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Signal Classification

&
Fourier Review

Energy and Power Signals


Let vt be the voltage across a resistor R producing a current i t . The instantaneous
power pt per ohm is defined as

pt

vt it 2
i t
R

The total energy E and power P on a per-ohm basis are

E dt i 2 t

joules

T 2

1
P lim
dt i 2 t watts

T T
T 2

Energy and Power Signals

For an arbitrary continuous-time signal xt , the normalised energy


content E of xt is defined as

E dt xt

and the normalised average power

joules

(1)

P of xt as

T 2

1
2
P lim
dt xt
T T
T 2

watts

(2)

Fourier Series
a sustained note is completely described by its fundamental frequency
and amplitude (in addition to the harmonic-amplitudes.
i.e. we can write the infinite series sum

a1 cos2 0 b1 sin 2 0

a2 cos 4 0 b2 sin 4 0
F t a0

a cosn2 b sin 2
0
n
0
n
F t

cosn2 0t bn sin n2 0t

0
Q: Why are sines as well as cosines required?

Applying the identities:

cos cos

and

sin sin

gives

1
F t A0 An cosn2 0t Bn sin n2 0t
2
n 1

Q: How does the term

A0 2 arise?

Expressions (1) and (2) are identical provided:

An an an

and

Bn bn bn

Comment regarding

1
F t A0 An cosn0t Bn sin n0t
2
n 1

(2)

The amplitudes of the harmonics


If Fourier Synthesis was the process (by summation) of composing a waveform,
then Fourier Analysis is the converse process whereby we de-compose a
waveform into its constituent sinusoids i.e. determination of harmonicamplitudes.

1
F t A0 Am cosm2 0t Bm sin m2 0t
2
m 1

?
Fourier Analysis has greater physical application. In applied physics
(engineering) F t is typically obtained experimentally. The aim is to fix the Am
and Bm for as many values of m as needed.

Review Orthogonal Properties of Sinusoids


If T

is one period, then:

cos
cos
mn
I dt n2 0t m2 0t
t 0
2 0
sin
sin
T

and

I dt sin n2 0t cosm2 0t 0
T

t 0

always!

Determination of the harmonic amplitudes Am and Bm - continued

2 T
Bm dt F t sin m2 0t
T t 0
(and provided F t is defined in 0, T

, Bm can be found).

Am is similarly found to be:


2 T
Am dt F t cosm2 0t
T t 0

if

F t is not analytic, but experimentally determined, then Am and Bm

are estimated from (computer) numerical integration.


integration may commence from any point but it must cover one period T

A useful mnemonic-form to remember finding the coefficients


in a Fourier series

m2t

period

2
Am
period

one period dt F t cos

2
Bm
period

m2t
one period dt F t sin period

Fourier Theory
Applied to Comms

The Dirac delta-function


its usefulness is apparent in connection with the shift theorem
recall

0 x a
x a
dx F x x a F a

1 x a

so consequently

dx x a e j 2px e j 2pa x a e j 2pa

if two -functions are equally spaced either side of the origin, the FT is?

The Addition Theorem

F1 x F2 x 1 p 2 p
The Shift Theorem

F1 x a 1 p e j 2pa

F1 x a 1 p e j 2pa

F1 x a F1 x a 21 p cos2pa
e.g. let F1 x be the function, then

x a e j 2pa
x a e j 2pa
x a x a 2 cos 2pa

F x

x a

x a

x a

xa

1
a

p
2

p
-3

-2

-1

-1

-2

AM

Interference between Satellite Communication Channels and


Terrestrial Systems
Interference must be avoided:
(a) Between adjacent satellites and two earth stations
(b) When a terrestrial link sees a satellite

Interference is avoided by using high quality antennas.

Plancks Blackbody Radiation Law

M , T

.m2 .m1
Radiant Emittance

J .s

2hc 2
hc 1

5 k B T

3
x3
2 3 1
x

1
c
kB T

1
1

T 1273 K 1000 C

T1073K

T873K

m
Wavelength

Types (1) & (2) arise from Black-Body radiators

hB
W
P
h
exp
1
kT
~ 6.626 1034 Js

These are described by Plancks radiation law

h
B

Plancks constant

k
T

Boltzmanns constant

Bandwidth

Frequency

Hz
Hz

Absolute temperature

~ 1.38 10 JK
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For radio frequencies:

h
h
exp

P kTB

kT
kT
This is the Rayleigh-Jeans Law

Product modulation spectra

18

AMPLITUDE MODULATION:
PRODUCT MODULATION
Modulated signal is given by:-

v(t ) Am (t ) cos c t
FT

Let Am (t ) Vm ( )
spectra :

V ( ) Vm ( ) ( c ) ( c )
1
Vm ( c ) Vm ( c )
2
1
PSD P( ) Pm ( c ) Pm ( c )
4
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AM DETECTION IN PRESENCE OF CHANNEL NOISE: PRODUCT


DETECTION -4
For product detection in presence of noise, detected signal is:( Am (t ) cos ct x(t )) cos ct y (t ) sin ct cos ct
1
( Am (t ) x(t )) higher freq terms only in phase terms contribute
2
T
1
2
Total signal power Ps lim
A
(t )dt
m
T 2T
T

Ps
4
P
Total output noise power = n
4
c
channel noise power n(t) Pn = Pn

Total output signal power =

1
M odulated carrier power lim
T 2T
Ps
2
Carrier - to - noise ratio

Pn

A (t )
P
T m2 (1 cos 2ct )dt = 2s

Ps
C
2Pn

Ps
Output (detected) signal - to - noise ratio 4

Pn
4

Ps
S
Pn

S 2C

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FM

ANGLE MODULATION
Vc (t ) Ac cos(2 ct (t ))

dAm(t)/dt
Mod
signal

Frequency modulation

Am(t)

d (t )
varies as modulating signal FM
dt
Phase modulation
(t ) varies as modulating signal PM

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Frequency modulation (FM)


Spectrum of an FM carrier with sinusoidal modulation
Let a unit peak amplitude carrier of frequency c be
represented by f(t) where:f (t ) cos(2 ct (t ))
the instaneous frequency 2 i =

d ( phase) d (2 c t (t ))

dt
dt

2 c ' (t )
Deviation from unmodulated carrier frequency d is : d = i - c = ' (t )

If the modulating signal is cos(2mt)


' (t ) cos2 mt
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Frequency modulation (FM)


Spectrum of an FM carrier with sinusoidal modulation - 2
Let ' (t ) = cos 2 mt where is the peak frequency deviation
then : - (t ) =

sin 2 mt o

o is a constant representing the phase at time t = 0 and can be disregarde d


d = cos 2 mt
f (t ) cos 2 c t + sin 2 mt
or

f (t ) Re e j 2 ct e j sin 2 mt

where =

and is known as the M ODULATIONINDEX

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Frequency modulation (FM)


Spectrum of an FM carrier with sinusoidal modulation - 3
the term e j sin 2 mt is periodic with period Tm 1

j sin 2 m t

Cn e jn 2 mt

(FOURIER SERIES)

where Cn

1
Tm

Tm
2

j sin 2 m t jn 2 m t
e
e
dt

-Tm
2

Let 2 mt , dt (2 ) = d
1
Cn
2

j ( sin n )

so : -

d J n ( ) Bessel function of the first kind

The term e

j sin 2 m t

Cn e

jn 2 m t

FT

C ( n

Subtituting for Cn

FT

f (t ) F ( ) 1 ( c ) ( c ) J n ( ) ( n m )
2

F ( ) 1

J n ( ) ( c n m ) ( c n m )
2 n

25

Frequency modulation (FM)


Spectrum of an FM carrier with sinusoidal modulation - 6

Sidebands with amplitude >1% of unmodulated carrier


Information signal contains may sinusoids: so combine
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Frequency modulation (FM)


Carsons Rule

Carsons Rule (an empirical rule) states that


the sidebands of significant amplitude lie
within a bandwidth of 2m(1+ ) Hz, located
centrally about the carrier fc
In many practical cases this underestimates
the bandwidth and the expression 2m(2+ )
is more accurate

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FM Link performance in presence of


channel noise
As for AM we want to find the relationship between
s/n and c/n. A typical FM detector has the form
FM
signal

channel
noise
n(t)

Bandpass
filter

Amplitude
limiter

IF
filter

Phase
detect

Discriminator

d/dt

Low
Pass
filter

Post
Detection
filter

n(t)+Vc(t)
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Pre-emphasised FM
P()

freq
-m

freq

Output noise
after ideal
post-detection
filter

De-emphasis
post detection
filter

P()

-m

-m

Lower total
output noise

freq

freq

Pre-emphasis
filter at
modulator

Since the output noise spectra from the


discriminator is parabolic a non ideal post
detection filter would reduce the high
frequency noise components where the
spectral density is greatest - so reducing the
overall output noise
BUT the high frequency components of the
demodulated information signal would also
be reduced by the filter leading, to distortion.
However if prior to modulation these high
frequency components were emphasised by a
filter with complementary performance to
the post detection filter then the detected
signal would not be distorted but the noise
would be reduced
In this case the FM system is said to be
operating with de-emphasis.

29

FM Link performance in presence of


channel noise-3
now y (t ) has mean square value of Pn
output noise power =

Pn
2
Ac

Since y (t ) is white noise, output noise PSD


= P1 ( ) =

Pn
watts/Hz, for - B + B
2
2
2
BAc

where B is the Carson rule bandwidth


Signal then passes through the differentiator, so output PSD is
P2 ( ) = H ( ) P1 ( ) where H ( ) is the transfer function for differentator
2

P()

H ( ) = j 2
4 2 2 Pn
Thus P2 ( ) =
2
Ac B

- B + B ; = 0 else where
2
2

freq
-B/2

B/2

Note: spectra is PARABOLIC with frequency


Significant power outside the information signal bandwidth - so filter
30

The change in noise spectral distribution from


channel to noise in the detected output signal

Carrier+channel
noise

Only power in
this bit
contributes
when post
detection filter
used

Phase detector output


noise power
Differentiator output
noise power
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FM Link performance in presence of


channel noise-6
4 2 2
2
Total average power of signal is

2
2
2

4 2 2
S/N at detector output =
2 Pn '
3 Ac B 2 3 Ac B 2 3B 2 Ac

S/N = S =

=
where

3
4 m Pn
2 m 2 Pn
m
4 m Pn
2

A
C/N C c
2 Pn
3 2 B
S
C
2 m

where B is Carson rule bandwidth

Compare to AM where S=2C, for FM


doubling increases S by factor of 4

32

FM Link performance in presence of


channel noise-7
If take B = 2 m then get S = 3 3C BUT THIS IS M ISLEADING: What happens if is increased. For constant channel noise PSD
increasing increases B and hence C
B
B

if change to ' , must change C to C ' = C


C

B'
2 m '
B
2 CB
3 '
as derived above
Thus S' = 3 ' C ' 3 ' C
2 m '
2 m
3

33

Using FM link noise performance


equation
EXAMPLE :-- = 7, C = 16 dB over 140 MHz, m=10 MHz, find S.
What happens to S if increased to 8?
S=33 C =
46.15 dB,
C=16 dB
Increase to 8

S ' 3(8) 2

CB
47.3dB
2 m

B' 2 m ' 160 M Hz C' =

CB
2 m '

15.42 dB

Thus S has improved at expense of increased Bandwidth and worse C.


By spreading the modulated signal over a wider bandwidth for a given
baseband signal more noise power is filtered out by the post detection filter at
the receiver. So S gets bigger

34

Threshold effect thus limits the minimum


level of C/N for FM

For Conventional discriminator


circuit which reacts rapidly to
changes in instantaneous
frequency, limit of C/N is about
10dB
However a discriminator with
some inertia would react less
readily to doubling of the
instantaneous frequency and so
the threshold effect occurs at a
lower C/N
Such properties are exhibited by a
phase-locked-loop circuit.

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