Anda di halaman 1dari 7

KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA

TEKNOLOGI DAN PROFESIONAL,


PERLIS MALAYSIA

DIPLOMA FARMASI
(A 8240)

LAB MANUAL

PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY
(DFB 1012)

ACA-OR-750-012-01

KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL, PERLIS


MALAYSIA
P/S 40 KM 5 JALAN KAKI BUKIT
01000 KANGAR, PERLIS

PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (DFB 1012)


LAB 1
THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE

INTRODUCTION
The most fundamental skill of microbiology is the use of the microscope. The definition
of a microscope is a device for magnifying objects that are too small to be seen with the naked
eye. The development, evolution, and the inventors involved in the microscope is quite
interesting. Prior to 150, the magnifying glass was the best form of magnification and was not
necessarily that advanced. In 1500, Zacharias Janssen and Hans, his son, invented a microscope
that used two sets of lenses, a forerunner to the compound microscope. They used sunlight to
illuminate the objects being studied. This earliest microscope magnified objects up to 100 times
the objects actual size.
Todays microscopes often employ more than two sets. The largest and most accurate
microscope is the electron microscope that uses electrons in a focused beam to illuminate objects
rather than light. The electrons pass through the specimen being viewed and are electrically
focused. Normally the image is then broadcast to a television monitor or photographed. A
scanning electron microscope gives a three-dimensional image of the specimen. An electron
microscope is capable of specimen magnification millions of times the actual size. This type of
microscopy has allowed the viewing of virus particles that are so small a few million could fit on
the head of a pin.

OBJECTIVES
1) Learn proper care and handling techniques of the microscope.
2) Identify and understand functions of selected microscope parts.
3) Become proficient at focusing a microscope.
4) Learn microscope terminology.
5) Learn to use the microscope as a measuring tool.

MATERIALS AND METHOD


1.
2.
3.
4.

Compound light microscope


Prepared slides of 3 types of bacteria
Lens paper
Immersion oil

Procedure 1 - Using the Microscope


1. The part of the microscope was reviewed; each of the components was know the function and
names of the microscope.
2. Obtain a slide from the instructor.
2. Place the slide on the stage of the microscope.
3. Turn the revolving nosepiece so that the scope is on the 4x objective (low).
4. Roll the stage up to its highest point.
5. Move the stage until the specimen is in the middle of the stage.
6. Focus on the specimen by rolling the stage down slowly using the coarse adjustment.
Procedure 2 - Examining Stained Bacteria
1. Obtain one slide of stained bacteria.
2. Place the slide on the stage and follow proper procedure for focus, etc.
3. Once the high dry objective (40x) has been reached and focus is maintained, apply one drop of
immersion oil to the slide and move to the oil-immersion objective (100x). Refocus if
necessary and draw what is in the two fields on the report sheet.
OBSERVATION AND RESULT
1. Draw and label the compound light microscope
2. Write how to proper care and handling techniques of the microscope.
3. Give part of the microscope and their functions

REVIEW QUESTION
It is often useful to know the exact amount of magnification of a particular object or organism
viewed beneath the microscope. That is, how many times is the object enlarged. Total
magnification can be calculated by using a simple formula:

Total Magnification = Ocular lens power x Objective lens power

Please complete the following to determine total magnifying power of each of the objective
lenses.
Magnification of the ocular lens alone =

Table 1:
Magnification of each
Objective Lens Alone

Ocular lens

Total Magnification
(Objective x Ocular)

Scanning Power
Low Power
High Power

4. Which objective focuses closest to the slide?


5. What controls the amount of light reaching the ocular lens?

6. Why should you always begin to use a microscope with the low-power objective?
7. Why should you never use coarse adjustment when focusing the high-power objective
lens?

ACA-OR-750-012-01

KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL, PERLIS


MALAYSIA
P/S 40 KM 5 JALAN KAKI BUKIT
01000 KANGAR, PERLIS

PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (DFB 1012)


LAB 2
CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISM

INTRODUCTION
The term microbe is short for microorganism, which means small organism. To help people
understand the different types of microbes, they are grouped or classified in various ways.
Microbes are very diverse and represent all the great kingdoms of life.
Here are the major groups of microorganisms:

Viruses
Bacteria
Algae
Fungi
Protozoa

In this project you will study and experiment classification of bacteria by the shape and types of
the bacteria colony.
OBJECTIVES:
1. To classify microorganisms into categories based on their characteristics.
MATERIALS
Prepared slides of the following bacteria:
Bacillus Subtilis
Escherichia coli
Staphylococcus aureus
Micrococcus luteus
Microscope
Oil immersion

PROCEDURE
1. Using a microscope, look carefully at prepared slide of Bacillus Subtilis. Identify different
bacterial shape and arrangements.
2. Also, identify the size of the microorganisms that you are observe under microscope when
using oil immersion.
3. Using oil immersion on microscopy 1000X lenses.
4. Repeat the experiment with using another prepared slide.
OBSERVATION AND RESULTS
1. Make drawings of several of the bacteria from each of the four prepared slides and
indicate their approximate size in micrometers.

Escherichia coli

Bacillus Subtilis

Shape =

Shape =

Types of microbe =

Types of microbe =

Staphylococcus aureus

Micrococcus aureus

Shape =

Shape =

Types of microbe =

Types of microbe =

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. State three basic shapes of bacteria.
2. State five different arrangements of cocci.
3. State three different arrangements of bacilli.
4. State three different arrangements spiral form.