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5

Reservoirs in prefabricated and in-situ placed concrete

5.1 Reservoirs made from prefabricated concrete


5.1.1 Introduction
Concrete reservoirs that have to be liquid tight can also be built with prefabricated elements. The liquid
tightness and economy of the design can be positively influenced by:
The conditioned circumstances during the production of the concrete, with among other things mechanical compaction and excellent curing capabilities;
Independence of weather conditions and production under controlled temperatures;
The use of steel formwork for the larger series, achieving a higher degree of accuracy;
Shrinkage limitation in prefabricated elements after erection;
The option of standardization for a more economic production;
Shorter erection times;
Major cost savings by less investment in formwork, scaffolding and wages.
Especially the last aspect will be highlighted in a practical example (Section 5.1.5).
Prefab elements, contrary to in-situ placed concrete elements, are able to meet the highest requirements
regarding liquid tightness. An important issue is that they have to be connected, making the joints the
weakest link in the total structure. Both with respect to the desired force transmission and the required
liquid tightness, it is of paramount importance to dimension and construct the joints in the proper manner.
In this course, firstly recently carried out research about the liquid tightness of construction joints in
concrete, for example applied in rectangular reservoirs, will be highlighted. After that the structural
possibilities will be discussed of joints in cylindrical reservoirs. This is followed by an example of a recently erected tank structure in prefab concrete, including a comparison of costs with a more traditional
structure made out of in-situ placed concrete.

5.1.2 Permeability of construction joints


Introduction
Regarding the functional aspects, the following basic types of joints can be distinguished:
joints having both a sealing and structural function;
joints having a sealing function but no or hardly any structural function.
The choice depends on the force transmission in the structure and on the possibilities to create joints
that are also capable of force transmission. In the German literature, in this respect distinction is made
between kraftschlssig and nicht- kraftschlssig, i.e. capable of force transmission and not capable
of force transmission, respectively.
An example of a rectangular structure is shown in Fig. 5.1. It shows the erection of a drinking water reservoir composed out of prefab wall and floor elements. A construction joint between the elements is
necessary. In many cases this joint is filled in-situ with concrete or cement mortar, whereby the steel reinforcement bars sticking out of the prefab elements are connected by lap welds. The liquid tightness of
this sort of construction joints have been investigated in Germany in relation to the research programme
Sicherheit von Betonkonstruktionen technischer Aanlagen fr umweltgefrdende Stoffe (Safety of
concrete structures with respect to environmentally hazardous substances). The research has been conducted at the University of Technology of Bochum [1]. The results will briefly be discussed.
Parameters of the construction joint
The considered joint has been schematically depicted in Fig. 5.2. Two prefab elements can be distinguished with profiled end-faces and a space between them (the joint), which will be filled up with a
joint filler, for example concrete mortar. In the detailing of the joint three parameters play a crucial role:
5-1

Fig. 5.1: Vertical joints in a rectangular drinking water reservoir in Beiroet.


in-situ placed concrete

prefab concrete

joint

Fig. 5.2: Schematic of a construction joint in a wall (horizontal cross-section).


the structural connection;
the joint geometry;
the joint filler.
Further, a number of additional provisions can be listed, which influence the tightness of the joint but
have no effect on the force transmission.
The structural connection
Several options are available to realise the structural connection between the two prefab elements. They
may be:

a welded of screwed steel connection;


a socket or sleeve connection;
a lap-weld connection;
a connection made by prestressing.

The first two types are referred to as dry connections; the last two types are wet connections.
An example of a welded steel connection is given in Fig. 5.3. Cast-in steel angle sections are connected
by a V-section (also an angle section). The advantage of this construction method is that a firm connection is made immediately without the necessity of long-term propping of the concrete elements. The
disadvantages of this connection, which is discontinuous in nature, are:
the concentrated force transmission, which increases the probability of cracking and consequently of
leaking
the required high dimensional accuracy
it is labour intensive
A welded connection can also be obtained by directly joining (lap weld) the protruding bars of the prefab elements (Fig. 5.4). However, the advantage of above sketched method is that a relatively short joint
5-2

3-D view
plan view

detail

front view

Fig. 5.3: Joint construction with welded angle sections.


prefab concrete

zone for the in-situ


placed concrete

Fig.5.4: Connection by means of welded reinforcement bars.

Fig. 5.5: Lap weld by means of loops.


can be realised that leads to a relatively small absolute shrinkage. Apart from the danger of brittle fracture of the reinforcement steel, especially the large labour intensity is a disadvantage.
A socket or sleeve connections are generally applied in columns and beams, but for walls and slabs they
are too expensive and labour intensive. Sockets are available that can be slid over the reinforcing bars
after which the structural joint can be made by grouting or welding. Also sockets for screwed connections can be obtained commercially.
A lap weld (Fig. 5.5) is the most common form of a structural wet prefab joint. The joint is simple and
rather insensitive to dimensional variations. Disadvantages are the large joint gaps to be filled and the
required curing time before the props can be removed. A reduction of the joint dimensions can be
achieved by the applications of loops.
When a structural joint is made by prestressing, the joint filler is subjected to compression. By this action, the joint is able to transmit loads without direct involvement of the prestressing steel. The

5-3

prestressing can be achieved by continuous cables of short prestressing elements at the position of the
joints.
On basis of previous judgements and corresponding literature surveys with respect to the several options of prestressed joint design, it has to be concluded that only loop anchorages have additional value
for the considered area of application. The research in [1] is based on this structural concept. A very
positive influence of the prestressing on the liquid tightness can be expected. For this reason this parameter is included in the research.
The joint filler
The joint filler applied in a prefab joint, should have a number of important properties, such as:

resistance against chemical attack of the retained medium;


high compressive and tensile strength;
large bonding properties with the prefab concrete;
limited shrinkage and good workability

A careful compaction of the joint filler is of paramount importance, just as the quality of the curing.
Fast drying-out of the joint is very dangerous and should be avoided with the appropriate means. Globally is can be assumed that for the production of liquid tight joints curing periods are required that are
twice as long as normally applied.
To achieve proper liquid tightness good bonding properties between the joint filler and the prefab concrete are conditional. The target value of the bonding strength is that it should be equal to the tensile
strength of the prefab concrete and the tensile strength of the joint filler. The bonding properties depend
on both chemical and mechanical adhesion. Mechanical adhesion depends on the shape of the anchoring
of the joint filler in the open pores of the prefab concrete. Roughening of the concrete surfaces by high
water pressure is a very useful activity. Keeping moist of the concrete surfaces before filling prevents
non-uniform shrinkage and drying-out of the filler material. However, there should not be a superfluous
amount of water present to avoid that a water film is produced at the bonding zone, which may lead to
failure of the joint.
20 mm

20 mm

d 13 d

Fig. 5.6: Minimum dimensions for joint geometry after DIN 1045
The shape (contour) of the joint has a positive impact on the shear capacity of the connection. Another
advantage of contouring is that the eventual transport length of the liquid next to the bond is increased
considerably, leading to a better liquid tightness. The shape of the joint should be designed such that it
always allows proper placement and compaction of the filler. The dimensions provided in Fig 5.6 are
the minimum boundary conditions.
Additional measures that may improve the tightness of (wet) joints are the application of steel cover
plates or sealing sections and the application of injection with cement paste or synthetic resin. However,
this type of measures falls beyond the scope of this course.
Testing of the liquid penetration
Consider a prefab structure that is subjected to a unidirectional bending moment. Then an uncracked
compressive zone is present, which is responsible for the liquid tightness of the joint (Fig. 5.7).
The liquid tightness is guaranteed if it holds:

hx > 1.5 et

5-4

prefab

placed
in-situ

prefab

compressive zone

compressive zone

Fig. 5.7: Loading in one direction with a cracking moment.

where:
hx
1.5
et

= the depth of the compressive zone


= the factor of safety
= the characteristic penetration depth of the considered fluid after an exposure time t

All penetration tests, that have been done up to now, concerned monolithic concrete. Preliminary research however revealed that the condition of the boundary layer between the prefab concrete and the
filler material has a large influence on the penetration depth. Therefore, extra laboratory penetration
tests have been carried out on drill cores [1]. These experiments were done on three series of in total 48
e72,P
e72,J
e72,I
prefab

joint

interface

Fig. 5.8: Characteristic trend of the penetration depth, obtained by drill core testing.

test elements, each consisting of two prefab parts connected with a joint. From these test elements (Fig.
5.8) 138 drill cores with a diameter of 80 mm were extracted and tested. The cores were taken from the
prefab concrete itself, from the pure filler material and from the interface area of the two materials.
The faces of the prefab elements forming the construction joint underwent different types of pretreatment. They were:

T
GT
NN
GNN
GN
GNZ
GE

no pre-treatment;
sandblasted;
not properly wetted (too much water used);
sandblasted & not properly wetted;
sandblasted & properly wetted;
sandblasted & properly wetted & pre-treated with a cement-based bonding material;
sandblasted & properly wetted & pre-treated with an epoxy-resin-based bonding material.

Other parameters in the research were:


the pouring direction of the concrete: perpendicular to the joint (slab construction) or in longitudinal
direction of the joint (wall construction);
the test fluid: water, acetone, n-butane alcohol, fuel oil EL and n-hexane.
The last parameter represents a wide spectrum of liquids with a certain viscosity and surface tension.
All specimens were placed in a metal cylinder en tested during 72 hours under a pressure corresponding
with a liquid head of 1.4 m.
5-5

To obtain one mean value of the penetration depth at least three specimens were tested and averaged.
Further, a factor of 1.35 was introduced to relate the mean and characteristic values of the penetration
depth, i.e.:
n

et ,m = e72, m =

et ,m

; et = e72 = 1.35 e72,m

The penetration depths were measured in the prefab concrete ( e72,P ), at the position of the interface
( e72,I ) and in the joint filler material ( e72,J ). Per test element this delivered a nose shaped curve as indicated in Fig. 5.8.
The ratios e72, I e72, P and e72, I e72, J are a measure for the relative penetration depth in the joint. For the
judgement of the structure, the penetration depth in the joint filler and the interface should be investigated and compared (the concrete quality of the prefab is always better and has the lowest penetration
depth). Therefore, the smallest ratio of penetration depth is decisive and is indicated by F , the socalled joint coefficient, it holds:

F = e72, I e72, J
Table 5.1 lists the average results. For example, looking at the measurements from series 1, it demonstrates that only for the pre-treatment variant GT (sandblasted) a result was obtained which was comparable with that of the in-situ concrete of the joint. In the case of no pre-treatment (T) or not properly
wetted surfaces (NN or GNN), the joint coefficient was considerably higher.
series 1

series 2

water

T
NN
GNN
GN
GNZ
GE
GT
1)

water

series 3

n-butane
alcohol

fuel oil

acetone

n-hexane

mean

Fi

Fi

Fi

Fi

Fi

Fi

6
5
6
6

2.02
1.71
1.88
1.30

2
4
4
2

1.10
1.02
1.12
1.21

2
4
4
2

1.00
1.00
- 1)
- 2)

2
4
4
2

1.33
1.16
1.27
1.11

3
3
3
3

1.18
1.20
1.40
1.34

3
3
3
3

2.02
1.71
1.88
1.16
1.09
1.25
1.27

- 2)
- 2)
- 2)
- 2)

Failure of the bonding; 2) Exact determination of the penetration front was not possible

Table 5.1: Joint coefficients.


F

pre-treatment
GNZ
GN
GE
GT
T

sandblasted & properly wetted & cement based bonding layer


sandblasted & properly wetted
sandblasted & epoxy resin based bonding layer
sandblasted
no pre-treatment

1.09
1.16
1.25
1.27
2.02

Table 5.2: Mean values of the joint coefficients.

A summary of the average overall results of all tests can be found in Table 5.2. It can be noticed that the
pre-treatment method GNZ (sandblasted & properly wetted & cement-based bonding) leads to the best
results. For the other pre-treatment methods it holds that the penetration depth varies strongly compared
with that of the in-situ placed concrete. Next to GNZ, the other favourable pre-treatments are GN, GE
and GT. The results of the table can be used to check the liquid tightness in practical situations, without
the necessity of doing specific tests.

5-6

The question, whether a cement-based bonding layer should be applied is a matter of weighing the
risks. Namely, the bonding layer should be applied strictly within the setting time and covered with
concrete. When this time is exceeded, the danger exists that the bonding layer starts to act as a separation layer instead.
Permeability research
In the case of a prefab structure loaded by alternating moments, the compressive zone is not uncracked
anymore but pre-damaged. The check with respect to liquid tightness as discussed in previous section
is not relevant anymore. For this situation, separate tightness experiments were carried out in the re1

6 2 8
3

500

512

40

4110

512

20

4110

2 8

A
20

40

A
650

30

20

20

30

650

8 6

12

8
section A-A

200

55 90 55

1800

Fig. 5.9: Specimen for permeability research (dimensions in mm).

search programme, where prefab structures were used that were loaded before and during testing [1]. In
Fig 5.9 one of the in total 16 specimens has been depicted. Each specimen consisted of two prefab elements and an in-situ poured reinforced concrete joint. The most important parameters in the experiments were:

the distinction between horizontal and vertical elements;


the several pre-treatment methods NN, GNN, GN, GNZ and GE (see previous section);
the effect of the prestressing;
the geometry of the joint;
the influence of prohibited shrinkage;
different test fluids: water, n-butane alcohol and n-hexane.

Prior to the permeability tests, all specimens were subjected to cyclic loading in the form of alternating
bending moments. These moments induced crack formation and the process was continued until a target
crack width of 0.16 mm was reached. Subsequently, permeability tests were done on the specimens in
both unloaded and loaded state.
The relevant conclusions of the experiments can be summarised as follows:
The weak spot in the joint is always the interface between the prefab concrete and the joint filler. Already after one load cycle, two cracks were visible in all test specimens. Only an effective pretreatment of the prefab contact surfaces resulted, after loading until cracking, in an irregular crack
pattern with rough crack flanks around the interface (Fig. 5.10).
The minimum pre-treatment should at least be GN (sandblasted & properly wetted). Further improvement can be achieved by the application of a bonding agent (GNZ or GE). Poor pre-treatment
(NN or GNN) even led to separation of the interface.

5-7

Fig. 5.10: Crack pattern for proper (left) and improper (right) pre-treatment.
By repetitive cyclic loading of a joint at constant load level, the crack width shall increase steadily.
This effect can be counteracted by the application of a prestress with order of magnitude of 1.5 up to
2.5 N/mm2. This action leads to a smaller crack width and at the same time to a higher concrete
compressive stress.
Permeability tests with water as a medium, performed on not loaded (unloaded) and properly pretreated specimens demonstrated that all of them were watertight. Hereby autogenous healing plays a
role, so that also the poorest specimens demonstrated an improvement of the tightness in due time.
The loaded, with water tested specimens, also appeared to be sufficiently watertight. For another
medium than water (n-hexane), a constant liquid flow developed in the course of time, which was
not reduced by self healing. The cause of this can be found in the occurred damage by the cyclic
loading in the crack flanks of the concrete. The crumbled off particles are not capable to seal the
crack completely, which means that leaking occurs.
The tightness of a pre-damaged structure can be restored by the application of a prestress of about
2.5 N/mm2. This decreases the crack width and increases the concrete compressive stress.
Another possibility to enhance the liquid tightness at cyclic loading is adaptation of the joint geometry (Fig. 5.11). The horizontal slot guarantees a better tightness. But one should investigate if this
joint shape could actually be applied in view of other important properties such as force transmission, filling and compacting of the joint.

Fig. 5.11: Sealing action of modified joint geometry (right).


Experiments with respect to the shrinkage behaviour of the joint have shown that indeed microcracks are formed by shrinkage, but that these hardly affect the permeability of the joint. Also the
way the concrete was placed in the joint (horizontal versus vertical), had no effect on the permeability.

It can be concluded that the tightness of prefab structures, depending on the type of loading, always can
be guaranteed, when the proper pre-treatment and eventual other measures have been applied correctly.
The flow diagram of Fig. 5.12 provides a summary of the conditions for proper tightness.

5-8

tightness of force
transmitting structures

loads not leading


to crack formation

loads leading to
crack formation

pre-treatment
G
GN
GE
GT

1.09
1.16
1.25
1.27

et = e72 = e72, m 1.35 F

d e et
d = wall thickness
e = safety factor for

penetration depth
( e = 1.5)
et = penetration depth
for exposure time t

cyclic loads leading


to crack formation

reinforced
elements

prestressed
elements

poured-in
properly
centric
modified
additional
features
pre-treated
prestressing
joint
conventional
(joint
tape,
(GNZ, GN, GE) (2.5 N/mm2 )
geometry reinforcement
joint section)

x e et
x = depth compr. zone
e = safety factor for

penetration depth
( e = 1.5)
et = penetration depth
for exposure time t

if all requirements are


satisfied, the tightness
of the structure is assured

Fig. 5.12: Check on tightness of structural joint in prefabricated concrete.

5.1.3 Joints in circular tanks


In circular prefab reservoirs two types of joints can be distinguished:
the horizontal joint between the prefab wall elements and the in-situ poured base slab;
the vertical joints between the wall elements.

Because of the stable shape of the cylindrical wall construction and the possibility to absorb axialsymmetrical loads with circumferential forces, a lot of freedom exists in the choice of wall-base connections. This topic is the source of a lot of discussion. In the literature [2, 3, 4] and in the engineering
practice many solutions have been realised. Fig. 5.13 gives an overview of several solutions for the
wall-base connection.
In principle, this connection can be of the following type:

clamped, this means that the deformation is completely prohibited;


elastically clamped;
hinged, for example by a concrete hinge or ridge construction
elastically supported;
horizontally displaceable (sliding support).

When a reservoir is constructed in reinforced concrete, a monolithic wall-base connection with rigid
clamping is the preferred solution. Crack formation in the wall, as a result of the prohibited deformations, should be controlled by proper reinforcement. In the wall, horizontal tangential forces are generated next to shear forces and flexural moments in vertical direction.
For the larger diameters, the wall structure is often prestressed in horizontal direction. In practice, a
horizontally displaceable wall-base connection is preferred as shown in Fig. 5.14. This means that the
full load has to be carried by the circumferential forces. In vertical direction only traditional reinforcement will be applied. Deformations caused by shrinkage and temperature variations can freely develop.
The wall-base joint requires some extra prestressing, but the costs of this action are relatively small.
Special attention and experience is a prerequisite for proper construction of the joint.

5-9

statical
system

clamp

volume

construction
method

cross-section

reinforced
from small
concrete
to middle
&
large
prestressed
3
(< 5000 m )
concrete
from small
to large
(< 10000 m3)

elastic
clamp

reinforced
concrete
&
prestressed
concrete

from small
to large
prestressed
(< 10000 m3) concrete
hinge
no
limitation

prestressed
concrete

hindered
displacement
from large
to very large prestressed
(> 10000 m3) concrete
elastic
displacement

Fig. 5.13: Structural examples of wall-base connections.

prestressed wall
elastic joint section
of 240 mm height
poly urethane
foam
sliding
support
in-situ cast
base
cover
30 mm

Fig. 5.14: Joint detail of horizontally displaceable wall-base connection.

5-10

rubber glued
to concrete

Fig. 5.15: Variant of horizontally displaceable joint with rubber strip for settlement-free conditions.

A variant of the wall-base connection contains a rubber bearing strip, which is glued to the concrete
(Fig. 5.15). However, this variant is sensitive to settlements and therefore only can be applied under settlement free conditions, for example when a piled base slab is present.
Compared with an in-situ poured wall structure, the prefab wall structure differs at two important aspects:
the prefab element may be vertically prestressed;
at the moment of erection, the major part of the shrinkage has occurred already.

The prestressed elements can be attached to the floor with a hinged or clamped connection without any
danger for crack formation. An example of a prefab structure with vertical load transmission is shown
in Fig. 5.16. It concerns a basin of a waste-water purification plant of the company DSM in the Netherlands [5]. An in-situ placed ring beam takes up the horizontal circumferential forces, so that the vertical
joints in the wall does not take part in the force transmission and only have a sealing function.
prefab
wall element

in-situ cast
concrete
adjusting
mortar

in-situ cast
concrete

asphalt
concrete

Fig. 5.16: Wall construction with ring beam of settlement basins at the DSM plant.

The construction method whereby the prefab walls are forced together by horizontal prestressing cables
is very common. During the prestressing action, the elements should be able to move freely, after that
the walls can be fixed to the base slab. Fig 5.17 gives an example. A variant to this solution, whereby a
sealing section has been used will be discussed in Section 5.1.4.
5-11

prefab
wall element

in-situ cast
concrete

Fig. 5.17: Hinged wall-base connection put in place after prestressing of the wall elements.

For the realisation of vertical joints many solutions are available. An overview is given in [3]. Requirements imposed on joints are: ability of proper force transmission, a simple design that easily can be applied, and the capacity to address tolerances in the dimensioning. The most important parameters for the
selection of a joint are the choice of a wet or dry joint and whether prestressing should be utilised. This
prestressing can be applied externally or internally, and it may be continuous or in the form of short elements.
Some examples of joints are: a loop connection as discussed in Section 5.1.2; a hinge shaped joint that
will be concreted on and externally prestressed (Fig. 5.18); a mortar joint with internal prestressing
(Fig. 5.19); a prestressed joint with a tongue-and-groove system (Fig. 5.20). The last joint can be realprefab
wall-element

protective
layer

in-situ cast
C28/35

tendon

temporary
support

spacer

tendon

construction
joint

section A-A
in-situ cast concrete base

foil

Fig. 5.18: Joint construction of the ACONTANK, Sweden.


0 -10

1015

1015

duct for
tendon
1000

Fig. 5.19: Prestressed mortar joint (dimensions in mm).

5-12

Fig. 5.20: prestressed joint with tongue-and-groove system.

ised as a dry joint by using a rubber strip or with epoxy resin filler. A disadvantage of a dry joint is that
due to dimensional inaccuracies in the production, especially for the higher tank walls, concrete-toconcrete contact may occur leading to possible splitting of the concrete.

5.1.4 Practical example: aeration circuit


In this section a recent project will be discussed as an illustration of an economic solution for a wastewater reservoir, erected in prefab concrete. It concerns the construction of two tanks for the sewage purification plant Goedereede in the Province South-Holland in the Netherlands. The layout of the installation is depicted in Fig. 5.21, including the extension with a new aeration tank and a new resettling
tank, both with a diameter of 40 m. The tanks were made from prefab concrete instead of the more traditional in-situ poured concrete. The main reasons for this choice were the lower construction costs and

aeration
tank

Fig. 5.21: Lay-out of the sewage purification plant at Goedereede.

Fig. 5.22: High aeration tank: situation during construction.

5-13

the shorter construction time. Fig. 5.22 gives an idea of the situation during the erection phase.
In more detail the high aeration tank will be considered. It has a wall height of 6.0 m and retains a water
height of 5.0 m. As can be observed from Fig. 5.22, the tank possesses several compartments combining
several technological functions: the so-called selector, the anaerobe zone, the denitrification zone and
the nitrification zone. Here, attention will be paid to the construction of the outer wall. On the one hand
this wall experiences the largest load and on the other hand it has to comply with the highest requirement with respect to liquid tightness.
The so-called Muleby-II prefab system was applied for the construction of the tank. The system is from
Danish origin and is used under licence by the Dutch firm Farmex Environmental Engineering BV.
Outside the Netherlands this system is applied quite frequently, in the Netherlands however just a few
years at least at this scale.

200

200

170

2383

duct for tendon

2400

Fig. 5.23: Cross-section of a wall element (dimensions in mm).

The outer wall of the tank is composed from concrete panels with a width of 2.40 m and a height of
6.00 m. The elements have a thickness over the entire height that varies from 170 mm to 200 mm. The
inside of the elements is flat while the outside is convex (Fig. 5.23). The concrete class is C35/45 and
the elements are prestressed in vertical direction with 25 strands of 9.3 mm diameter.
The elements are connected with a tongue-and-groove system and prestressed with internal prestressing
cables. Before the application of the prestress, the vertical joints were filled up with a layer of cement
based self-compacting mortar. This mortar was cast in the hollow space of the joint between the two
sealing strips of hard-neoprene (Fig. 5.24). The surfaces forming the joint did not receive any form of
pre-treatment. The tongue-and-groove connection receives an extra seal at the inside of the wall on the
basis of polyurethane.
cement-based swelling
self-compacting mortar

200

neoprene
seal

170

extra seal of
polyurethane

Fig. 5.24: Detail of the joint of the wall elements (dimensions in mm).

Normally, the wall-base connection is realised according to the standard design as sketched in Fig. 5.25.
The elements are firstly adjusted on steel plates and mortar and then prestressed. After prestressing the
insert at both sides of the wall is filled with Spramex concrete containing elastomeric fibre cement;
Spramex is a concrete with small aggregates, in present case smaller than 4 mm. At the inside of the
wall a swelling seal is applied.
5-14

R = 20, 248
R = 19, 598

adjusting
mortar

finish 30 mm

330

170

120

swelling seal

bedding 50 mm
300

200

150

500

300

Fig. 5.25: Detailing of standard wall-base connection (dimensions in mm).


R = 20, 631

swelling seal
concreted curb
sealing section

360

350 50

R = 19,881

bedding 50 mm
300

200

250

200

300

Fig. 5.26: Detailing of wall-base connection for outer wall of aeration tank (dimensions in mm).

At the sewage purification plant at Goedereede, this standard design has been adapted because of the
high probability of settlements of the shallow foundation of the base slab. An additional curb was
placed containing a sealing section providing extra safety against leakage in the case some settlement
would occur (Fig. 5.26).
The hinged wall-base connection that was realised in the final situation had to keep the tensile forces in
the lower part of the wall within acceptable limits. The distribution of the prestress over the height of
the wall helped to achieve this goal (Fig. 5.27). In total 20 horizontal strands have been used of 15.2
mm diameter tensioned to a prestressing force of 170 kN. The minimum centre-to-centre distance of the
strands was 150 mm. The total erection time of the entire wall was 10 working days.

5.1.5 Comparison of costs


In this section, the costs of the prefab concrete wall as described in Section 5.1.4 (price level 1998) will
be compared with the costs of the more traditionally in-situ poured prestressed wall.
In Table 5.3 the cost estimations are summarised of the prefab wall, realised with the standard wall-base
connection of Fig. 5.25. Indicated are the total costs of a tank wall of 6 m height, consisting of 52 elements with a width of 2.4 m, and the relative costs in percentages. The total wall area is 749 m2.
The mentioned costs boil down to an amount of 163.60 per m2 wall. This excludes the extra costs of
the curb and the sealing section at the wall-base connection (Fig. 5.26). These extra costs are 136.40
per m joint. The total amount becomes 136.40522.40 = 17,020, or 22.70 per m2 wall.
Summarising, the total costs including the extra curb but excluding VAT become:

5-15

5,000

6,000
tendon

170 - 200

Fig. 5.27: Prestressed wall of prefab concrete (dimensions in mm).


specification
production and material of elements
construction materials
tendons
adjusting mortar
adjusting material
salary costs erection
freight costs
crane costs
depreciation molds and materials
engineering costs
site costs
total

costs ()
62,510
14,710

percentage (%)
51
12

17,160
13,480
4,900
3,680
3,680
2,450
122,570

14
11
4
3
3
2
100

Table 5.3: Construction costs of prefab outer wall structure with standard
wall-base connection including all costs, but without VAT.
total amount
per m2

139,590.00
186.40

In the traditional design, the wall would have been poured in-situ having a thickness of about 250 mm
and a wall-base connection according to the details of the Figs 5.14 and 5.28. The concrete class would
be C28/35 and the prestressing realised with 38 strands of 12.9 mm diameter that are anchored in 4
prestressing ribs. The distribution of the strands is indicated in Fig. 5.28. Further, the wall would contain an amount of normal reinforcement of 70 kg/m3.
The cost estimations of the in-situ placed wall, including the wall-base connection is summarised in Table 5.4.
The calculated costs for the traditional solution are more than 30% higher than those for the prefab wall.
The difference mainly originates from the high costs of the formwork. Namely, the 6 m high wall has to
be poured in two stages. Also, for the inner walls of the tank comparable cost differences may be expected between the two solutions, because of the high formwork costs.

5-16

5,000

6,000
tendon

150

170 - 200

Fig. 5.28: Prestressed wall of in-situ concrete (dimensions in mm).


specification
adjusting and depreciation of formwork
delivery and placement of reinforcement
delivery and placement of sealing section
delivery and tensioning of tendons
delivery and pouring of concrete
stripping of formwork
subtotal
production costs
general costs
profit and risk
contract price
engineering and management
total

costs ()
76,200
10,930
3,460
25,710
22,570
6,580
145,450
12,090
10,180
7,280
175,000
10,500
185,500

Table 5.4: Construction costs of traditional wall structure


including all costs, but without VAT.

For smaller wall heights, the cost difference between both solutions will decline. The costs of the prefab
elements are not significantly lower for the smaller wall heights and even increase per m2 wall area.
While the costs of the formwork for the in-situ placed wall are considerably less, leading to a decrease
in costs per m2. In Fig 5.29 the trend is globally indicated.
It can be concluded that with the choice of a prefab structure, next to high quality liquid tightness also
an economic solution has been realised.
After Goedereede comparable projects followed in the municipalities Stein, St. Maartensdijk and
Hengelo. In the last municipality, four tanks were erected with a diameter of 55 m and a wall height of
nearly 6 m.
Remark
In this case-study, construction with completely prefabricated elements has been discussed. In next
case-study (Section 5.2) construction with in-situ placed walls will be highlighted. But it is also possible
to choose for a hybrid solution, the so-called composite walls. These walls consist of two prefab concrete shells that are mutually connected with lattice girders, which will be concreted on site. The walls

5-17

400

in-situ
concrete

prefab
concrete

costs [/m2]

300
247
200
164
100
0

9 10

wall height [m]

Fig. 5.29: Global cost comparison of the two construction types.

are placed on an in-situ poured slab or foundation. Since composite walls are a combination of prefab
and in-situ placed concrete, it also combines the advantages and disadvantages of both systems [6]:
advantages of prefab: less formwork, short erection times, high quality, smooth wall, cost saving for
large numbers and large structures;
disadvantages of prefab: limited dimensions of elements (transport), extra transport, limited freedom
in design;
advantages of in-situ placed concrete: monolithic wall-wall and wall-base connections can be realised relatively simple; more flexibility during construction;
disadvantages of in-situ placed concrete: weather dependence, long erection times.

5.1.6 References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

Bida M., Grote K.P.: Durchlssigkeit und konstruktive Konzeption von Fugen (Fertiegteilverbindungen), Deutscher Ausschluss fr Stahlbeton, Heft 464.
Klawa N., Haack A.: Tiefbaufugen. Fugen und Fugenkonstructionen im Beton- und Stahlbetonbau, Verlag fr Architektur und Wissenshaften, Berlin
Frnay J.W., Straman J.P., Braam C.R.: Circular prefabricated concrete tanks, IMAG-DLO,
Wageningen.
Bruggeling A.S.G.: Betonconstructies in de civiele gezondheidstechniek, Stichting Prof. Bakkerfonds.
Dijkstra F.: Waterzuivering DSM, Cement 32, no. 9, 1980.
STUPR-commissie 40: Samengestelde wandconstructies, STUPR-report no. 21, Aug. 1990.

5.2 Cylindrical reservoirs made from in-situ placed concrete


5.2.1 Control of vertical crack formation
The goal of this case study is:
to discuss the computational procedure for the determination of the crack behaviour of a cylindrical
wall in reinforced concrete, which is loaded by a combination of a normal force and a temperature
difference across the wall thickness;
to compare the calculated and observed vertical crack patterns;
to illustrate the effect of a light horizontal prestress on the size of the compressive zone.
Pure tension - separation cracks
In a cylindrical reservoir, the wall is subjected to tension because of the (hydrostatic) liquid loading. If
the tensile force in the wall exceeds the tensile strength of the concrete separation cracks will be generated (Fig. 5.30a). In order to guarantee a liquid tight structure, a heavy crack width limiting reinforcement should be applied. When the occurrence of separation cracks due to hydrostatic pressure has to be
eliminated completely, the structure has to be prestressed.

5-18

Tb
A

B
A

M
N

c ,cr
M

c (between cracks)

N
A

a) vertical cracks due to hydrostatic pressure;


wall on sliding support

b) Response of cylindrical wall to imposed


curvature (Tb ) + normal force N

Fig. 5.30: Crack formation in reservoir wall under the action


of hydrostatic pressure and imposed curvature.
Combination of tensile forces and imposed curvature
Vertical cracks can also be generated by a combination of tensile forces and bending moments resulting
from temperature and/or shrinkage gradients. For the combination normal force + bending normally a
compressive zone will be present. To be guaranteed of liquid tight behaviour, this compressive zone
should possess a minimum depth (see Section 2.6). The presence of a tensile force will rapidly diminish
the size of the compressive zone. The application of a small horizontal prestress can be very effective to
enlarge the compressive zone.

5.2.2 Internal loads in the cylindrical wall


Cylindrical wall loaded by a membrane force and imposed curvature

Liquid loading
The tensile force N ;l ( x) in the wall as e result of the liquid pressure can be obtained by the boiler
formula (also see Chapter 3:
N ;l ( x) = Z l ( x) R ; Z l ( x) = ( H l x ) l

[N/m]

(5.1)

where H l [m] is the liquid height, l [N/m3] is the specific weight of the liquid and R [m] is the radius
of the reservoir.
The stress ;l ( x) in tangential direction follows from:

;l ( x) =

N ;l ( x)
Ac

[N/m2]

(5.2)

where Ac is the cross-sectional area per running meter wall height. For reservoirs with low walls, the
tangential force N ;l ( x) will often be smaller than the cracking tensile force N cr , or in other words, the
concrete tensile stress will be considerably smaller than the tensile strength f ct of the concrete. However, under the influence of shrinkage and temperature effects stresses are induced that may easily lead
to crack formation.
Temperature loading
In Fig. 5.30b a part of the cylindrical wall with radius R and wall thickness hw has been depicted,
which is loaded by a circumferential force N ;l and a temperature load T ( z ) . This temperature load
across the wall thickness can be split into an mean part and a linear part, i.e.:

5-19

Tm = 12 T ( z = 0) = 12 T

(5.3)

Tb = T

(5.4)

Because of the mean temperature increase the cylinder will expand. The radius will increase by:
R (Tm ) = c Tm R

(5.5)

Under influence of the temperature difference Tb across the wall, the cylinder has the tendency to
curve. The induced curvature becomes:

(Tb ) =

c Tb

(5.6)

hw

Under this imposed curvature the cylinder segment shown in Fig. 5.30b has the tendency to deform. At
the positions of the imaginary cuts A-A and B-B gaps will be formed, which have to be annihilated by
the moments M (Tb ) . For these temperature moments it holds (the lateral contraction is taken into account):
M (Tb ) = (Tb ) K (1 + )

(5.7)

where K is the flexural stiffness of the wall given by:


K=

Ec b hw3

[Nm]

12 (1 2 )

(5.8)

where b is the size of the considered segment in height direction, hw is the wall thickness, is Poissons ratio and Ec is the modulus of elasticity of the concrete.
In the uncracked phase, the stresses caused by the hydrostatic pressure and the temperature load can
simply be added. But as soon as cracks are formed under this load combination, the determination of the
stresses is much more complicated. Te starting point always is that in each cross-section the compatibility of the deformations and the equilibrium of the forces have to be satisfied.

Cracking moment
Due to the presence of a circumferential force N and the associated tangential stress ct ; N = N Ac ,
the moment for which cracking occurs will be lower than the cracking moment of an element that is not
subjected to a membrane force (Fig. 5.31). The cracking moment follows from:
T2

T1

ct ; N

(T1 ) = ct
a) cylindrical wall loaded by
temperature difference T1

(T2 ) < (T1 )


b) cylindrical wall loaded by normal force
N and temperature difference T1

Fig. 5.31: Effect of circumferential force on the temperature-induced moment capacity.


M cr ; N = ( c ,cr ct ; N ) 16 b hw2

(5.9)

where c ,cr is the stress for which cracking of the concrete occurs (also see Section 4.3).

5-20

M
constant
moment

Tc ,cr

hw

M cr ; N

M cr ; N
N

M cr ; N

(Tb )m
cr

fdc

(Tb ) m
Tcr (Tb )m

Tb

Fig. 5.32: Moment-curvature diagram for a cylindrical wall subjected


to a circumferential force N and a temperature load Tb .
Load distribution in the cross-section
The M - diagram for the cylindrical wall is shown in Fig. 5.32. For the determination of the cracking
behaviour it is assumed that the cracking moment M cr ; N remains constant until the final cracking pattern is obtained. Subsequently, the equilibrium of forces and the equilibrium of moments at the position
of a crack will be considered.

The equilibrium of forces at the position of a vertical crack reads (Fig. 5.33):
N = 0 N s1 + N s 2 + N cc + N = 0

(5.10)

where:

N s1
Ns2
N cc
N

= steel force at tensile side


= steel force at compressive side
= compressive force in concrete compressive zone
= external normal force (for example due to hydrostatic load or prestressing)

The equilibrium of moments at the position of a vertical crack becomes (Fig. 5.33):
M = 0 N s1 ( d 13 hx ) = N ( 12 hw 13 hx ) + N s 2 ( hw d 13 hx ) + M cr ; N

(5.11)

For N s1 , N cc and N s 2 it subsequently follows (Fig. 5.33):


N s1 = As1 s ,cr

Tc ,cr

(5.12)

hw
hx

M cr ; N
M cr ; N

Ns2

hw d

M cr ; N

N
N s1

s2

N cc

s1

Fig. 5.33: Forces, stresses and strains required for the analysis of a vertical crack in a cylindrical wall.

5-21

hx b c
2
c = Ec c

h
c = x s1
hx
hx
d hx
s ,cr =

c = E
n ( d hx ) s ,cr
s

d
h
(

x)
Ec

s1 = s ,cr
Es

N cc =

N s 2 = As 2 s 2

s 2 = Es s 2

d + hx hw
s2 =
s1
d + hx hw
d hx
s ,cr
s2 =
d hx

s1 = s ,cr
Es

bhx2

=
N

cc
2n ( d hx ) s ,cr

d + hx hw

N s 2 = As 2 s ,cr
d hx

(5.13)

(5.14)

where s ,cr is the steel stress in the crack for a not fully developed crack pattern.
Substitution of above relations for N s1 , N cc and N s 2 into the force equilibrium (5.10) provides, for a
symmetrical reinforcement As = As1 = As 2 , the following relation for As :

As =

b hx2 s ,cr + 2 n N ( d hx )
2 n s ,cr ( hw 2 hx )

(5.15)

However, substitution of above relations for N s1 and N s 2 into the moment equilibrium (5.11) delivers:
As =

M cr ; N + N ( 12 hw 13 hx )

(5.16)

s ,cr f (hx )

in which f (hx ) is a help function given by:

f ( hx ) =

2 h2
3 x

43 hw hx + 2 d 2 2 d hw + hw2
d hx

(5.17)

The relation (5.15) and (5.16) form a system of two equations with three unknowns, i.e. As , s ,cr and
hx . Once the value of one of these quantities is selected, the two other quantities can be determined.
Determination of the number of vertical cracks in a cylindrical wall
The determination of the number of cracks in a cylindrical wall, which is loaded by a circumferential
force N = N and a temperature difference Tb , is based on the required compatibility of deformations. The imposed curvature at the moment that the first crack occurs (i.e. for Tb = Tcr ) is equal to
(Fig. 5.32):

(Tcr ) =

c Tcr

(5.18)

hw

With increasing curvature more cracks will be generated. For an increase of the temperature load equal
to (Tb ) m , m cracks are generated. This increase of the temperature load corresponds with the following increase of the imposed curvature:

(Tb )m =

c (Tb ) m

(5.19)

hw

If this additional curvature would be able to occur freely, it would lead to an angular rotation in the cylindrical wall of:
5-22

(Tb )

(Tcr )
2 lst

hx
hw

M cr

d hx
wav

Fig. 5.34: Curvature distribution near a vertical crack in a cylindrical wall.

(Tb )m = (Tb )m 2 R

(5.20)

It is assumed that this fictitious angular rotation is concentrated in the m cracks. Each crack consumes
a proportional part of the imposed angular rotation. For the angular rotation per crack cr it approximately holds (Fig. 5.34):

cr

wav
d hx

(5.21)

The compatibility condition now becomes:

m cr = (Tb ) m 2 R

(5.22)

Substitution of (5.19) and (5.21) into (5.22) provides the relation for the number of vertical cracks:
m=

(Tb ) m c 2 R ( d hx )
hw wav

(5.23)

Cylindrical wall in cracked state subjected to pure tension


Vertical crack formation often occurs by the joint action of tension + (temperature and/or shrinkage
induced) bending. If the imposed (temperature) curvature disappears, the wall that is exposed to the
hydrostatic liquid pressure will be subject of pure tension. The tensile force N ;l ( x) might be considerably lower than the cracking force N cr , especially at the higher positions in the wall where the hydrostatic pressure is lower. For the determination of the crack width, the following steel stress s should
be used in the crack-width formulae:

s = s ( N ;l ( x)) =

N ;l ( x)
As

(5.24)

5.2.3 Reinforced and partially prestressed cylindrical wall


Description of the structure and loads
A cylindrical low-walled reservoir is considered in reinforced concrete (Fig. 5.35). The wall-base connection is monolithic.

Data of the reservoir


Diameter of the reservoir:
D
= 18.5 m
hw
= 0.25 m
Wall thickness:
Hw
= 2.5 m (= liquid height H l )
Wall height
Diameter horizontal reinforcement
= 10 mm
s
= 0.16% at each side ( 10-200 )
Horizontal reinforcement ratio
Strength class of concrete
C20/25 = value according to specifications
5-23

R = 9, 250 mm

Tl = 25 0 C
variable To

To

Hw = 2,500 mm

hw = 250 mm

Fig. 5.35: Cross-section of cylindrical shallow reservoir with loading scheme.


Actions
Temperature liquid:
Specific weight liquid
Outside temperature

Tl

To
To
To

= ca 25 0C (waste water)
= 10 kN/m3
= -10 0C (in winter with moderate wind speeds)
= -20 0C (in winter with high wind speeds)
= +30 0C (in summer)

Drying shrinkage:
This shrinkage is replaced by a temperature load Tb;shr having the same effect:
Tb;shr =

shr

0.1 103
= 10 0 C
105

(5.25)

For the determination of the effective temperature difference across the wall thickness, one should be
aware of the heat transmission resistances at the concrete surfaces. The effect of these resistances is that
the situation is more favourable than can be expected on basis of the inside and outside temperatures.
For this case, a temperature difference, which comprises both the temperature load and the drying
shrinkage, is assumed of:
Tb;max = Tb;eff + Tb;shr = 30 + 10 = 40 0 C

(5.26)

Observations of the crack pattern


A reservoir, having similar dimensions and subjected to a loading scenario as described above was observed with respect to the crack pattern over a period of three years. The results were as follows:
Vertical cracks:
o crack width after 7 years:
wm = 0.3 mm
wmax = 0.7 mm
(mean and max values)
o number of (open) cracks:
m
= 34 at T0 5 0 C
m
= 75 at T0 20 0 C (severe frost with wind)
In the upper part of the wall the cracks appeared to be separation cracks
The cracks that were open during the winter period, almost closed completely at higher outside temperatures.
During the period that the structure was observed, it was recorded that the crack widths of the firstly
initiated cracks increased in the course of years. The cracks that developed later, nearly closed with
the rise of the outside temperature.
The firstly initiated cracks, revealed themselves in increasing degree as water discharging cracks.
Numerical analysis
Force distribution by liquid loading
In the present case, a combination load tension + bending occurs. In the wall circumferential forces
are generated caused by the liquid load. The calculated circumferential force distribution N ;l ( x) is

5-24

hw
H l = 2,500 mm

2.5
2.0

x
[m] 1.5

1.0
0.5
0.0

76 100

N ;l

Fig. 5.36: Circumferential forces N ;l ( x) by liquid loading over the height of the cylindrical wall.
displayed in Fig. 5.36 (result of shell calculation). The circumferential force reaches a maximum around
76 kN/m, at ca 1.25 m above the base, which is equivalent to a nominal tangential tensile stress of:

;l ( x = 1.25) =

N ;l
76,000
=
= 0.3 N/mm 2
250 1,000
Ac

Cracking moment
The cracking moment M cr ( N ) in the wall is determined by the (effective) tensile strength of the concrete and by the present normal force in the cross-section. In this case that is the tensile force resulting
from the hydrostatic load.
Practical values of the tensile strength of the concrete
The analysis of a practical case requires the utilisation of a tensile strength which is actually present.
This strength can be derived from the mean compressive strength f cm , which is related to the C value
( f cc ) by:
f cm = f cc + 8.2 N/mm 2
For C20/25 this provides: f cm = 25 + 8.2 = 33.2 N/mm 2 .
On basis of the information in a number of BMC yearly reports and practical experience it can be stated
that the actual mean cube compressive strength for C20/25 delivered by the manufacturers in the Netherlands is about f cm 40 N/mm 2 . However, for other countries this might be different and perhaps the
lower value of 33.2 N/mm2 should be used.
In the present case, the empirical relations for the mean short-term tensile strength and the mean flexural strength are:
f cm ,o = 1.0 + 0.05 f cm = 1.0 + 0.05 40 = 3.0 N/mm 2
f cfl ,o = (1.6 hw ) f cm ,o = (1.6 0.25 ) 3.0 = 4.1 N/mm 2

For the stress cr at which the concrete cracks it holds (see Section 4.3):
pure tension
r = 0.75 f cm ,o = 2.35 N/mm 2
r = 0.60 f cm ,o = 1.8 N/mm 2

for short-term loading


for long-term loading

pure flexure (especially for small thicknesses)


r = 0.75 f cfl ,o = 3.0 N/mm 2
for short-term loading
2
r = 0.60 f cfl ,o = 2.4 N/mm
for long-term loading
In the discussed case, the combination of tension + bending is present. So, the tensile strength to be
used will have a value between those of pure tension and pure flexure, i.e. between 1.8 N/mm2 and 2.5
N/mm2.
5-25

The calculations were carried out for three values of the stress cr for which crack formation occurs.
They were cr = 1.8, 2.6 and 3.6 N/mm2. With these values for the concrete tensile stress at the moment
of cracking and the nominal concrete tensile stress ;l = 0.3 N/mm 2 , the following values for the
cracking moment M cr ; N can be found (formula (5.9)):

cr = 1.8 N/mm 2 M cr ; N = 15,625 Nm/m


cr = 2.6 N/mm 2 M cr ; N = 23,960 Nm/m
cr = 3.6 N/mm 2 M cr ; N = 34,375 Nm/m
Calculation of the crack width and the depth of the compressive zone
The highest number of cracks observed was 75. For a circumference of the cylinder equal to
D = 18.5 = 58 m , the mean crack distance was 0.77 m. With this crack distance the crack pattern is
not yet fully developed. For the calculation of the crack widths, formula (4.21) can be used. The steel
stress can be obtained from the force equilibrium in the (cracked) cross-sections with the equations
(5.10) up to (5.17). For the determination of the maximum crack width wmax a scatter factor of 1.3 is incorporated (not fully developed crack pattern). For the effect of the cyclic character of the temperature
loading on the crack width a factor of 1.3 is used as well.
hx

increase due to
cyclic loading

0.6
0.5

compressive depth hx [mm]

crack width w [mm]

0.7

1.3 wm = wmax

0.4

wm

0.3
0.2

hw
30

20

10

0.1

1.8
0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

cr [N/mm2 ]

5.0

a) crack width w

1.0

2.6
2.0

3.6
3.0

4.0

cr [N/mm2 ]

5.0

b) depth compressive zone hx

Fig. 5.37: Computed crack width (flexural cracks) and depth of the compressive zone as function of the
tensile strength. Crack width: mean value wm , max. value wmax and the effect of cyclic load.
In Fig. 5.37a, the computed crack width is displayed as a function of the considered tensile strengths at
the moment of cracking cr . The effect of the cyclic loading is included in the indicated trends.
Fig. 5.37b shows the calculated depth of the compressive zone hx for the different values of the considered tensile strength. These values are smaller than the in Section 2.6.3 mentioned minimum values for
watertight structures. The fact that a considerable number of cracks were water discharging, or became
water discharging in the course of time, is in agreement with the expected criteria for liquid tightness.
The number of cracks m as function of the imposed temperature and shrinkage load is visualised in
Fig. 5.38. The best approximation for the observed number of cracks can be obtained with the effective
tensile strength of cr = 1.8 N/mm 2 . This value lies between the long-term strengths for pure tension
and pure flexure.
The effect of prestressing on the crack pattern
The depth of the compressive zone is strongly depending on the magnitude of the nominal circumferential stress . The application of a small prestress increases the depth of the compressive zone considerably. This is very important because the size of the compressive zone is of paramount importance for

5-26

number of cracks m

100

cr =1.8 N/mm 2

90
80

cr =2.6 N/mm 2

experiments

70
60
50
40

cr =3.6 N/mm 2

30
20
10
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Tb [ C]
0

hx [mm]

Fig. 5.38: Number of vertical cracks m as function of the imposed temperature load;
nominal circumferential tensile stress in the concrete is ;l = 0.3 N/mm2.
100
90
80
70
60
50
40

s = 0.16%
at both sides

s = 0.32%

30

at both sides

20
10
-2.0

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.3 0.5

1.0

1.5

( N ) [ N/mm 2 ]

Fig. 5.39: Depth of compressive zone hx in cylindrical wall as function of the nominal circumferential
stress for reinforcement fractions s = 0.16% and s = 0.32% .
the liquid tightness. Fig 5.39 shows the relation between the depth hx of the compressive zone and the
nominal tangential stress in the wall. The computations are carried out for an effective tensile
strength cr = 2 N/mm 2 and for reinforcement ratios at each side of 0.16% and 0.32%, respectively. It
is clear that the effect of a small prestress is much larger than the doubling of the ordinary reinforcement. For a nominal tangential stress of = +0.3 N/mm 2 , a doubling of the reinforcement steel at the
tensile side would increase the compressive depth with 8 mm . However, the application of a small
prestress cp = 0.8 N/mm 2 that brings the tangential stress down to = 0.5 N/mm 2 , delivers an increase in the depth of the compressive zone of 25 mm so that hx = 50 mm . In that case the condition for
liquid tightness would be satisfied (see Section 2.6).
For the combination of normal (tensile) force plus imposed temperature deformation, the wall in above
case still experiences tensile stresses, in other words the wall is partially prestressed. The complete removal of the temperature induced tensile stresses by the application of more prestressing is in most
cases not necessary to get a watertight structure. Moreover, it would require a very high prestress and
for that reason it would become too expensive.

5-27