgo benefits they can bring their strengths. Him show in what areas is not particularly
competent and, finally, in which no skills.

The resulting feedback several guides for action. First and foremost, focus on your strengths.
Put in place to produce results. Second, work to improve strengths. The analysis will show
you which items should enhance their skills or acquire new ones.

Third, find out if your intellectual arrogance is causing disabling ignorance and get over it.
Many people, especially those with vast experience in an area, despise the knowledge of
other fields, or believe that being bright is a substitute knowledge. Engineers, for example,
are proud of their ignorance about behavior of individuals. In turn, the human resources
professionals pride often not understand accounting or quantitative methods. But feel proud
of ignorance can only lead to defeat. Get to work to acquire skills and knowledge that will
enable you to exploit their strengths.
It is also essential to correct bad habits, things you do, or not doing, that inhibit its
effectiveness and performance. These habits will quickly analyze the results of their
decisions.

A planner, for example, you could find that their best laid plans fail because it does an
adequate monitoring. Many people believe that brilliant move mountains. But the bulldozers

have to learn that work does not end once terminating the plan. You must find the right people
to perform adapt and change on the fly and ultimately decide when to stop boosting plan. The
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move, the only show where ideas must be the topadoras bulldozers. That planner, then, will

16

feedback feedback also reveals whether the problem is the lack of civility. Courtesy is the
lubricant of an organization. A law of nature says that when two bodies contact movement,
friction occurs. It is a principle as applicable to objects animate as human beings. The
courtesy, something as simple as saying "please" "Thank you", know the name of a person
or ask him about his family, allows two people work together, feel welcome or not for each
other. If the analysis shows that the work fails when a person requires the cooperation of
others, probably indicating rude.

comparing their expectations with the results achieved, you will also know what not to do.
There are many areas for which all lack the talent and skill, in which neither there is even the
slightest chance of mediocre performance. Nobody, especially knowledge worker should
accept tasks or missions in those areas. And you should not devote efforts to improve their
performance in them. Trying to move from incompetence to mediocrity demands more energy
and work to overcome the step that separates good performance excellence. We must invest
the energy, resources and time become. Rated competent people.

How do things?
Surprisingly, very few people know how things get done. In fact, most of us do not even
know that people work and perform their tasks in ways different. And many work in a way
that is not right for them, ensuring, generally poor performance. For knowledge workers, the
question "How I do things? May be more important to ask" What are my strengths? ".

The way to do things depends on the personality of each. Beyond that personality is a
matter of nature or education, no doubt much before a person begins to work. And how does
things a person is a feature of his personality. That "how" can be modified slightly, but not

good, also get results by working the way they see fit.

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completely changed, and it is not easy. Just as people achieve results doing what they are

17

Some personality traits that determine how a person performs their job. Am I able to read or
listen? Very few people know that they are for both, and that's a rarity. Even fewer people
know if they are "readers" or "listeners." But Some examples will serve to show how bad it
can be this ignorant.

When Dwight Eisenhower was commander in chief of Allied forces in Europe,


journalists.

admired

During the press conference showed a stranglehold. Clearly answered any

questions that you make, and was able to describe a situation or to explain a policy in two or
three sentences stylish and very well polished. Ten years later, the same journalists who
had been his fans openly despised him.

They complained that did not respond directly to questions and accused him of beating about
the branches. Moreover, ridiculed him for destroying the English language with inconsistent
answers.

Apparently, Eisenhower knew that was not a good listener, but a "reader." During the time
when he commanded the Allies in Europe, his aides made sure that all the questions will
arrive in writing at least half an hour before the news conference. Of Thus, Eisenhower was
in control of the situation. When you became president, succeeding two excellent "listeners":
Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman. Both knew they were, and enjoyed the press
conferences entirely free and without any preparation.

Perhaps Eisenhower was that it

would follow the line of his predecessors. As a result of it, not even listened to the questions
of journalists.

Some years later, Lyndon Johnson was about to destroy his presidency by not knowing I was
able to listen. His predecessor, John Kennedy, was a "reader" who had assembled a brilliant

person. Johnson kept on staff, and they continued to write.

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group of writers as assistants, who communicated in writing to him before discuss ideas in

18

Apparently, Johnson did not understand a word of what they wrote. While he was a senator,
however, their work was great because lawmakers must, above all things, namely listen.

Those who are made to listen can rarely become readers, and vice versa. In Consequently,
the listener who tries to be a reader will suffer the fate of Lyndon Johnson, while readers who
try to be a listener will suffer from Eisenhower. Not achieve what they propose.

How do I learn? The second thing to know about how we do things is related to the fact of
how we learn. Many first-class writers, Winston Churchill is just a example, had a poor
performance at school. And remember their college years as a torture. However, few of her
classmates have the same memory. It is likely who have not enjoyed life at school, but the
maximum that may have suffered is boredom. The explanation is that, as a rule, writers do
not learn reading and listening. They learn to write. And since the school does not allow this
type of learning get low grades.

Schools around the world are organized on the assumption that there is only one right way to
learn, and that applies to everyone. But feeling compelled to learn from how the school
teaches is a kind of hell for other learners mode. In fact, there are at least six different ways
of doing so.

Some people learn to write, as Churchill. Others, taking notes. Beethoven, example, left a
huge number of notebooks, but never looked at them when composed. Once, someone
asked why he kept. "If I write something immediately, I forget. If you spill it to my notebook,
do not ever forget and I have never come back at him, "he replied. Some people learn by
doing. Others hear about.

industry. It's one of those people talking about learning. He used all managers convene
once a week, and spoke for two or three hours.

Policy issues raised and argued three

different views for each of them.


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I know an executive who turned a small family business in a mediocre company leader in its

19

Rarely asked his associates to make comments or questions, simply need a hearing to hear
yourself speak. It was his way of learning. And though it is a case end, learning is not
talking about an unusual method. The lawyers who excel in the oral trials thus learning, like
those who make medical diagnoses. This is by the way, my learning style.

When I ask people how to learn, most people know the answer. But when I ask if exploit this
knowledge, few respond "yes." But acting on this Knowledge is the key performance, or
better said, do not act on this awareness condemns us to a poor performance.

How do I learn things and are the first questions we should ask. But that does not mean they
are the only ones. To manage ourselves effectively as well we must ask ourselves if we
work well with others or whether we are lonely. And if you work along with others, the next
question is: "What kind of relationship?

Some people work better as subordinates. General George Patton, hero U.S. World War II,
is an excellent example. Patton was commander of United States troops. However, when
they proposed to lead a command Independent, General George Marshall, Chief of Staff,
said: "Patton is the best subordinate who has had the U.S. military, but would be the worst
commander.

Other people work best as part of a team. Some work better alone. Some are exceptionally
talented as coaches or instructors, and some are incompetent for this function. It is also
crucial yourself the following question: produce better results when I take

decisions or

consultant? Many stand out as advisers, but cannot stand load and pressure to make the
decision that advice. In contrast, others need a consultant force them to think. Then they

This is one reason, incidentally, why the number two of a company usually fail when it comes
to number one. In this position must have someone take decisions. Top decision-makers are
accustomed to designate as many two to someone you trust, to act as a consultant. And in
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can make decisions and act quickly, confidence and courage.

20

that role, the person is excellent. But in the position of number one, that person fails, he
knows what decision correct, however, cannot accept responsibility for taking it.

Other questions to be asked are: Do I work well under pressure or need an environment
structured and predictable? Do I work best in a large organization or small? Few people
work well in any environment. Again and again I have seen very successful individuals large
organizations that failed to small businesses, and vice versa.

It is worth repeating the conclusion: do not try to change who you are, probably will fare badly.
But strive to improve the way they do things. And try not to accept a job that unable to
perform, or would only one way deficient.

What are my values?. So you can handle himself, eventually will have to ask what are their
values. It is an ethical issue, because the rules in this area are equal for all tests and very
simple. I call it the "mirror test."

At the beginning of the century, the most respected diplomat major world powers was the
German ambassador in London. He had a promising future: becoming minister outside their
country or even chancellor. However, in 1906 chose not before be forced to preside over a
meal that would give the diplomatic corps in honor of Edward VII.

Everyone knew that the king was a womanizer, and had clarified what kind of "food" wanted.
The Ambassador said: "I refuse to see a pimp in the mirror when I shave in the morning
tomorrow.

That is the mirror test. Ethics requires that you wonder what kind of person you want to see

another. But ethics is only part of a system of values. Working for an organization whose
values are unacceptable or incompatible with their own, condemning a person frustration and
poor performance.
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in the mirror. The ethical conduct is a type of organization or situation, is unethical at any

21

Consider the experience of a successful executive human resources department a company


that was acquired by another. After the acquisition, which amounted to charge of the work
that did best: the selection of people who cover positions.

The executive firmly believed that, for those charges, had to hire individuals outside the
company only after having exhausted all possibilities within the company. But their new
leaders were in favor of seeking out first in order to "bring fresh blood." Of In my experience,
the right thing is to do a bit of both. However, although policies are not incompatible, they
are as values. Express different views on the relationship between the organization and its
people, different criteria regarding the responsibility of the company against its staff and its
development, and points of view on the contribution of a business person. After several
years of frustration, she left the company.

Simply, their values and those of the organization were not compatible. Similarly, the fact that
a pharmaceutical company is seeking results

constant or make small improvements,

however, point to the findings occasional revolutionary and high risk is, in essence, an option
economic.

The results of each strategy may be similar. Basically, what we have is a conflict between a
value system that considers the contribution of the company in terms of helping researchers
to do better what they already do, and another system that is oriented towards of great
scientific discoveries.

It is also a question of values that a business is managed on the basis of results of short term
or with one eye on a distant horizon. Financial analysts believe it is possible lead companies

produce short-term results. But in case of conflict with long-term growth, each company will
determine its priority. This is, in essentially a dispute regarding the economy, but a conflict of
values about the role of a company and the responsibility of management.
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considering both perspectives. Successful entrepreneurs know that all companies have to

22

The value conflicts are not limited to business organizations. One of the churches pastoral
fastest growing in the United States measures success by the number of new parishioners,
what matters is how many joined the congregation. Another church pastoral Gospel gives
priority to people's spiritual growth. Again, not a question of numbers. At first glance, it
appears that the second church grows more slowly

than the first.

But retains a higher

proportion of new parishioners than the first. In other words, growth is stronger. Nor is it a
theological problem, or only to a background. It has to do with values. In a public debate, a
pastor said what following: "Until you go to church, never find the door of the Kingdom of the
Heaven. "" No, "replied the other," until you find the door of the Kingdom of Heaven, never
belong to the church."

Organizations, like people, have values. To be effective in an organization, values a person


must be compatible with that organization. These are not the same, but similar enough to
coexist. Otherwise, the person will not only feel frustrated, nor will produce results.

The strengths of a person and the way she acts are often in conflict: both are
complementary. However, there is often conflict between the values of the individual and
their strengths. What someone does well, even very good, and very successfully, "perhaps
does not fit their value system. In this case, not worth devoting a life-or part important that
she work.

I would like to add here a personal note. Many years ago I also had to decide between my
values and what he was doing successfully. In the middle of the decade of the '30s, I played
as a young investment banker in London, and the work was consistent with my strengths.
However, I was making a contribution as an asset manager. Me realized that what he valued
was the people, and I thought it made no sense to be the man richest in the cemetery. He
However, Despite the Great Depression, I

decided to resign, and I was right. In other words, the values are and should be the ultimate
test.

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had no money, and no other job prospects.

23

What place do I belong?

Very few people know, from an early age, at which place they belong.

Mathematicians,

musicians and cooks, for example, already are mathematicians, musicians and cooks at four
or five years. Doctors often choose their career during adolescence or even earlier. But
Most people, especially the fittest, what place are ignored until past 25 years. By then,
however, should know the answers to three Questions: What are my strengths, how I do
things? And what are my values? A From there, they can and must decide where they
belong. Or rather, should be able to decide what places do not belong. The person who
knows he can not do well in a large organization, you should say "no" to a position in such
company. The person knows he can not make decisions, should say "no" to a post that
involves taking them.

At the same time, know the answers to these questions will allow a person to say "yes"
versus an opportunity, an offer or a mission. And I can also tell you how to make things, how
tasks should be structured, how the relationship should take, what

results should be

expected from their work and what time. Successful careers are not planned. They develop
when people are prepared for opportunities because they know what their strengths, their
method of work and values. Know which place belongs can transform an ordinary-working
and responsible, but perhaps mediocre ", another with an outstanding performance.
What should be my contribution?
In the course of history, most people never asked what should be its contribution. They were
told how should contribute, and their duties were imposed by the work itself-as with the
peasant or artisan, or by their users.

Until very

recently, it was assumed that most

individuals were subordinates were doing what were ordered. Even in the 50s and 60s, the

their careers.

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so-called "organization men" were going the personnel department of the companies to plan

24

But by the late '60s, nobody wanted to be told what to do. Men and young women began to
wonder: "What do I do?". And they discovered that way to contribute was doing "what they
felt." The solution was as flawed as that had found the men in the organization. Very few of
those who believed that "doing what

felt "a contribution would, in self-realization and

success, achieved one of the three objectives. However, there is no return to the old answer
to what we say or we assigned. Knowledge workers in particular must learn to be formulated
unpublished questions: what should be my contribution? And they are required to answer
consider three distinct elements.

First, what the situation demands?

Second, given my

strengths, my way of making things and my values, how I can make my greatest contribution
to be done? And finally, what results to be achieved so that the contribution is significant?
Consider the experience of someone who took office as the administrator of a hospital.

The hospital was large and prestigious but for 30 years, was limited to maintain reputation.
The new manager decided that its contribution should be to establish a level of excellence in
an important area, within two years. And chose to concentrate on the room emergencies,
which was large, visible and neglected. He ordered that all patients admitted to that room
should be staffed by a qualified nurse within 60 seconds. In 12 months, the guard room of
the hospital had become a model for all hospitals United States, and two years later, the
whole hospital had changed.
As this example suggests, it is rarely possible, and fruitful-imposed a deadline too distant. A
plan may cover only 18 months and still be reasonably clear and specific. In most cases,
therefore, the question should be: where and how I can get significant results within the next
year and a half? The answer must balance several elements. First, the results have to be
difficult to achieve, but also must be achievable. Aiming to achieve impossible results, or that
can be achieved but under highly improbable circumstances is not to be ambitious is to be
silly.

Secondly, the

results should be significant.

Finally, they must be visible and, if

how to start and what goals and deadlines set.

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possible, measurable. From all this will come from a course of action: what to do, where and

25

Caring relationships
Very few people work alone and achieve results for themselves: perhaps only a few large
artists, scientists and athletes. Most work with other people, and so achieve efficiency. This
principle applies both to members of an organization and employees

independent.

To

handle them ourselves we have to take responsibility relationships. This responsibility has
two parts. The first is to accept the fact that other individuals are so like us. This means they
have their own strengths, its own way of doing things and their own values. To be effective,
you have to know the strengths; work patterns and value its employees.

It seems obvious, but very few people pay enough attention.

One prime example is the

person in their first job because his boss was a "reader" was trained to write reports. And
even if their next head position has to "listen", insists on writing reports invariably produced
no results. The boss thinks that the employee is stupid, incompetent and lazy. And the
employees fail. But the failure could have avoided if the employee had observed the new
boss, and analyzed the way in which plays.

The bosses are not a title in the organization of a company, nor are they a "function". Son
individuals and are entitled to do their job the way they know best. Those working with them
must observe in order to discover how they work and be adaptable to what more effective to
their bosses. This is, in fact, the secret to "manage" the boss. And the same applies to coworkers. Each works in its way, and is entitled to do so. What matters is its performance
and values. As for how to do things is likely that everyone has different ways. The first
secret of effectiveness is to understand people with whom one works and which depends, so
you can leverage their strengths, work styles and values. Labour relations are based on
people as in the work they do.

communication. Every time I start to work with an organization, the first thing I hear about is
personality conflicts. Many stem from people not know what others are doing, how they do,
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The second part of taking care of relationships has to do with taking responsibility

26

what contributions are concentrated and what

expected results.

The reason for this

ignorance, they have not asked and, therefore, no one has given explanations.

Failure to ask, rather than a reflection of human stupidity is reflective of the history of
humanity. Until recently, it was unnecessary to explain these things to people. In the city
medieval, everyone in the district are engaged in similar activity. And all who lived in the field
dealing with the same crops. The few people who did things outside what "ordinary" working
alone, therefore, did not have to explain. Today, the vast majority of people work with others,
whose duties and responsibilities are different. Vice President marketing, if it comes from
sales sector, will have extensive knowledge in this field, but perhaps not know about pricing,
advertising or packaging.

Therefore, these specialists

Areas must ensure that you

understand what they're doing, why they do, how, and what expected results.

If the vice president of marketing do not understand what they are doing the specialists, the
responsibility, and guilt-is theirs. In turn, the vice president of marketing is responsibility for
all its employees understand their view of marketing: what goals is, how it works, what is
expected of themselves and of each individual's computer.

Even people, who are granted to industrial relations the importance they deserve, often not
communicate sufficiently with partners. They are afraid of being considered presumptuous,
inquisitors, or stupid. But they are wrong. Every time someone tells her employees what
makes things better, how it works, what their values, what plans to focus contributions, and
what results is expected to reach, the answer is always the same: "For us it is very useful.
Why do not you say so?"

And the same reaction occurs if one is questioning: "What I know about their strengths, on

should ask these questions to the people who work, whether

subordinates, superiors,

colleagues or members of a team. And once again, the reaction will be same: "Thanks for
asking. But why did not you before?"
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the way you work, about their values and the contribution it intends to do?" In fact, everyone

27

Organizations are no longer built on force but on trust. If trust among people, it means you
understand. Consequently, assuming responsibility of relating is imperative. It is a duty.
Members of a

organization, consultants, suppliers or distributors, we all have that

responsibility, both toward people who depend on our work and for the dependent ours.
The second half of his life
When I work meant, for most people, manual work, there was no need worry about the
second half of life. Just one was doing what he always had done. And if he was lucky to
survive 40 years of hard work in a factory, was happy to spend the rest of life without doing
anything. Today, however, most of the work is "Smart work" and knowledge workers are not
"finished" after 40 years work, only they are bored.

We hear a lot about the crisis of midlife executives. Fundamentally, this is boredom. At age
45, almost all executives have reached their peak careers, and they know it. After 20 years
of doing much the same kind of work without certainly are very good at it. But we are not
learning, contributing something, or feel that work is a challenge or satisfaction. However,
chances are they still another 20 or 25 years of work ahead. That is the reason why those
who manage themselves them, increasingly, start a second career.

There are three ways to address such a challenge. The first is to start one. Often Just have
to move from one kind of organization to another: the statutory division of a company large,
for example, becomes a medium size hospital auditor. But there are also increasingly
More people opt for a completely different line of work: former executive of a company that
enters a government agency, for example, or middle manager leaving corporate life after 20
years, to study law and, once received, installed as a lawyer in a small town. Over time,
more and more people who had moderately successful in his earlier work will face a second

community, a place of reference-the house is empty, the kids are gone, "and also income.
But above all, need a challenge.

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career. These are people with substantial skills, and knows how to work. People need a

28

The other way to prepare for the second half of life is to develop a parallel career. Many
successful people keep their jobs, either working all day, part-time mode, or as a consultant.
But it also deals with a parallel work, usually in a nonprofit organization, which demand
additional 10 hours per week of activity. Some take over the administration of his church, the
president of a local club, a home run for battered women, or participate in the board of a
school, among other activities.
And finally, there are the social entrepreneurs. These are usually individuals who have been
very successful in their early careers. They love their job, but is not a challenge for them,
why devote fewer hours. And start another activity, so nonprofit general. It's likely that
people who know how to handle the second half of life always a minority, and most engaged
in counting the years you have left retire. But men and women who see a long working life
expectancy of a second chance for themselves and for society, will be the new leaders and
role models.
To handle the second part of life is a prerequisite: begin well before entering it. 30 years
ago, when it became apparent that the working life expectancy increased

quickly, many

observers believed that retirees were to become volunteers of nonprofit institutions. Not so.
If we do not start work volunteer about 40 years, it is difficult to do so after 60.
Social entrepreneurs I know began their second activity long before reaching the peak of
their first race. A lawyer, who set out to establish model schools in your state, began offering
free legal advice for schools when I was about 35 years. He was elected to the board of a
school in his hometown at 40. At 50, when had already amassed a fortune, he devoted
himself to build and run model schools. However, it remains working almost full-time as a
partner at the law firm he founded when he was very young.

expecting to live many years without suffering a serious setback, whether personal or
business. Is competent engineer who at 45 loses a promotion. Or the university professor to
42 notes that can never teach at a large university, even if the conditions for do so. And
Todos los Derechos Reservados 2010. Propiedad de Compensar Unipanamericana Institucin Universitaria con Apoyo Acadmico de
MondragonUnibertsitatea (MU).

Libro de actividades

There is another reason to develop an alternative activity at an early age. No one can be

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personal tragedies occur: the dissolution of marriage or the loss of a son, without going any
further. On those occasions, another major interest, not just a hobby-can is very beneficial.
The engineer who has been unlucky in their work, in its second activity, as treasurer of the
church, for example, can develop successfully. And if family disintegrates, a person can find
a community in its second activity.
In a society where success is a critical element, having options will become increasingly vital.
In the past, an overwhelming majority of people did not aspire to anything other than to stay
on "where he was" as says an old English prayer. The only mobility was the downward. In
the knowledge society, however, all aspire to success. Impossible, from any point of view.
To many people, fate gives her, at best, absence of failure. And if some succeed, others are
far from achieving that goal. Therefore, for the individual, and his family, is essential to find
an area that can make a significant contribution, and be "somebody." That means having a
second career, a parallel task or social entrepreneurship, which creates the opportunity to be
a leader, respected or successful.
The challenges of self-management may seem obvious, if not elementary. And the answers
may seem obvious, to the point of being naive. But the need handled himself sues the
individual, and especially the knowledge worker, unpublished efforts. In reality, each person
must think and behave as a manager general of his own life. Furthermore, the change of the
manual worker, who does what is ordered,

the knowledge worker, you must self-

management, implies a profound challenge to social structure. All existing societies, even
the most individualistic, often taken for granted two things, perhaps unconsciously: That
organization outlives workers, and most people stay in the place where he is. But today's
reality shows exactly the opposite. Knowledge workers outlive organizations, and record
high mobility. The need for self-management, therefore, is fostering a social revolution.

from Chapter 6.

Todos los Derechos Reservados 2010. Propiedad de Compensar Unipanamericana Institucin Universitaria con Apoyo Acadmico de
MondragonUnibertsitatea (MU).

Libro de actividades

Peter Drucker, Management Challenges of the XXI Century, Ed Sudamericana, extracted

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