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Rules of the English Language

Use of Article
There are two types of articles:A) Indefinite articles [ A, An]
B) Definite article [THE]
An
Indefinite articles
A
Indefinite articles are always used with the countable nouns (which can be
counted and made plural) when first time noun is used in the sentence.
A: consonant sounds.
An: vowel sound (a, e, I, o, u)

Exceptions to the Consonant sound:1) Where h is silent we will use article an.
For example: an hour, an honest, and an heir
2) Abbreviations starting with [F, H, L, M, N, R, S, X] take an before them.
For example: a) Aslam is an MA English.
b) He is an MNA.
c) Do an X-ray.
Exception: Where Acronyms are used the above rule does not apply.
Example: a) Aslam is a NATO Soldier.
b) Aslam is Raw Agent.
Exception to the vowel sounds:1) When sound of yu is here we will use a instead of an.
For example: a European, a university, a union, a useful article, a unicorn.
2) Where sound of wu is produced.

For example: A one-rupee note, such a one, a one-eyed man.

Use of correlative conjunctions:Correlative conjunctions such as: as.as, so.as, too..to.


Asas
For example: a) Aslam is as big a leader as Akram (positive first degree of
comparison)
b) Aslam is as good an author as Akram.
So...as
For example: a) Aslam is not so big a leader as Akram. (Negative first degree of
comparison)
b) Aslam is not so big an author as Akram.
Too.to
For example: a) Aslam is too weak a leader to speak.
b) Aslam is too young a child to go to school.

Use of How
1) How difficult a task it was.

Class representation
1. With indefinite article.
Example: A doctor should be sympathetic to his patient.
2. With definite article.
Example: The dog is a faithful animal.
3. With plural noun.
Example: Lawyers are very sharp people.

Use of A:A= role

A=Unknown /first time/ introduction


For example: a) A Kishore Kumar (a certain unknown person) is arrested by the
police.
b) One evening a beggar came to my home.
A= one, per, similar, all, any (to single out an individual as representative of the
class)
For example: a) Twelve inches make a foot. (a=one)
B) A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. (a=one)
c) Sugar is ten rupees a kilo. (a= per)
d) A pupil should obey is teacher. (a=any)
e) A cow is a useful animal. (a=any)
f) Birds of a feather fly together. (a=similar)
g) A doctor works in a hospital. (A doctor= all doctors)
Half + indefinite article:Example: A) Bring me half a glass of water.
b) Half a glass of water was brought.
c) Wait for half an hour.
Indirect article+ hundred , thousand, dozen
Example: a) A hundred words are given.
b) A thousand soldiers were there to fight.
c) A dozen bananas were bought.

Omission of the indefinite article:1) Proper noun: Generally indefinite article is not used before a proper
noun,
For example: a) Pakistan is my Country.
b) My country is Pakistan.
Exception: a) I need a Pakistan where I could live happily

b) Let us make a new Pakistan.


I. Introduction of the person whom speaker does not know, we will
use A/An for the unknown.
For example: a) An Umer saeed is standing outside waiting for you.
II. Reference to a person (speaker listener context).
For example: a) The Mr. Aslam who came yesterday has given a ring.
b) The Pakistan of today is in trouble.
2) Plural Noun: Article is omitted before the plural countable noun.
For example: a) Children like chocolates.
b) Lawyers are very sharp people.
Note: such noun take the when used with a particular meaning.
For example: where are the children? = (our children)
3) Abstract nouns: The article is not used before the abstract nouns when used
in a general sense.
For example:a) Sugar is bad for your teeth.
b) Gold is a precious metal.
c) Virtue is its own reward.
Note uncountable abstract noun take article when used in particular sense
especially qualified by an adjective.
For example:a) There is a Solomon in Aslam.
Countable
example: a headache, a noise (mild disease condition),
an improvement, a
fiasco, a nightmare.

Abstract Noun
Uncountable
example: democracy, capitalism, tooth ache.
Comparison: in comparison if two nouns refer to the same person or thing, the
article is used before the first noun only; as
For example:
a) Aslam is a better play than driver.(Same person)
b) He is a better poet than novelist.
But if they refer to different persons or things, the article must be used with each
noun.
Example:A) Aslam is a better player than a driver.(Two person comparison Aslam and
driver)
B) He would make a better statesman than a philosopher.

b) Use of definite article the


1. The is used before the singular countable nouns, plural countable nouns,
and uncountable nouns.
For example, the book, the books, the milk.
The is called definite article because it normally points out some particular
person or thing.
2. Referral: when we talk about a particular person, or thing already or one
already referred to (when it is clear from the context which one we mean
listener speaker context).
For example:a) The boy entered the class is my student (alternatively) a boy has entered
the class. (introduction)The boy is my student (refer).
b) The book you want is out of print. (Which book? The one you want.)

c) Lets go to the park. (Park in the town)


3. Specific/Limitation:
For example:a) Bring the books lying on the table. (Specific)
b) Finish the task which was assigned by the CEO.
Second time Countable or uncountable noun if it is used in a sentence, we will
always use the
For Example: Shah Abdullah is the king of Saudi Arabia.
4. Class representation: when a singular noun is meant to represent a whole
class.
For Example:a) The cow is useful animal
b) The dog is a faithful animal.
c) The horse is noble animal
d) The rose is the sweetest of all flowers.
5. General Items of use always take the with them.
For Example: The chair, the table the pen, the pencil, the fan etc.
6. Instruments (includes musical) or scientific inventions.
For Example: The radio, the fridge, the TV, the car, the mobile, the flute,
the piano, the microscope, the scissors etc.
7. Human body organs parts
For example: the foot, the head, the nose, the liver, the heart, the eye.
8. Historical buildings.
Example: the empire state building, the Twin Towers, the Taj mahal, the
Pyramids, the Tomb of Jahangir.
9. Proper nouns in Possessive case wont use the
Example: Aslams car= the car of Aslam.
Common nouns in possessive case use the
Example: the states security= the security of the state.
10.Historical events always take the with them.

For example: the Cold War, the Battle of Plassey, and the Holocaust, the
Second World War, the Aligarh Movement. Here we have used com [N] as
proper [N]
11.Titles always take the with them.
For example: the Quaid-i-Azam, the President, the Prime Minister, and the
General.
Exception: where name is written by adder with the title the will not be
used.
For example: Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, President Asif Ali
Zardai, former General Pervez Musharraf.
12.Departments will not take the before them.
For Example: Department of Physics, Department of Finance.
But we will use the when department head is referred
For example: the Head of Department, the Rector, the Principal, and the
Registrar etc.
If name is added/ written the will be omitted.
For example: head of department Aslam etc.
13.Libraries, airports, clubs always use the with them.
For example: the Lion Cricket club, the Allama Iqbal International airport.
Exception: when name of city is present as the first word the will be
omitted.
For example: Lahore Lion Club, Lahore Gym Khana, Lahore airport, hull
station etc.
14.Buildings visited for the primary purpose it is constructed the will be
omitted. (School. Church, prison, bed, hospital etc.)
For example: Aslam goes to school. (Aslam is a student)
He stays in bed till 9 every morning.
We go to church on Sundays.
My uncle is still in hospital.
Building not used for the primary purpose it is constructed the will be
used.
For example: Aslam goes to the school. (Aslam is not a student may be a
carpenter/ mechanic).

The school is very near my home.


I met him at the church.
The bed is broken.
I went to the hospital to see my uncle.
15.Buildings infrequently visited will take the with them.
For example: the hotel, the theatre, the cinema, the park for games/sports.
Buildings frequently used will not take the with them.
For example: school, college, university, court, hospital, church, mosque,
prison, bed seaside/beach (if as sailor the will be omitted)
16.We use the before some common nouns.
For example the country, the continent, the park, the square, the town etc.
Exception: If we use proper noun to indicate the above mentioned list the
will be omitted.
For example: Europe, Pakistan, Oxford square, Ashraf park, oxford street,
except: the Mall.
17.Bodies having water flowing in will always take the.
For example: the + oceans, sea, river, canal, gulf, strait.
The Atlantic ocean, the Arabian Sea, the Indus River, the Lahore canal, the
Arabian Gulf, The Strait of Hormuz
Exception: lake (water stagnant), swimming pool.
18.Mountains
Mountain ranges will take the.
For example: the Alps, the Himalayas
Individual mountains/peaks will not take the.
Example: K2, Mount Everest etc.
19.Islands
Range/ collection of island will take the
Example: the United Kingdom, the Philippines, the Netherlands etc.
Exception: individual island will not the with them.
Example: Hawaii Island.
20.Political territories/ combination always take the with them.
Example:a) The UK (islands and political combination)

b) The United States of America.


C) The European Union.
21.Titles of countries always take the with them.
Example: the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Islamic republic of Pakistan.
22.Holy books and other special books always take the with them.
Example: the Quran, the bible, the Baal-e-Jabril etc.
23.Ethnic groups always take the.
Examples: the Muslims, the Shia, the Uzbeks, the Pashtun, the French, the
English.
24.Ordinals take the with them
Example: the next, the second, the first, the last etc.
25.Fruits and vegetables always take the with them.
Example: the apple, the banana, the lemon.
26.All the newspaper takes the with them.
Example: The Daily Times, the Dawn, The News.
Exception: magazines, journals etc. do not take the with them except
where the is the part of the name of any magazine or journal.
Example: Jahangir world times, Akhbar-e- Jahan, The Readers digest etc.
27.We use the with past, present and future.
Example: in the future, in the past, in the present.
If the is omitted like: Dont do it in future. (Caution)
28.We always use the with the constitution of the state.
For example: the constitution of Pakistan etc.
29.We always use the with the season, the natural phenomenon and the only
thing.
For example: the summer, the winter, in the afternoon, in the morning, the
rain, the cloud, the government
Exception If at is used the will be omitted.
For example: at noon, at night.
30.Calendars and dictionaries always take the with them.
For example:a) Where is the calendar?

b) Where is the dictionary?


c) The Abacus is used for calculation.
d) The Guinness book of world record.
e) The encyclopedia.
31.We always use the with the celestial bodies.
For example: the sky, the earth, the universe, the sun etc.
32.Uniform forces will take the before them.
For example: the police, the army, the Rangers.
33.Before a proper noun when it is qualified by an adjective or a defining
adjectival clause; as
The great Caesar: the immortal Shakespeare
The Mr. Roy whom you met last night is my uncle.
34.2nd degree of comparison we will use the before the adjective for
comparison, if we use of for comparison.
Example: of the two she is the taller.
The above rule will not be followed if we use than for comparison.
35.When two adjectives are used in a sentence joined by the conjunction and
the degree of both the adjectives will remain the same.
For example: he is the wisest and the most intelligent man in his village.
36.When of is used to describe the third degree of adjective (superlative
degree) that adjective will also take the before it.
For example: of the three boys Aslam is the tallest.
37.There are certain nouns when used in a general sense do not take any article
with them.
For example: Man (mankind), woman, God, Hell, and Heaven.
38.If we put article a/an after the word many the subsequent noun and verb
will be singular.
For example: many a boys is standing outside the academy. OR
Many boys are standing outside the academy.
39.There are certain adjective when they take a/an or the with them their
meaning is changed.
For example:A little = something

Little = nothing
The little = there is something which have been referred before.
A few= something.
Few = nothing.
The few = something which have been referred above.
40.Sometimes the is used with an adjective to make it a noun and represent
the whole group.
For example: the rich = rich people, the poor = poor people.
41.There are certain phrases which cannot be altered because they dont
follow any grammar rule.
Example: in the wrong, in the right, at fault.
42.If article a/an is used before the word many the subsequent noun shall be
plural.
Example: a great many people are. A great many boys are.
43.When an abstract noun is used in a general sense it does not take any
article.
Example: employment, work.
44.When plural nouns are used in a general sense it does not take the with
them.
Example: lawyers are very sharp people.
45.When an abstract noun is specified it will take the before them.
Example: the courage of Hazarat Ali.
46.When a verb is made gerund (verbal noun) and this gerund is taking the
preposition after it t join another noun, the gerund will take the before it.
Example: Noun=preposition=noun; the gerund+ preposition = noun. (The
singing of cuckoo)
If the is not placed in this verb to verb construction the gerund may work
as participle.
Example: a singing bird. [Singing = participle (verbal adjective)].
47.All means of travelling take the before them.
Example: the aero plane, the Boeing 777, the Tez Gam, the Qasim has
reached the deck.

48.the compulsorily used with the word same and whole


Example: he is the same boy that I met yesterday. (After the same the
relative pronoun will be that)
It is the same book that I read yesterday.
Whole: examples: (i) the whole class was laughing at him. (The whole +
common noun)
(ii) The whole of Pakistan can come under the Taliban sway. (the whole +
of + proper noun)
49. After both and all dont use article the.
Example: both thieves were arrested. All boys are gone.
Both of them, all of them (both/all +of+ possessive pronoun)
50.When two or more connected noun refer to the same person or thing, the
article is ordinarily used before the first only; but when two or more
connected nouns refer to different persons or things; the article is used
before each.
Example:(i)
Sir Aslam is a great orator and statesman.(same person)
(ii)
There are on the committee among others a great lawyer and a great
economist.(two persons)
(iii) The secretary and the treasury are absent.

Omission of article
A. Dates: we dont use article before dates.
For example: I went to Lahore on September 10, 2012.
Exception: the music of the 1960s.
B. Colors: before the name of the colors the is not used in general sense.
Example: red is favorite among the students.
Exception: the red is the color of my car.
C. Senses: when used in a general sense they dont take the with
them.(touch, feel, see, hear, look)
Example: how is the patient sight?
Exception: when it is used in the general sense it will take the.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.

Example: the touch of the glass is cold.


Languages dont take the with them because languages are adjectives.
Example: Urdu, Arabic, English
Exception: if the word language comes in a sentence we will use the
before the language.
Example: the English language is vast.
Collective nouns: when collective nouns are used in general sense they will
not take the before them.
For example: Society, population, people, parliament, furniture apparatus,
grass, flock, herd,
Society is composed of individuals. People make a nation.
Exception: when they are used in the specific sense they take the with
them.
For example: the people of Pakistan are good; the population of Pakistan is
increasing.
Generally festivals and public holiday do not take the with them.
Example: we will visit the hill station on Eid/on Christmas.
Exception: the judgment day or on the Day of Judgment.
Holiday: the speech delivered on Independence day/national day/on
Quaids day/on Iqbals day.
No exception.
Numbered objects: When we use numbered objects in a sentence we dont
use the with every object but with the first object only.
Example: I need the chair, table, pen, pencil and pen.
But if the numbered object contains an odd object which does not take the
article which we used before the first object we will separate it out.
Example: I need the chair, table, pen and a dog.
Before name of substances and abstract nouns when used in a general
sense ; as,
Example; sugar is bad for your health, gold is a precious metal.
We will omit article the before plural countable nouns used in general
sense.
Example: Children like chocolates. , Computers are used in many offices.

J. We omit the before the name of meals when used in a general sense.
Example: what time do you have lunch? , Dinner is ready.
We use a when there is an adjective before breakfast, lunch and dinner
Example: I had a late lunch today,
We use the when we specify.
Example: the dinner we had at the Tourist hotel was very nice.
K. Before names of relation like father, mother, aunt, uncle, cook and nurse
(meaning our cook and our nurse).
Example: father has returned
Aunt wants you to see her.
Cook has given notice.
L. We omit the; before the predicative nouns which denotes a unique
position i.e. a position that is normally held at one time by one person only.
Example: he was elected chairman of the board.
Mr. Aslam became principal of the college in 1995.
M. In certain phrases consisting of a transitive verb followed by its object.
Example: to catch fire, to take breath, to give battle, to cast anchor, to send
word, to bring word, to give ear, to set sail, to loose heart, to set foot, to
leave home, to strike root, to take offence.
N. In certain phrases consisting of a preposition followed by its object.
Example: at home, in hand, in debt, by day, by night, at daybreak, at
sunrise, at noon, at sunset, at anchor, at sight, on demand, at interest, on
earth , by land, by water, by river, by train, by name, on horseback, on foot,
on deck, in jest, at dinner, at ease, underground, above ground.

Noun : it is the name of a person, place, thing or an idea.


Person: Aslam
Place: Lahore
Thing: chair
Idea: Democracy.

Classification of a noun:-

Noun can be classified in four different categories.


A) Proper nouns: It is not shared by many (things, persons etc.). It is individual
in nature. Example: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, K2 etc.
Common nouns: it is shared by many things and the first alphabet of the
common noun is always a small letter. Example: the Chair, the table etc.
B) Countable nouns: which can be counted and make plural.
Uncountable nouns: which cannot be counted and do not have plural form.
Example: Sugar, milk etc.
C) Singular nouns: the noun that denotes one person or ting is said to be a
singular noun, they usually do not take s with them and always take a
singular verb. Example: boy, cow, girl, book, pen.
Plural nouns: a noun that denotes more than one person or thing is said to
be a plural noun, they usually take s with them and always take a plural
verb. Example: boys, girls, trees, books, pens.
Collective nouns: it is the name of a number of persons or things taken of
together and spoken of one as a whole. Some collective nouns take singular
and some take plural verbs with them. Example: crowd, fleet, army, police,
herd, jury, crowd.
D) Material nouns: a noun that is palpable by touch and can be seen is known
as a material noun. Example: chair, table, pen etc.
Immaterial nouns: nouns which cannot be seen and has no body are known
as immaterial nouns. Example: air, gases etc.
Abstract nouns: it is usually the name of a quality, action or state
considered a part from the object to which it belongs.
Example:
Quality: goodness, kindness, whiteness, darkness etc.
Action: laughter, theft, movement, judgment, hatred etc.
State: childhood, boyhood, youth, slavery, sleep, sickness, poverty etc.
The names of Arts and sciences are also abstract nouns example: grammar,
music, chemistry etc.

Abstract nouns are formed


1. From adjectives; as kindness from kind, honesty from
honest.
2. From verbs; as obedience from obey, growth from grow.
3. From common nouns; as childhood from child, slavery
from slave.

Common example

commo
n noun

single

CAPI
TALIS
M

abstrac
t

uncout
able

PROPER

single

IQBAL

uncouta
ble

material

Noun context
Article + noun + verb.
a/the with s
singular.
(-)
w/out s
plural.
Nouns can be under stood in three ways.
1. Nouns taking only singular verb with them.
2. Nouns taking either singular or plural verb with them.
3. Nouns taking only plural verb with them.

i.
ii.

Nouns taking only singular verb with them.


All proper nouns take singular verbs with them.
Uncountable nouns.
a. Material: iron, copper, magnesium, cement, gold take singular verb
with them.
b. Liquids: all liquids take singular verb with them.
c. Gases: oxygen, carbon dioxide, bromine etc. take singular verb with
them.
d. Food and grains: bread, rice, wheat, corn etc. take singular verb with
them.
e. Concepts: democracy, jihad, terrorism etc. always take singular verb
with them.
f. Activities: playing, swimming, running, laughing always take singular
verb with them.
g. Sports: cricket, hockey, Billiards (it takes but single verb comes with
it.) etc.
h. Languages: Urdu, English, Punjabi etc. always take singular verb with
them.
i. Mass (no. of things together): grass, equipment, hair (except: she got
8 brown hairs), traffic, furniture etc.

iii.

Abstract nouns.
Quality: goodness, kindness, whiteness, darkness etc. take singular noun
with them.
Action: laughter, theft, movement, judgment, hatred etc. take singular
noun with them.
State: childhood, boyhood, youth, slavery, sleep, sickness, poverty etc. take
singular noun with them.
Art & science: painting, drama, story, article, geography etc. take singular
noun with them.
Idea: capitalism, socialism, terrorism etc. take singular noun with them.

iv.
v.

Collective nouns: some of collective nouns take singular verb with them.
Example: flock, crowd, population, public, herd, gentry etc.
Nouns takings with them.
a. Sciences: mathematics, physics, chemistry mechanics, politics,
physics
b. Games: billiards, gymnastics etc.
c. Disease: measles, mumps etc.
d. Other nouns; News, gallows, innings, wages, amends, means,
fruits(fruits of his labor.), headquarters, crossroads, works
(mechanical) etc.
Variations:Summons (singular): the court has sent summons to the culprit.
The court has sent summonses to the culprits.
Means: