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for Exam
VO Communication Networks

Note: It is not allowed to use any material (slides, notes, etc.) in the exam.

This document provides example questions as exercise for the final exam.
A. Basics

1. What is the major advantage of packet switching over circuit switching?

2. Name 3 multiplexing techniques.

B. Link Layer
1. What is the task of the Link Layer?

2. Given is a link layer medium with very high error rates. Would you use a checksum or a CRC
to protect the data transmission?

3. Explain the 4 different delay types that can occur in a network.

4. Given is the following graph. Draw a spanning tree of the graph.

5. How does slotted ALOHA work?

6. Given is a slotted ALOHA network with 3 senders. The states in the following Markov Chan
represent the number of backlogged senders k. Draw all possible state transitions as arrows
in the graph.

VO Communication Networks - Exercise Tanja Zseby

C. Network Layer
1. What does the end-to-end principle say?

2. How does traceroute work?

3. Firewalls: What is the difference between stateful and stateless packet filtering?

4. IPv6: How does Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) work?

5. IPv6: Given is the IPv4 Header. Mark (with an x) which fields have been completely removed
(and not substituted by other fields) in the IPv6 header.

D. Routing

1. Given is the following tree of shortest paths from v1. Is this also a minimum spanning tree?

2. Name an example for a link state routing protocol.

3. What is a designated router in OSPF?

VO Communication Networks - Exercise Tanja Zseby

4. Dijkstra: Given is the following network. Start node is A. Which distances will be changed in
the next step?

5. Write down the Bellman-Ford Equation. How can it be used in routing?

6. What does it mean if a MANET protocol is proactive?

7. What happens in a grey hole attack?

E. Transport Layer
1. What is the difference between flow control and congestion control?

2. Name the 5 key components of TCP reliable transfer.

3. How does Go-back-N work?

4. Which formula can be used to calculate the TCP throughput (simple model by Matt Mathis)?

F. Measurements
1. What is the difference between active and passive measurements?

2. What is an IP darkspace?

3. A source sends a lot of probe packets to one destination address and one port number. How
can you detect this using entropy estimation?

G. Smart Grid Communication
1. What is a Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)?

2. Which protocol is used to provide secure communication from a device in the wide area
network and a Smart Metering Gateway?
VO Communication Networks - Exercise Tanja Zseby

H. Future Internet Technologies
1. What is the basic idea of Locator/Identifier Split?

2. What problems occur if you use TCP to communicate to a host on Mars?

VO Communication Networks - Exercise Tanja Zseby