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1.

ABCD is a rectangle and O is the midpoint of [AB].


D

Express each of the following vectors in terms of OC and OD


(a)

CD

(b)

OA

(c)

AD

Working:

Answers:
(a)

..
(b) .............................................................
.....
(c)
.....
.....
(Total 4 marks)

2.


The vectors i , j are unit
vectors along the
x-axis and y-axis respectively.

The vectors u = i + j and v = 3 i + 5 j are given.


(a)

u
v
i
Find + 2 in terms of and j .

A vector w has the same direction as u + 2 v , and has a magnitude of 26.


1

(b)

Find w in terms of i and j .


Working:

Answers:
(a)

..
(b)
.....
.....
(Total 4 marks)

3.

The circle shown has centre O and radius 6. OA is the vector


5

OC is the vector, 11 .

6

0

, OB is the vector

and

C
B

(a)

Verify that A, B and C lie on the circle.


(3)

(b)

Find the vector AC .


(2)
3

(c)

Using an appropriate scalar product, or otherwise, find the cosine of angle OAC.
(3)

(d)

Find the area of triangle ABC, giving your answer in the form a 11 , where a

.
(4)
(Total 12 marks)

4.

Find the coordinates of the point where the line given by the parametric equations x = 2l + 4,
y = l 2, z = 3l + 2, intersects the plane with equation 2x + 3y z = 2.
Working:

Answers:
..
(Total 4 marks)

5.

Find the value of a for which the following system of equations does not have a unique solution.
4x y + 2z = 1
2x + 3y
= 6

7
x 2y + az = 2
Working:

Answers:
..
(Total 4 marks)

6.

(a)

Find a vector perpendicular to the two vectors:

OP = i 3 j + 2 k

OQ = 2 i + j k
(b)

If OP and OQ are position vectors for the points P and Q, use your answer to part (a), or
otherwise, to find the area of the triangle OPQ.
Working:

Answers:
(a)

..
(b)
.....
.....
(Total 4 marks)

7.

The coordinates of the points P, Q, R and S are (4,1,1), (3,3,5), (1,0, 2c), and (1,1,2),
respectively.
(a)

Find the value of c so that the vectors OR and PR are orthogonal.


For the remainder of the question, use the value of c found in part (a) for the coordinate of
the point R.
(7)

(b)

Evaluate PS PR .
(4)

(c)

Find an equation of the line l which passes through the point Q and is parallel to the vector
PR.
(3)

(d)

Find an equation of the plane p which contains the line l and passes through the point S.
(4)

(e)

Find the shortest distance between the point P and the plane p.
(4)
(Total 22 marks)

8.

The quadrilateral OABC has vertices with coordinates O(0, 0) A(5, 1) B(10, 5) and C(2, 7).
(a)

Find the vectors OB and AC .

(b)

Find the angle between the diagonals of the quadrilateral OABC.


Working:

Answers:
(a)

..
(b) .............................................................
.....
(Total 4 marks)

9.

i
n
The vector = 2 j +3 k is normal to a plane which passes through the point (2, 1, 2).

Find an equation for the plane.


Find a if the point (a, a 1, a 2) lies on the plane.
Working:

Answers:
....
.....
.....
(Total 4 marks)

10

10.

The rectangle box shown in the diagram has dimensions 6 cm 4 cm 3 cm.


H

3cm

D
A

C
6cm

4cm

Find, correct to the nearest one-tenth of a degree, the size of the angle AHC .

Working:

Answers:
....
.....
.....
(Total 4 marks)

11.

Calculate the shortest distance from the point A(0, 2, 2) to the line

r = 5 i + 9 j + 6 k + t( i + 2 j + 2 k )
where t is a scalar.
Working:

Answers:
....
.....
.....

11

(Total 4 marks)

12

12.

Consider the points A(l, 2, 1), B(0, 1, 2), C(1, 0, 2), and D(2, 1, 6).
(a)

Find the vectors AB and BC .


(2)

(b)

Calculate AB BC .
(3)

(c)

Hence, or otherwise find the area of triangle ABC.


(2)

(d)

Find the equation of the plane P containing the points A, B, and C.


(3)

(e)

Find a set of parametric equations for the line through the point D and
perpendicular to the plane P.
(2)

(f)

Find the distance from the point D to the plane P.


(3)

(g)

Find a unit vector which is perpendicular to the plane P.


(2)

(h)

The point E is a reflection of D in the plane P. Find the coordinates of E.


(4)
(Total 21 marks)

13.

The vectors u, v are given by u = 3i + 5j, v = i 2j.


Find scalars a, b such that a(u + v) 8i + (6 2) j.
Working:

Answers:
....
.....
13

.....
(Total 4 marks)

14

14.

Find a vector equation of the line passing through (1, 4) and (3, 1). Give your answer in the
form r = p + td, where t .
Working:

Answers:
....
.....
.....
(Total 4 marks)

15.

In this question, the vector


displacement due north.

1

0

km represents a displacement due east, and the vector

1

0

km a

Two crews of workers are laying an underground cable in a north-south direction across a desert.
At 06:00 each crew sets out from their base camp which is situated at the origin (0, 0). One crew
is in a Toyundai vehicle and the other in a Chryssault vehicle.

The Toyundai has velocity vector

18

24

km h , and the Chryssault has velocity

36

16

vector

km h .
(a)

Find the speed of each vehicle.


(2)

(b)

(i)

Find the position vectors of each vehicle at 06:30.


(2)

(ii)

Hence, or otherwise, find the distance between the vehicles at 06:30.


(3)

(c)

At this time (06:30) the Chryssault stops and its crew begin their days work, laying cable
in a northerly direction. The Toyundai continues travelling in the same direction at the
same speed until it is exactly north of the Chryssault. The Toyundai crew then begin their
days work, laying cable in a southerly direction. At what time does the Toyundai crew
begin laying cable?
(4)
15

16

(d)

Each crew lays an average of 800 m of cable in an hour. If they work non-stop until their
lunch break at 11:30, what is the distance between them at this time?
(4)

(e)

How long would the Toyundai take to return to base camp from its lunch-time position,
assuming it travelled in a straight line and with the same average speed as on the morning
journey? (Give your answer to the nearest minute.)
(5)
(Total 20 marks)

16.

The system of equations represented by the following matrix equation has an infinite number of
solutions.
2

1
2

1
2
1

3
3

x 7

y 1
z k

Find the value of k.


Working:

Answers:
....
.....
.....
(Total 3 marks)

17

17.

Find a vector that is normal to the plane containing the lines L1, and L2, whose equations are:
L1: r = i + k + l (2i + j 2k)
L2: r = 3i + 2j + 2k + (j + 3k)
Working:

Answers:
....
.....
.....
(Total 3 marks)

18.

y 1 z 3

l . Find l.
The plane 6x 2y + z = 11 contains the line x 1 = 2

Working:

Answers:
....
.....
.....
(Total 3 marks)

18

19.

The line L passes through the origin and is parallel to the vector 2i + 3j.
Write down a vector equation for L.
Working:

Answers:
....
.....
.....
(Total 4 marks)

20.

The triangle ABC is defined by the following information

OA = 3 ,
(a)

AB =

3

4

, AB BC = 0,

AC , is parallel to

0

1

On the grid below, draw an accurate diagram of triangle ABC.


y
4
3
2
1
2

1
2
3
4

19

(b)

Write down the vector OC .


Working:

Answers:
(b) .............................................................
.....
(Total 4 marks)

21.

1

0

In this question the vector


km represents a displacement due east, and the vector
represents a displacement due north.

1

0

km

The point (0, 0) is the position of Shipple Airport. The position vector r1 of an aircraft Air One is
given by
16
12
t

5 ,
r1 = 12

where t is the time in minutes since 12:00.


(a)

Show that the Air One aircraft


(i)

is 20 km from Shipple Airport at 12:00;

(ii)

has a speed of 13 km/min.


(4)

(b)

Show that a cartesian equation of the path of Air One is:


5x + 12y = 224.
(3)

The position vector r2 of an aircraft Air Two is given by


23
2.5

5
6

r2 =
,

where t is the time in minutes since 12:00.


20

(c)

Find the angle between the paths of the two aircraft.


(4)

21

(d)

(i)

Find a cartesian equation for the path of Air Two.

(ii)

Hence find the coordinates of the point where the two paths cross.
(5)

(e)

Given that the two aircraft are flying at the same height, show that they do not collide.
(4)
(Total 20 marks)

22.

Let a be the angle between the vectors a and b, where a = (cos )i + (sin )j,

b = (sin )i + (cos )j and 0 < < 4 .


Express a in terms of .
Working:

Answers:
....
.....
.....
(Total 3 marks)

23.

(a)

Given matrices A, B, C for which AB = C and det A 0, express B in terms of A and C.


(2)

(b)

Let A =

2
3

2
1
3

2
2

,D=

(i)

Find the matrix DA;

(ii)

Find B if AB = C.

4 13

7
2
3 9

4
5

and C =

5

7
10

(3)

(c)

Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the planes


x + 2y + 3z = 5, 2x y + 2z = 7 and 3x 3j + 2z = 10.
22

(2)
(Total 7 marks)

23

24.

(a)

If u = i +2j + 3k and v = 2i j + 2k, show that


u v = 7i + 4j 5k.
(2)

(b)

Let w = lu + v where l and are scalars. Show that w is perpendicular to the line of
intersection of the planes x + 2y + 3z = 5 and 2x y + 2z = 7 for all values of l and .
(4)
(Total 6 marks)

25.

Find the size of the angle between the two vectors


nearest degree.

1

2

and
. Give your answer to the

Working:

Answers:
..
(Total 4 marks)

26.

2

3

A line passes through the point (4,1) and its direction is perpendicular to the vector
. Find
the equation of the line in the form ax + by = p, where a, b and p are integers to be determined.
Working:

Answers:
..
(Total 4 marks)
24

27.

1

0

In this question the vector


km represents a displacement due east, and the vector
represents a displacement due north.

0

1

km

The diagram shows the path of the oil-tanker Aristides relative to the port of Orto, which is
situated at the point (0, 0).
y
40
30

N o t to
s c a le

P a th o f A r is tid e s
0
1

20

1
0

10
10

20

30

40

50

O r to
The position of the Aristides is given by the vector equation
x 0
6

t

y 28
8

at a time t hours after 12:00.


(a)

Find the position of the Aristides at 13:00.


(2)

(b)

Find
(i)

the velocity vector;

(ii)

the speed of the Aristides.


(4)

(c)

Find a cartesian equation for the path of the Aristides in the form
ax + by = g .
(4)

Another ship, the cargo-vessel Boadicea, is stationary, with position vector


(d)

18

4

km.

Show that the two ships will collide, and find the time of collision.
(4)
25

26

1
To avoid collision, the Boadicea starts to move at 13:00 with velocity vector 12 km h .

(e)

Show that the position of the Boadicea for t 1 is given by


x 13
5

t
y 8
12
(2)

(f)

Find how far apart the two ships are at 15:00.


(4)
(Total 20 marks)

28.

The position vectors of points P and Q are:


p = 3i + 2j + k
q = i + 3j 2k
(a)

Find the vector product p q.

(b)

Using your answer to part (a), or otherwise, find the area of the parallelogram with two
sides OP and OQ .
Working:

Answers:
(a)

..
(b) .............................................................
.....
(Total 3 marks)

27

29.

Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the line L with the plane P where:
x 3 y 1 z 1

2
1
2
P : 2x 3y z 5
L:

Working:

Answers:
..
(Total 3 marks)

30.

Solve, by any method, the following system of equations:


3x 2y + z = 4
x + y z = 2
2x + 3y = 4
Working:

Answers:
..
(Total 3 marks)

31.

For the vectors a = 2i + j 2k, b = 2i j k and c = i + 2j + 2k, show that:


(a)

a b = 3i 2j 4k
(2)

(b)

(a b) c = (b c)a
28

(3)
(Total 5 marks)

32.

Three points A, B and C have coordinates (2, 1, 2), (2, 1, 1) and (1, 2, 2) respectively. The
vectors OA , OB and OC , where O is the origin, form three concurrent edges of a
parallelepiped OAPBCQSR as shown in the following diagram.
P

Q
B

O
(a)

Find the coordinates of P, Q, R and S.


(4)

(b)

Find an equation for the plane OAPB.


(2)

(c)

Calculate the volume, V, of the parallelepiped given that


V = OA OB OC
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

33.

Find the angle between the following vectors a and b, giving your answer to the nearest degree.
a = 4i 2j
b = i 7j
Working:

Answers:
..
(Total 4 marks)
29

30

34.

In this question, a unit vector represents a displacement of 1 metre.


A miniature car moves in a straight line, starting at the point (2 , 0).
After t seconds, its position, (x , y) , is given by the vector equation
x 2
0.7
t

y 0
1

(a)

How far from the point (0 , 0) is the car after 2 seconds?


(2)

(b)

Find the speed of the car.


(2)

(c)

Obtain the equation of the cars path in the form ax + by = c.


(2)

Another miniature vehicle, a motorcycle, starts at the point (0 , 2), and travels
in a straight line with constant speed. The equation of its path is
y = 0.6x + 2,

x 0.

Eventually, the two miniature vehicles collide.


(d)

Find the coordinates of the collision point.


(3)

(e)

If the motorcycle left point (0 , 2) at the same moment the car left point (2 , 0), nd the
speed of the motorcycle.
(5)
(Total 14 marks)

35.

Find the equation of the line of intersection of the two planes 4x + y + z = 2 and
3x y + 2z = 1.
Working:

Answers:
..

31

(Total 3 marks)

32

36.

Find an equation of the plane containing the two lines

x 1

1 y
x 1 2 y
z2
z2

2
3
5 .
and 3

Working:

Answers:
..
(Total 3 marks)

37.

The triangle ABC has vertices at the points A(l, 2, 3), B(l, 3, 5) and C(0, 1, 1).
(a)

Find the size of the angle q between the vectors AB and AC .


(4)

(b)

Hence, or otherwise, find the area of triangle ABC.


(2)

Let l1 be the line parallel to AB which passes through D(2, 1, 0) and l2 be the line parallel to

AC which passes through E(l, 1, 1).


(c)

(i)

Find the equations of the lines l1 and l2 .

(ii)

Hence show that l1 and l2 do not intersect.


(5)

(d)

Find the shortest distance between l1 and l2.


(5)
(Total 16 marks)

33

38.

The diagram below shows a line passing through the points (1,3) and (6,5).
y
( 6 ,5 )

( 1 ,3 )

0
Find a vector equation for the line, giving your answer in the form

x a
c
t
y b
d , where t is any real number.

Working:

Answers:
..
(Total 4 marks)

34

39.

The vectors

2x

x 3

and

x 1

are perpendicular for two values of x.

(a)

Write down the quadratic equation which the two values of x must satisfy.

(b)

Find the two values of x.


Working:

Answers:
(a)

..
(b) .............................................................
.....
(Total 4 marks)

40.

The diagram below shows the positions of towns O, A, B and X.


diagram not to scale
X

Town A is 240 km East and 70 km North of O.


Town B is 480 km East and 250 km North of O.
Town X is 339 km East and 238 km North of O.
An airplane flies at a constant speed of 300 km h

(a)

(i)

(ii)

from O towards A.

Show that a unit vector in the direction of OA is

0.96

0.28

Write down the velocity vector for the airplane in the form

v1

v2

.
35

(iii)

How long does it take for the airplane to reach A?


(5)

36

At A the airplane changes direction so it now flies towards B . The angle between the original
direction and the new direction is as shown in the following diagram. This diagram also shows
the point Y, between A and B , where the airplane comes closest to X.
diagram not to scale
X

O
(b)

Use the scalar product of two vectors to find the value of in degrees.
(4)

(c)

(i)

Write down the vector AX .


3

is perpendicular to AB .

(ii)

Show that the vector n =

(iii)

By finding the projection of AX in the direction of n, calculate the distance XY.


(6)

(d)

How far is the airplane from A when it reaches Y ?


(3)
(Total 18 marks)

41.

Point A(3, 0, 2) lies on the line r = 3i 2k + (2i 2j + k), where is a real parameter. Find the
coordinates of one point which is 6 units from A, and on the line.
Working:

Answers:
..
(Total 3 marks)

37

42.

(a)

Solve the following system of linear equations


x + 3y 2z = 6
2x + y + 3z = 7
3x y + z = 6.
(3)

(b)

Find the vector v = (i + 3j 2k) (2i + j + 3k).


(3)

(c)

If a = i + 3j 2k, b = 2i + j + 3k and u = ma + nb where m, n are scalars, and u 0 , show


that v is perpendicular to u for all m and n.
(3)

(d)

The line l lies in the plane 3x y + z = 6 , passes through the point (1, 1, 2) and is
perpendicular to v. Find the equation of l.
(4)
(Total 13 marks)

43.

x 1
2
t

y
2
3

,t

A vector equation of a line is

Find the equation of this line in the form ax + by = c, where a, b, and c

Working:

Answer:
..
(Total 6 marks)

44.

Three of the coordinates of the parallelogram STUV are S(2, 2), T(7, 7), U(5, 15).
(a)

Find the vector ST and hence the coordinates of V.


(5)

38

(b)

Find a vector equation of the line (UV) in the form r = p + ld where l

.
(2)

39

(c)

Show that the point E with position vector


for this point.

1

11

is on the line (UV), and find the value of l


(2)

The point W has position vector


(d)

EW

a

17

,a

= 2 13 , show that one value of a is 3 and find the other possible value of

(i)

If
a.

(ii)

For a = 3, calculate the angle between EW and ET .


(10)
(Total 19 marks)

45.

Find the angle between the vectors v = i + j + 2k and w = 2i + 3j + k. Give your answer in
radians.
Working:

Answer:

..
(Total 6 marks)

40

46.

The vector equations of the lines L1 and L2 are given by


L1: r = i + j + k + l(i + 2j + 3k);
L2: r = i + 4j + 5k + m(2i + j + 2k).
The two lines intersect at the point P. Find the position vector of P.
Working:

Answer:

..
(Total 6 marks)

47.

The points A, B, C, D have the following coordinates


A : (1, 3, 1) B : (1, 2, 4) C : (2, 3, 6) D : (5, 2, 1).
(a)

(i)

Evaluate the vector product AB AC , giving your answer in terms of the unit
vectors i, j, k.

(ii)

Find the area of the triangle ABC.


(6)

The plane containing the points A, B, C is denoted by and the line passing through D
perpendicular to is denoted by L. The point of intersection of L and is denoted by P.
(b)

(i)

Find the cartesian equation of .

(ii)

Find the cartesian equation of L.


(5)

(c)

Determine the coordinates of P.


(3)

(d)

Find the perpendicular distance of D from .


(2)
(Total 16 marks)

41

42

48.

Calculate the acute angle between the lines with equations

r=

+s

4

3

and

r=

2

4

+t

Working:

Answer:
..
(Total 6 marks)

49.

The following diagram shows the point O with coordinates (0, 0), the point A with position
vector a = 12i + 5j, and the point B with position vector b = 6i + 8j. The angle between (OA) and
(OB) is q.
y
C
B
A

O
Find
(i)

| a |;

(ii)

a unit vector in the direction of b;

(iii)

p
the exact value of cosq in the form q , where, p, q

.
(Total 6 marks)

43

44

50.

Find an equation for the line of intersection of the following two planes.
x + 2y 3z = 2
2x + 3y 5z = 3
Working:

Answer:
..
(Total 6 marks)

51.

Given two non-zero vectors a and b such that a + b = a b , find the value of a b.
Working:

Answer:
..
(Total 6 marks)

52.

Consider the points A (1, 3, 17) and B (6, 7, 8) which lie on the line l.
(a)

Find an equation of line l, giving the answer in parametric form.


(4)

(b)

The point P is on l such that OP is perpendicular to l.


Find the coordinates of P.
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

45

46

53.

The vector equations of two lines are given below.

r1 =

5

1

+l

, r2 =

+t

4

1

The lines intersect at the point P. Find the position vector of P.


Working:

Answer:
..
(Total 6 marks)

54.

Consider the vectors c = 3i + 4j and d = 5i 12j.


Calculate the scalar product c d.
Working:

Answers:
..
(Total 2 marks)

47

55.

The diagram shows a parallelogram OPQR in which OP =

7

3

, OQ =

10
.
1

P
Q
O

x
R

(a)

Find the vector OR .


(3)

15
(b)

Use the scalar product of two vectors to show that cos OPQ =

754

.
(4)

(c)

(i)

Explain why cos PQR = cos OPQ.

(ii)

Hence show that sin PQR =

(iii)

Calculate the area of the parallelogram OPQR, giving your answer as an integer.

23
754 .

(7)
(Total 14 marks)

56.

Given that a = i + 2j k, b = 3i + 2j + 2k and c = 2i 3j + 4k, find (a b) c.


Working:

Answer:
..
(Total 6 marks)
48

49

57.

The point A is the foot of the perpendicular from the point (1, 1, 9) to the plane
2x + y z = 6. Find the coordinates of A.
Working:

Answer:
....

..
(Total 6 marks)

58.

The variables x, y, z satisfy the simultaneous equations


x + 2y + z = k
2x + y + 4z = 6
x 4y + 5z = 9
where k is a constant.
(a)

(i)

Show that these equations do not have a unique solution.

(ii)

Find the value of k for which the equations are consistent (that is, they can be
solved).
(6)

(b)

For this value of k, find the general solution of these equations.


(3)
(Total 9 marks)

50

59.

A vector equation for the line L is r =

4

4

+t

3

1

Which of the following are also vector equations for the same line L?

A.

B.

C.

D.

r=

4

4

r=

4

4

r=

0

1

r=

7

5

+t

2

1

+t

6

2

+t

1

3

+t

3

1

Working:

Answers:

..

..
(Total 6 marks)

60.

(a)

Find the scalar product of the vectors

60

25

and

30

40

51

(b)

Two markers are at the points P (60, 25) and Q (30, 40). A surveyor stands at O (0, 0) and
looks at marker P. Find the angle she turns through to look at marker Q.
Working:

Answers:
(a)

..
(b)

..
(Total 6 marks)

61.

The diagram shows points A, B and C which are three vertices of a parallelogram ABCD. The
2
.
point A has position vector 2
y
10
C

B
5

A
5

(a)

10

Write down the position vector of B and of C.


(2)

52

(b)

The position vector of point D is

d

4

. Find d.
(3)

(c)

Find BD .
(1)

53

The line L passes through B and D.


(d)

(i)

Write down a vector equation of L in the form


x

y

(ii)

+t

m
.
n

Find the value of t at point B.


(3)

(e)

Let P be the point (7, 5). By finding the value of t at P, show that P lies on the line L.
(3)

(f)

Show that CP is perpendicular to BD .


(4)
(Total 16 marks)

62.

Consider the points A(1, 2, 4), B(l, 5, 0) and C(6, 5, 12). Find the area of DABC.
Working:

Answer:
..
(Total 6 marks)

54

63.

Find the angle between the plane 3x 2y + 4z = 12 and the z-axis. Give your answer to the
nearest degree.
Working:

Answer:
..
(Total 6 marks)

64.

The point A (2, 5, 1) is on the line L, which is perpendicular to the plane with equation
x + y + z 1 = 0.
(a)

Find the Cartesian equation of the line L.


(2)

(b)

Find the point of intersection of the line L and the plane.


(4)

(c)

The point A is reflected in the plane. Find the coordinates of the image of A.
(2)

(d)

Calculate the distance from the point B(2, 0, 6) to the line L.


(4)
(Total 12 marks)

65.

Consider the following system of equations where b is a constant.


3x + y + z = 1
2x + y z = 4
5x + y + bz = 1
(a)

Solve for z in terms of b.


(4)

(b)

Hence write down, with a reason, the range of values of b for which this system of
equations has a unique solution.
(2)
55

(Total 6 marks)

56

66.

Two lines L1 and L2 have these vector equations.


L1 : r = 2i + 3j + t(i 3j)
L2 : r = i + 2j + s(i j)
The angle between L1 and L2 is q. Find the cosine of the angle q.
Working:

Answer:
..
(Total 6 marks)

67.

The points A and B have the position vectors


(a)

(i)

Find the vector AB .

(ii)

Find

AB

and

respectively.

.
(4)

The point D has position vector


(b)

23

Find the vector AD in terms of d.


(2)

D is 90.
The angle BA
(c)

(i)

Show that d = 7.

(ii)

Write down the position vector of the point D.


(3)

The quadrilateral ABCD is a rectangle.


(d)

Find the position vector of the point C.


57

(4)

58

(e)

Find the area of the rectangle ABCD.


(2)
(Total 15 marks)

68.

The line r = i + k + m(i j + 2k) and the plane 2x y + z + 2 = 0 intersect at the point P. Find the
coordinates of P.
Working:

Answer:
..
(Total 6 marks)

69.

(a)

The point P(1, 2, 11) lies in the plane 1. The vector 3i 4 j + k is perpendicular to 1.
Find the Cartesian equation of 1.
(2)

(b)

The plane p2 has equation x + 3y z = 4.


(i)

Show that the point P also lies in the plane p2.

(ii)

Find a vector equation of the line of intersection of p1 and p2.


(5)

(c)

Find the acute angle between p1 and p2.


(5)
(Total 12 marks)

70.

Points A, B, and C have position vectors 4i + 2j, i 3j and 5i 5j. Let D be a point on the xaxis such that ABCD forms a parallelogram.
(a)

(i)

Find BC .

(ii)

Find the position vector of D.


(4)

59

(b)

Find the angle between BD and AC .


(6)

60

The line L1 passes through A and is parallel to i + 4j. The line L2 passes through B and is parallel
to 2i + 7j. A vector equation of L1 is r = (4i + 2j) + s(i + 4j).
(c)

Write down a vector equation of L2 in the form r = b + tq.


(1)

(d)

The lines L1 and L2 intersect at the point P. Find the position vector of P.
(4)
(Total 15 marks)

71.

Consider the four points A(1, 4, 1), B(2, 5, 2), C(5, 6, 3) and D(8, 8, 4). Find the point of
intersection of the lines (AB) and (CD).
Working:

Answer:
.....
...
(Total 6 marks)

72.

x2 y z 9

1
2 .
A line l1 has equation 3
(a)

Let M be a point on l1 with parameter . Express the coordinates of M in terms of .


(1)

(b)

The line l2 is parallel to l1 and passes through P(4, 0, 3).


(i)

Write down an equation for l2.

(ii)

Express PM in terms of .
(4)

(c)

The vector PM is perpendicular to l1.


(i)

Find the value of .


61

(ii)

Find the distance between l1 and l2.


(5)

62

(d)

The plane 1 contains l1 and l2. Find an equation for 1, giving your answer in the form
Ax + By + Cz = D.
(4)

(e)

The plane 2 has equation x 5y z = 11. Verify that l1 is the line of intersection of the
planes 1 and 2.
(2)
(Total 16 marks)

73.

The diagram shows a cube, OABCDEFG where the length of each edge is 5cm. Express the
following vectors in terms of i, j and k.
z
D

G
y

F
C
k

i
A
x

63

(a)

OG ;

(b)

BD ;

(c)

EB .

.....................................................................................................................................
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(Total 6 marks)

64

74.

A triangle has its vertices at A(1, 3), B(3, 6) and C(4, 4).
(a)

Show that AB AC 9

(b)

Show that, to three significant figures, cos BAC 0.569 .


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(Total 6 marks)

75.

In this question, distance is in kilometers, time is in hours.


1
A balloon is moving at a constant height with a speed of l8 km h , in the
3

4
0
direction of the vector
At time t = 0, the balloon is at point B with coordinates (0, 0, 5).
(a)

Show that the position vector b of the balloon at time t is given by


x 0
10.8

y 0 t 14.4 .
z 5
0

b=
(6)

65

At time t = 0, a helicopter goes to deliver a message to the balloon. The position vector h of the
helicopter at time t is given by
x 49
48

y 32 t 24
z 0

h=
(b)

(i)

Write down the coordinates of the starting position of the helicopter.

(ii)

Find the speed of the helicopter.


(4)

(c)

The helicopter reaches the balloon at point R.


(i)

Find the time the helicopter takes to reach the balloon.

(ii)

Find the coordinates of R.


(5)
(Total 15 marks)

76.

A triangle has its vertices at A(1, 3, 2), B(3, 6, 1) and C(4, 4, 3).
(a)

Show that AB AC = 10.

(b)

Show that, to three significant figures, cos BAC = 0.591.

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
66

(Total 6 marks)

77.

(a)

Write down the inverse of the matrix


1 3 1

2 2 1
1 5 3

A=

(b)

Hence, find the point of intersection of the three planes.


x 3y + z = 1
2x + 2y z = 2
x 5y + 3z = 3

(c)

A fourth plane with equation x + y + z = d passes through the point of intersection. Find
the value of d.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(Total 6 marks)

67

78.

(a)

x2 y2 z3
x2 y3 z4

3
1 and 1
4
2 intersect and find the
Show that lines 1
coordinates of P, the point of intersection.
(8)

(b)

Find the Cartesian equation of the plane that contains the two lines.
(6)

(c)

The point q (3, 4, 3) lies on . The line L passes through the midpoint of [PQ]. Point S is
PS QS 3
on L such that
, and the triangle PQS is normal to the plane . Given that
there are two possible positions for S, find their coordinates.
(15)
(Total 29 marks)

79.

Find the cosine of the angle between the two vectors

3

4

and

Working:

Answer:
....
.....
.....
(Total 6 marks)

68

80.

1

0

In this question the vector


represents a displacement of 1 km east,
0

and the vector 1 represents a displacement of 1 km north.
The diagram below shows the positions of towns A, B and C in relation to an airport O, which is
1
at the point (0, 0). An aircraft flies over the three towns at a constant speed of 250 km h .
y

A
C

Town A is 600 km west and 200 km south of the airport.


Town B is 200 km east and 400 km north of the airport.
Town C is 1200 km east and 350 km south of the airport.
(a)

(i)

(ii)

Find AB .

Show that the vector of length one unit in the direction of AB is

0.8

0.6

.
(4)

An aircraft flies over town A at 12:00, heading towards town B at 250 km h .


p

q

Let
be the velocity vector of the aircraft. Let t be the number of hours in flight after 12:00.
The position of the aircraft can be given by the vector equation
x 600
p

t
y 200
q .

(b)

200

150

(i)

Show that the velocity vector is

(ii)

Find the position of the aircraft at 13:00.

(iii)

At what time is the aircraft flying over town B?


(6)
69

70

Over town B the aircraft changes direction so it now flies towards town C. It takes five hours to
travel the 1250 km between B and C. Over town A the pilot noted that she had 17 000 litres of
1
fuel left. The aircraft uses 1800 litres of fuel per hour when travelling at 250 km h . When the
fuel gets below 1000 litres a warning light comes on.
(c)

How far from town C will the aircraft be when the warning light comes on?
(7)
(Total 17 marks)

3
1
and
The position vectors of points P and Q are
Find

81.

(a)

the angle POQ ;

(b)

the area of the triangle OPQ.

2
4

respectively. The origin is at O.

Working:

Answers:
(a)

..
(b) .............................................................
.....
(Total 6 marks)

82.

(a)

2
2
1

1 1 3
1
8
9

.
The plane 1 has equation r =
2
1

0 s 2 t
1
1

The plane 2 has the equation r =

1
1

.
71

(i)

For points which lie in 1 and 2, show that, l = m.

(ii)

Hence, or otherwise, find a vector equation of the line of intersection of and 2.


(5)

(b)

2 x y
4 = z + 1 and is perpendicular to 3i 2j + k.
The plane 3 contains the line 3
Find the cartesian equation of p3.
(4)

(c)

Find the intersection of 1, 2 and 3.


(3)
(Total 12 marks)

72