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# Signal Classification

&
Fourier Review

## Energy and Power Signals

Let vt be the voltage across a resistor R producing a current i t . The instantaneous
power pt per ohm is defined as

pt

vt it 2
i t
R

E dt i 2 t

joules

T 2

1
P lim
dt i 2 t watts

T T
T 2

## For an arbitrary continuous-time signal xt , the normalised energy

content E of xt is defined as

E dt xt

## and the normalised average power

joules

(1)

P of xt as

T 2

1
2
P lim
dt xt
T T
T 2

watts

(2)

Fourier Series
a sustained note is completely described by its fundamental frequency
and amplitude (in addition to the harmonic-amplitudes.
i.e. we can write the infinite series sum

a1 cos2 0 b1 sin 2 0

a2 cos 4 0 b2 sin 4 0
F t a0

a cosn2 b sin 2
0
n
0
n
F t

cosn2 0t bn sin n2 0t

0
Q: Why are sines as well as cosines required?

## Applying the identities:

cos cos

and

sin sin

gives

1
F t A0 An cosn2 0t Bn sin n2 0t
2
n 1

A0 2 arise?

## Expressions (1) and (2) are identical provided:

An an an

and

Bn bn bn

Comment regarding

1
F t A0 An cosn0t Bn sin n0t
2
n 1

(2)

## The amplitudes of the harmonics

If Fourier Synthesis was the process (by summation) of composing a waveform,
then Fourier Analysis is the converse process whereby we de-compose a
waveform into its constituent sinusoids i.e. determination of harmonicamplitudes.

1
F t A0 Am cosm2 0t Bm sin m2 0t
2
m 1

?
Fourier Analysis has greater physical application. In applied physics
(engineering) F t is typically obtained experimentally. The aim is to fix the Am
and Bm for as many values of m as needed.

If T

## is one period, then:

cos
cos
mn
I dt n2 0t m2 0t
t 0
2 0
sin
sin
T

and

I dt sin n2 0t cosm2 0t 0
T

t 0

always!

## Determination of the harmonic amplitudes Am and Bm - continued

2 T
Bm dt F t sin m2 0t
T t 0
(and provided F t is defined in 0, T

, Bm can be found).

## Am is similarly found to be:

2 T
Am dt F t cosm2 0t
T t 0

if

## are estimated from (computer) numerical integration.

integration may commence from any point but it must cover one period T

## A useful mnemonic-form to remember finding the coefficients

in a Fourier series

m2t

period

2
Am
period

## one period dt F t cos

2
Bm
period

m2t
one period dt F t sin period

Fourier Theory
Applied to Comms

## The Dirac delta-function

its usefulness is apparent in connection with the shift theorem
recall

0 x a
x a
dx F x x a F a

1 x a

so consequently

## dx x a e j 2px e j 2pa x a e j 2pa

if two -functions are equally spaced either side of the origin, the FT is?

## The Addition Theorem

F1 x F2 x 1 p 2 p
The Shift Theorem

F1 x a 1 p e j 2pa

F1 x a 1 p e j 2pa

F1 x a F1 x a 21 p cos2pa
e.g. let F1 x be the function, then

x a e j 2pa
x a e j 2pa
x a x a 2 cos 2pa

F x

x a

x a

x a

xa

1
a

p
2

p
-3

-2

-1

-1

-2

AM

## Interference between Satellite Communication Channels and

Terrestrial Systems
Interference must be avoided:
(a) Between adjacent satellites and two earth stations
(b) When a terrestrial link sees a satellite

## Plancks Blackbody Radiation Law

M , T

.m2 .m1
Radiant Emittance

J .s

2hc 2
hc 1

5 k B T

3
x3
2 3 1
x

1
c
kB T

1
1

T 1273 K 1000 C

T1073K

T873K

m
Wavelength

hB
W
P
h
exp
1
kT
~ 6.626 1034 Js

## These are described by Plancks radiation law

h
B

Plancks constant

k
T

Boltzmanns constant

Bandwidth

Frequency

Hz
Hz

Absolute temperature

~ 1.38 10 JK
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## For radio frequencies:

h
h
exp

P kTB

kT
kT
This is the Rayleigh-Jeans Law

## Product modulation spectra

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AMPLITUDE MODULATION:
PRODUCT MODULATION
Modulated signal is given by:-

v(t ) Am (t ) cos c t
FT

Let Am (t ) Vm ( )
spectra :

V ( ) Vm ( ) ( c ) ( c )
1
Vm ( c ) Vm ( c )
2
1
PSD P( ) Pm ( c ) Pm ( c )
4
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## AM DETECTION IN PRESENCE OF CHANNEL NOISE: PRODUCT

DETECTION -4
For product detection in presence of noise, detected signal is:( Am (t ) cos ct x(t )) cos ct y (t ) sin ct cos ct
1
( Am (t ) x(t )) higher freq terms only in phase terms contribute
2
T
1
2
Total signal power Ps lim
A
(t )dt
m
T 2T
T

Ps
4
P
Total output noise power = n
4
c
channel noise power n(t) Pn = Pn

## Total output signal power =

1
M odulated carrier power lim
T 2T
Ps
2
Carrier - to - noise ratio

Pn

A (t )
P
T m2 (1 cos 2ct )dt = 2s

Ps
C
2Pn

Ps
Output (detected) signal - to - noise ratio 4

Pn
4

Ps
S
Pn

S 2C

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FM

ANGLE MODULATION
Vc (t ) Ac cos(2 ct (t ))

dAm(t)/dt
Mod
signal

Frequency modulation

Am(t)

d (t )
varies as modulating signal FM
dt
Phase modulation
(t ) varies as modulating signal PM

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## Frequency modulation (FM)

Spectrum of an FM carrier with sinusoidal modulation
Let a unit peak amplitude carrier of frequency c be
represented by f(t) where:f (t ) cos(2 ct (t ))
the instaneous frequency 2 i =

d ( phase) d (2 c t (t ))

dt
dt

2 c ' (t )
Deviation from unmodulated carrier frequency d is : d = i - c = ' (t )

' (t ) cos2 mt
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## Frequency modulation (FM)

Spectrum of an FM carrier with sinusoidal modulation - 2
Let ' (t ) = cos 2 mt where is the peak frequency deviation
then : - (t ) =

sin 2 mt o

## o is a constant representing the phase at time t = 0 and can be disregarde d

d = cos 2 mt
f (t ) cos 2 c t + sin 2 mt
or

f (t ) Re e j 2 ct e j sin 2 mt

where =

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## Frequency modulation (FM)

Spectrum of an FM carrier with sinusoidal modulation - 3
the term e j sin 2 mt is periodic with period Tm 1

j sin 2 m t

Cn e jn 2 mt

(FOURIER SERIES)

where Cn

1
Tm

Tm
2

j sin 2 m t jn 2 m t
e
e
dt

-Tm
2

Let 2 mt , dt (2 ) = d
1
Cn
2

j ( sin n )

so : -

## d J n ( ) Bessel function of the first kind

The term e

j sin 2 m t

Cn e

jn 2 m t

FT

C ( n

Subtituting for Cn

FT

f (t ) F ( ) 1 ( c ) ( c ) J n ( ) ( n m )
2

F ( ) 1

J n ( ) ( c n m ) ( c n m )
2 n

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## Frequency modulation (FM)

Spectrum of an FM carrier with sinusoidal modulation - 6

## Sidebands with amplitude >1% of unmodulated carrier

Information signal contains may sinusoids: so combine
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Carsons Rule

## Carsons Rule (an empirical rule) states that

the sidebands of significant amplitude lie
within a bandwidth of 2m(1+ ) Hz, located
centrally about the carrier fc
In many practical cases this underestimates
the bandwidth and the expression 2m(2+ )
is more accurate

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## FM Link performance in presence of

channel noise
As for AM we want to find the relationship between
s/n and c/n. A typical FM detector has the form
FM
signal

channel
noise
n(t)

Bandpass
filter

Amplitude
limiter

IF
filter

Phase
detect

Discriminator

d/dt

Low
Pass
filter

Post
Detection
filter

n(t)+Vc(t)
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Pre-emphasised FM
P()

freq
-m

freq

Output noise
after ideal
post-detection
filter

De-emphasis
post detection
filter

P()

-m

-m

Lower total
output noise

freq

freq

Pre-emphasis
filter at
modulator

## Since the output noise spectra from the

discriminator is parabolic a non ideal post
detection filter would reduce the high
frequency noise components where the
spectral density is greatest - so reducing the
overall output noise
BUT the high frequency components of the
demodulated information signal would also
be reduced by the filter leading, to distortion.
However if prior to modulation these high
frequency components were emphasised by a
filter with complementary performance to
the post detection filter then the detected
signal would not be distorted but the noise
would be reduced
In this case the FM system is said to be
operating with de-emphasis.

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## FM Link performance in presence of

channel noise-3
now y (t ) has mean square value of Pn
output noise power =

Pn
2
Ac

## Since y (t ) is white noise, output noise PSD

= P1 ( ) =

Pn
watts/Hz, for - B + B
2
2
2
BAc

## where B is the Carson rule bandwidth

Signal then passes through the differentiator, so output PSD is
P2 ( ) = H ( ) P1 ( ) where H ( ) is the transfer function for differentator
2

P()

H ( ) = j 2
4 2 2 Pn
Thus P2 ( ) =
2
Ac B

- B + B ; = 0 else where
2
2

freq
-B/2

B/2

## Note: spectra is PARABOLIC with frequency

Significant power outside the information signal bandwidth - so filter
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## The change in noise spectral distribution from

channel to noise in the detected output signal

Carrier+channel
noise

Only power in
this bit
contributes
when post
detection filter
used

## Phase detector output

noise power
Differentiator output
noise power
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## FM Link performance in presence of

channel noise-6
4 2 2
2
Total average power of signal is

2
2
2

4 2 2
S/N at detector output =
2 Pn '
3 Ac B 2 3 Ac B 2 3B 2 Ac

S/N = S =

=
where

3
4 m Pn
2 m 2 Pn
m
4 m Pn
2

A
C/N C c
2 Pn
3 2 B
S
C
2 m

## Compare to AM where S=2C, for FM

doubling increases S by factor of 4

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## FM Link performance in presence of

channel noise-7
If take B = 2 m then get S = 3 3C BUT THIS IS M ISLEADING: What happens if is increased. For constant channel noise PSD
increasing increases B and hence C
B
B

## if change to ' , must change C to C ' = C

C

B'
2 m '
B
2 CB
3 '
as derived above
Thus S' = 3 ' C ' 3 ' C
2 m '
2 m
3

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## Using FM link noise performance

equation
EXAMPLE :-- = 7, C = 16 dB over 140 MHz, m=10 MHz, find S.
What happens to S if increased to 8?
S=33 C =
46.15 dB,
C=16 dB
Increase to 8

S ' 3(8) 2

CB
47.3dB
2 m

CB
2 m '

15.42 dB

## Thus S has improved at expense of increased Bandwidth and worse C.

By spreading the modulated signal over a wider bandwidth for a given
baseband signal more noise power is filtered out by the post detection filter at
the receiver. So S gets bigger

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## Threshold effect thus limits the minimum

level of C/N for FM

## For Conventional discriminator

circuit which reacts rapidly to
changes in instantaneous
frequency, limit of C/N is about
10dB
However a discriminator with
some inertia would react less
readily to doubling of the
instantaneous frequency and so
the threshold effect occurs at a
lower C/N
Such properties are exhibited by a
phase-locked-loop circuit.

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