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Topic 6 (Part 2)

PUBLIC DATA
NETWORK

DEPARTMENT

OF

ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING

EP601 DATA
COMMUNICATION

TOPIC 6 : PART 2
At the end of this learning session, student
must be able to;
Define SONET
Describe Synchronous Transport Signals (STS)
Explain SONET System
Explain NGN, Internet Protocol (IP), IPv4 and IPv6
Identify NGN characteristics
State type of NGN services

Introduction

What is SONET / SDH???


Synchronous Optical Network ANSI (US)
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy ITU-T Europe
Similar and compatible
A standard to be used for fibre optics

Recommendation for FOTS equipment


Fibre Optic Transmission Systems
3

Introduction cont

SONET defines a hierarchy of electrical signaling


levels called Synchronous transport signals (STSs)
SDH specifies a similar system
synchronous transport module (STM).
It is another application
Multiplexing (TDM).

of

Time

called

division

That is a synchronous system controlled by


master clock
4

SONET Overview
The SONET specification defines:
standard optical signals, which permits
the interoperation of equipment from
different manufacturers
a synchronous frame
multiplexing digital traffic
procedures
for
maintenance (OAM)
5

structure

operations

for
and

SONET Overview Cont


SONET includes:

support for broadband rates


base rate approximately 50 Mbps
hierarchical family of digital rates
defines data rates up to 2.4 Gbps

synchronous multiplexing
global timing structure at physical layer
6

synchronous implies simpler interface

Signal Hierarchy
SONET : STS Synchronous Transport Signals

support a certain base data rate- 51.84Mbps


STS 1 STS 192 different hierarchies

Corresponding carrier System


Optical Carrier OC-1, OC-3, OC-12, OC-48
SDH : STM Synchronous Transport Module
STM 1 = STS 3
7

SONET/SDH rates

The lowest level or base signal is referred to as STS -1 i.e. Synchronous


Transport Signal level -1 which operates at 51.840Mbps.
Higher-level signals are integer multiples of STS -1.
STS N signal is composed of N byte-interleaved STS -1 signals.

An STS-1 and an STS-n frame

Each frame is a two-dimensional matrix of bytes with 9 rows


by 90 n columns.
Matrix of nine rows 90 octets = 90 bytes each
9

STS-1 frames in transmission

Each synchronous transfer signal STS - n is composed of 8000


frames.
A SONET STS - n signal is transmitted at 8000 frames per second.
Each byte in a SONET frame can carry a digitized voice channel.

Frame1

Frame2

Frame8000

Frame = 810 octets * 8 = 6480bits


8000 frames/sec = 6480*8000 bits/sec = 51.84Mbps
SONET STS-1Frame

Each synchronous transfer signal STS - n is composed of


8000 frames.
Each frame is a two-dimensional matrix of bytes with 9 rows
by 90 n columns.
Bytes (octets) are transmitted one row at a time,
from left to right
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Note: 1 byte/frame = 64 kbps

STS-1 frame overheads

Frame structure: 9 rows of 90 columns of 8-bit bytes


First three columns of STS-1 frame are for section overhead and line
overhead
Remaining 87 columns are for the Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE)
12

STS-1 frame: section overhead

Overhead bytes are used by


SONET
equipment
(e.g.,
switches) for exchange of
control
and
signalling
information, and as a low
bandwidth data channel.

Example
Find the data rate of an STS-3 signal.

Solution
STS-3, like other STS signals, sends 8000 frames per
second. Each STS-3 frame is made of 9 by (3 90) bytes.
Each byte is made of 8 bits. The data rate is.

Note :
In SONET, the data rate of an STS-n signal is n times the data
rate of an STS-1 signal.
14

Example
What is the duration of an STS-1 frame? STS-3 frame?
STS-n frame?

Solution
In SONET, 8000 frames are sent per second. This
means that the duration of an STS-1, STS-3, or STS-n
frame is the same and equal to 1/8000 s, or 125 s.
17.
15
15

A simple network using SONET equipment

16

SONET Devices
STS multiplexers/demultiplexers
- path terminating equipment : mark the
beginning points and endpoints of a
SONET link.
- multiplex signals from multiple electrical
sources and creates the corresponding optical
signal and demultiplex an optical signal into
corresponding electric signals.
- map user payload into standard frame
- Header
goes
end-to-end
as
part
of
Synchronous
Payload Envelope - SPE

17

SONET Devices

cont

Add /Drop Multiplexers


- allow insertion and extraction of signals in an
STS :
an add/drop multiplexer can add an electrical
signals into a given path or can remove a desired

signal from a path.


- use header address information to identify stream
and remove
- Line terminating Equipment
- perform multiplexing, synchronization, APS
18

SONET Devices

cont

Regenerator

- Repeater : improves signal quality by taking a


received optical signal and regenerates it.
- replaces some of the existing overhead
information with new information.
- Operations include layer 2 : Frame alignment,
scrambling, error monitoring
- Section terminating equipment
19

SONET
Section

Connects two neighboring devices


Line
Connects two multiplexers (STS ,
Add/Drop)
Path

Connects two STS Mux/demux


Layers likewise path, line, section
20

SONET layers compared with OSI or the Internet layers

21

SONET layers
Photonic layers

- corresponds to the physical layer of the OSI


model.
- physical specifications for the optical fiber channel.
- NRZ encoding used : the presence of light
representing 1 and the absence of light

representing 0
Power level
Wavelength
Pulse shape
22

SONET layers

cont

Section layer
is responsible for the movement of a
signal across a physical section.
Frames : identifies beginning of frame
Scrambling : introducing 1s to derive
clock
error monitoring : at section level

Adds 9 bytes to header : frame size 810


bytes
Provided at all devices
23

SONET layers

cont

Line layer
is responsible for the movement of a signal
across a physical line.

Locates partial payload virtual tributaries


Provides frequency justification, bit stuffing
To adjust to clocking from different
systems
Does APS
Adds 18 bytes to header

24

Provided at the STS Mux and Add/Drop


Mux

SONET layers

cont

Path layer
is responsible for the movement of a signal from its
source to its destination.

Converts to optical signals and back to


electromagnetic
Adds 9 bytes to header - is part of SPE
Defines the payload being carried
End-to-end path control
Support virtual tributaries
Provided at the STS Mux
25

Devicelayer relationship in SONET

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NEXT GENERATION NETWORK

The next-generation network (NGN) is a body of key


architectural changes in telecommunication core
and access networks.

The general idea behind the NGN is that one


network transports all information and services
(voice, data, and all sorts of media such as video) by
encapsulating these into packets, similar to those
used on the Internet.

NGNs are commonly built around the Internet


Protocol, and therefore the term all IP is also
sometimes used to describe the transformation
toward NGN.
27

ITU-T definition of NGN (Feb 2004)

A Next Generation Network (NGN) is a packetbased network

Able
to
provide
services
including
Telecommunications Services and able to make use of
multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport
technologies
and
in
which
service-related
functions are independent from underlying transportrelated technologies.

It offers unrestricted access by users to different


service providers.

It supports generalized mobility which will allow


consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to
users.
28

NGN Long-Term Network Convergence Perspective


1970

1980

1990

2000

Public Switched Telecommunication Network (PSTN)


Intelligent Network Internet (IN)

Commercial Mobile Radio Systems


Open Systems Interconnection Internet (OSI)
private

quasi-public

IP Internet (IP)

Was never designed


as public
infrastructure
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NGNs

Legacy: Vertically-Integrated Networks


Pre-NGN
Video
Services
(TV, movie, etc)

Telephone
Services

Data
Services
(WWW,
e-mail, etc)

Video
Services
Network

Telephone
Services
Network

Data
Services
Network

Policy Area 1
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Policy Area 2

Policy Area 3

NGN: Horizontally-Integrated Network


NGN - Convergence
Video Services (TV, movie, etc)
Data Services (WWW, e-mail, etc)
Telephone Services

Services
Point to point, Point to multipoint, Multipoint to
multipoint

Transport
Point to point, Point to multipoint, Multipoint to
multipoint
In an NGN, two separate policy frameworks are required:
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one applicable to transport networks, and

another applicable to content-based services.

NGN: Shape of things to come

Services

(Any/All Applications
e.g. voice , data , video)

Anything & Everything


Internet Protocol
(IP)

Transport

Everything
(Any & All Network technologies)

Note :
32

Two Policy Domains

Scope
Of
Internet

Transition to NGN
Today

Tomorrow
IP will become the
networking protocol
of choice.

Internet

Telephone
network

Mobile radio
network

IP-Network

Multimedia Access - Advantages:


easy to handle
reliable
mobile

One network for everything

Internet Protocol (IP)


What is IP?
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or
protocol by which data is sent from one
computer to another on the Internet.

When IP was first standardized in Sep 1981,


each system attached to the IP based Internet
had to be assigned a unique 32-bit address.
IPv4,
defines
a
32-bit
address
(4,294,967,296) IPv4 addresses available
34

232

IP Address Shortage
Proliferation of Internet devices:
405M mobile phones sold in 2000

1B+ by 2005
New emerging populations:

China, Korea, Japan, India, Russia


Solution = IPv6

35

Address Formats
IPv6
IPv4
32-bit
Ex: 192.156.136.22

128 bits
Ex:
1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A

8 groups of 16-bit hexadecimal


numbers separated by :
Or in compressed format:
1080::8:800:200C:417A

:: = all zeros in one or more group


of 16-bit hexadecimal numbers
36

IPv4 & IPv6 Header Comparison


IPv4 Header

IPv6 Header

32 bits
IHL

Type of
Service

Identification
Time to
Live

Total Length
Version

Flag
s

Traffic
Class

Fragment
Offset
Payload Length

Protocol

Flow Label

Header Checksum

Next Header

Hop
Limit

Source Address

Source Address

Destination Address
Options

Padding

Legend

The basic IPv4 packet header


has 12 fields with a total size of
20 octets (160 bits).

40 octets

20 octets

Version

128 bits

Destination Address

- fields name kept from IPv4 to IPv6


- fields not kept in IPv6
- Name & position changed in IPv6
- New field in IPv6

The basic IPv6 packet header has 8 fields


with a total size of 40 octets (320 bits).

Major Improvements of
IPv6 Header
No option field: Replaced by extension header. Result in a
fixed length, 40-byte IP header.
No header checksum: Result in fast processing.
No fragmentation at intermediate nodes: Result in fast IP
forwarding.

38

Advantages to IPv6
Larger address space

Reduce end-to-end delay


Higher level of security (IPSec Mandated, works End-toEnd )
Mobility (Mobile IP with Direct Routing)
No fragmentation
Network autoconfiguration (Serverless, Reconfiguration,
DHCP

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Basic characteristics of NGN


Packet-based transfer,
Separation of control functions
Decoupling of service provision
Support for a wide range of services
Broadband capabilities
Interworking with legacy networks
Generalized mobility

Unfettered access
40

NGN Services
Several services that will be important drivers in
the NGN environment are:
1-Voice Telephony: e.g.Call
Forwarding, 3-Way Calling

Waiting,

Call

2-Voice Portal: provide callers with anywhere,


anytime access to information like news,
weather, stock quotes, and account balances
using simple voice commands and any
telephone,..
3-Data
services:
bandwidth-on-demand,
connection reliability/resilient ,
41

NGN Services

cont

4-Multimedia services: This allows customers


to converse with each other while displaying
visual information.
5-Virtual Private Networks:
allow large,
geographically dispersed organizations to
combine their existing private networks with
portions of the PSTN, thus providing
subscribers with uniform dialing capabilities.

42

6-Public Network Computing: Provides public


network-based
computing
services
for
businesses and consumers (e.g, to host a web
page, store/maintain/backup data files, or run
a computing application).

NGN Services

cont

7-Unified Messaging: Supports the delivery of


voice mail, email, fax mail, and pages through
common interfaces .

8-Information Brokering: Involves advertising,


finding, and providing information to match
consumers with providers.
9-E-Commerce: Allows consumers to purchase
goods and services electronically over the
network.
10-Call Center Services: A subscriber could place
a call to a call center agent by clicking on a Web
page.

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11-Interactive gaming: Offers consumers a way


to meet online and establish interactive gaming
sessions.

NGN Services

cont

12-Distributed Virtual Reality: Refers to


technologically generated reperesentations of
real-word events, people, places,experiences,
etc., in which the participants in and providers of
the virtual experience are physically distributed.
13-Home Manager: These services could monitor
and control home security systems, energy
systems, home entertainment systems, and
other home appliances.

44

REFERENCES:
Main:
Forouzan,
B.A.
(2012).
Data
Communications
and
Networking
(5th
edision). Mc Graw Hill. (ISBN: 978-0-07131586-9)

Additional:
William
Stallings.
(2011).
Data
And
Computer Communication (9th edition).
Prentice Hall. (ISBN-10: 0131392050)