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BIOMETRICS

LATAM REPORT
ANALYSIS
OUTLOOK, TRENDS, CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES
& STRATEGIC RECOMMENDATIONS

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TABLE OF CONTENT

I.

Introduction........3

II.

LATAM Economic & Social Outlook


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Mxico......6
Panam.......7
Venezuela.......7
Costa Rica...7
Colombia.........8
Per......8
Chile.....8
Brasil........9
Uruguay...9
Argentina.......9

III.

ITC Adoption in the Region......10

I.

LATAM E Governments Overview.........17

II.

Security through Biometric Technology.......19

VI.

The Popular Biometrics Modalities......20


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Face......20
Fingerprint........21
Iris......21
Palm Print.....21
Hand Geometry.......21
Voice ........21
Signature......22
DNA.......22
Hand Vein.....22

VII.

Biometrics Market Forecast Data.........23

VIII.

Biometrics Growth Areas.........28

IX.

Business Opportunities on the Rise ..........30

X.

Issues & Challenges.............34

XI.

Strategic Recommendations....36
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

XII.

Vision.........36
Mission..........36
Objectives.........36
Financial ...........37
Strategic.........37
Social & Environmental.......38
Strategy Proposal.....38

Conclusion.......39

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I.

INTRODUCTION
Terrorist attacks, plane hijackings and increasing crime rates have underlined
the need for greater security measures around the world. Consequently,
biometrics is growing in eminence as an essential security measure taken at
airports and other critical access sites. Further, the limitations and
incontinences with alternative identification methods through photographs,
passwords and PIN codes drive the development as well as growth of biometric
technologies.

Biometrics usage should increase in public sector owing to criminal and civil
security issues, and in commercial sector for cost savings and convenience
factors. The process of technology convergence is slated to become critical and
virtually inevitable in future for sustaining growth and profitability.

The technology is forecast to witness an accelerated pace of growth in the next


decade, with main emphasis on development of solutions and infrastructure.
This will help in enabling mainstream biometric authentication and customercentric

corporate

expenditures.

Fingerprint

technology

and

signature

verification would assume leadership positions supported by factors such as


pricing, high degree of accuracy and convenience.

Biometric applications in the public sector accounts for more than 50% share,
and include integrated eBorders (passports, visas and border control), eIDs
(National IDs and ID cards) and eGovernment (ID verification & electronic
access). In 2008 and 2009, the biometrics industry witnessed low or negligible
demand in noncritical IT applications, as there was drastic reduction of
commercial investments in the wake of recession. However specific niche
areas of development such as the time and attendance tool sustained the
overall healthy pace in the market. In addition, barring few instances of
withdrawals, postponements and delays of some large scale public sector
projects, biometrics industry was for the most part stable and immune through
the economic slowdown.

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The US dominates as the single largest worldwide market for biometrics.


Europe and Asia-Pacific follow the lead at the second and third positions
respectively; Latin America should be the fourth most important market
worldwide. The consolidated share of the US and European biometrics markets
constitutes a sizeable chunk of over 60%. In terms of fastest pace, the Latin
America and Asia-Pacific markets are projected to race ahead of the other
world markets by the year 2015.

The Non-AFIS/Finger Scan represents the largest technology driven segment


worldwide. The other leading technology, Signature Verification is slated to
grow at the overall fastest pace compounded annually through 2015. The
Government/Civil is one of the key end-user category of the technology, playing
a critical role in its wide acceptance and proliferation. Biometric technologies
are implemented in government agencies such as state, local, federal and
critical military and defense-related access sites. Other important biometric
end-use segments gaining prominence include Access Control/Time &
Attendance, Financial and Computer & Network Security.

Major participants in the biometrics market are categorized into device


suppliers, solution providers and algorithm providers. The intensely competitive
biometrics market comprises a huge pool of diverse players driving majority of
the technology trends. The biometrics market is characterized by select market
leaders with a global presence, competing alongside smaller and niche players.
Few key global players include 3M-AiT, Ltd, AuthenTec, Inc., BIO-key
International, Inc., Biometric Security Limited, Cogent Systems Inc., Sagem
Scurit, Printrak International, Inc, Siemens Biometrics Center, Fujitsu
Microelectronics America Inc. and NEC Corporation among others.

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II.

LATAM SOCIAL & ECONOMIC OUTLOOK


Even if the economic outlook for Latin America shows a relatively positive
picture for the coming year 2013 it is important to know that the General
Regional Economic Forecast was trimmed from 4.2% to a 3.9%, by the FMI.

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An assessment of spillover risks showed that Latin America would be one of


the regions to be hardest-hit from a sharper-than-expected slowdown in China.
The region could also suffer more than others if the United States fails to avoid
the 'fiscal cliff', a tightening in fiscal policy in 2013.
Looking to specifics, Brazil will lead the region domestic demand and growth
was seen picking up to 4% in 2013. Mexico's outlook was trimmed slightly to
3.5% in 2013. Peru was expected to grow the fastest, at 5.8% in 2013. (Except
Paraguay 11%). Chile and Colombia are both forecasted to grow 4.4% in 2013.
Venezuela and Argentina are particularly at risk of upside pressure on inflation,
although this remained above the mid-point of the target range in many
countries.
Latin American small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can become
catalysts for productivity growth. The heterogeneity of these SMEs has to be
considered, since different firms have very different development needs and
potential.
While the region is vast and heterogeneous as a whole, four main key
challenges that affect each country differently can be highlighted:
Weak institutions with high costs associated and lack of physical security
Poor development of infrastructure
Inefficient allocation of production and human resources; and, increasingly
Lack in innovation vis--vis more developed, but also emerging, economies
Addressing these challenges in the next decade will be crucial to ensure the
economic and social progress of the following countries that lead the region:
1. Mexico has one of the highest improvements in the region. The
countrys efforts to boost competition and its regulatory improvements
that

facilitate

entrepreneurial

dynamism

are

contributing

to

an

improvement of the business environment. This development, coupled


with the countrys traditional competitive strengths such as its large
internal market size, fairly good transport infrastructure, macroeconomic
policies, and strong levels of technological adoption have led Mexico to
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improve its competitive edge. However, the country still suffers from
organized crime; security concerns. Adopting and implementing policies
to boost ICT, energy, and retailing, along with additional reforms to
render the labour market more efficient are still needed to increase the
efficiency of the Mexican economy. The current overall poor quality of
the educational system, insufficient company spending in R&D, and
limited innovation capacity can jeopardize the future ability of the country
to compete internationally in higher value-added sectors.
2. Panama, has remained relatively stable in most competitiveness drivers.
Overall, it benefits from important strengths in its efficient financial
market, solid transport infrastructures, and very good technological
adoption, especially through FDI. Except these advantages, the country
still faces important weaknesses in terms of education. Panama also
struggles with rigidities in its labour market, low levels of public trust of
politicians, insufficient judicial independence, and favouritism in the
decisions of government officials a situation that has deteriorated in the
past years.
3. Venezuela continues to fall because of quality of the countrys public
institutions. This dismal showing, coupled with severe weaknesses in its
markets efficiency and deterioration in the macroeconomic stability have
led the country to feature at the bottom of the region and among the
least competitive countries in the world. Despite being at the forefront in
its tertiary education enrolment rate, the overall quality of the educational
system is weak. This, added to a lack of sophisticated businesses and
poor innovation potential, critically constrain the competitiveness
performance of the country.
4. Costa Rica, is suffering of the macroeconomic imbalances seen in its
high budget deficit and inflation and a scarcity of financial resources for
the private sector. With fairly nice forecasts of around 4.5% GDP growth
rates for the coming years, the country still depicts a strong overall
position in the region thanks to its friendly trade policies, with low tariffs,
few constraints on FDI, and its strong educational system. Costa Rica
presents strong levels of technological adoption with many companies in

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high-tech industries, as well as solid business sophistication and


innovation. All these factors can generate significant benefits.
5. Colombia experiences an improvement based on its competitive
strengths clustered around a stable macroeconomic environment; an
improving educational system with a high level of enrolment and a large
domestic market. On the other hand, despite the sustained efforts of the
government to improve social pacification and eradicate organized crime,
security concerns remain very high on the list of factors dragging down
its competitive potential. In addition, improved regulation to foster
domestic competition and facilitate a more efficient allocation of
resources, as well as further investments to improve the transport
infrastructure, are needed.
6. Peru improved its macroeconomic stability and strengthened its
competitive edge thanks to a better control of inflation, a reduction of the
government

deficit,

coupled

with

friendlier

environment

for

entrepreneurship. The country still faces a number of important


challenges to solve as a weak public institutional environment, an
educational system in need of higher quality, and the very low level of
innovation. The impressive economic outlook for the next years, with
GDP growth rates forecast of 6% in 2012 thanks to high mineral prices,
provides a good opportunity to undertake the necessary investments and
reforms to address its pending competitive limitations.
7. Chile: remains the most competitive economy in the region. Early
measures to open and liberalize its markets by introducing high levels of
domestic and foreign competition, a relatively flexible labour market, and
one of the most sophisticated and efficient financial markets have also
helped the country to maintain its long-term growth prospects in the past
decades. As Chile moves quickly toward higher levels of rent and the
next stage of development, companies with low investment in R&D and
a weak capacity for innovation act in an innovation environment
characterized by relatively low-quality scientific research institutions and
weak university-industry collaboration in R&D. Making sufficient progress
on this front is the major challenge that Chile will face in the next decade.

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8. Brazil benefits from several competitive strengths, including one of the


worlds

largest

internal

markets

and

sophisticated

business

environment. Moreover, the country has one of the most efficient


financial markets and one of the highest rates of technological adoption
and innovation in the region. On a less positive note, Brazil still suffers
from weaknesses that hinder its capacity to fulfil its tremendous
competitive potential. The lagging qualities of its overall infrastructure
despite its Growth Acceleration Programme (PAC), its macroeconomic
imbalances, the poor overall quality of its educational system, the
rigidities in its labour market, and insufficient progress to boost
competition are areas of increasing concern.
9. Uruguay leverages its traditional competitiveness strengths thanks to its
transparent and well-functioning public institutions, its high rates of
education enrolment and its stable policies that encourage FDI. However,
despite this progress, inflationary pressures and the reduction of the
national savings could bring significant macroeconomic distress if not
properly tackled. Moreover, as Uruguay keeps growing and moves
steadily toward a higher stage of development, policies to increase
domestic competition that would incentivize higher business-sector
investment in R&D and innovation capacity will become increasingly
important.
10. Argentina is getting more and more unstable. The extraordinary
competitive potential of the country that benefits from a large domestic
market size and a population that has a high level of education remains
unfulfilled because of both a lack of trust in its institutions and the large
inefficiencies in its allocation of goods, as well as labour and financial
resources. Excessive red tape that benefits the expansion of the informal
economy and high barriers to trade bring a lack of confidence in the
financial system. The progressive deterioration of the countrys
macroeconomic stability and a two-digit inflation rate, casts additional
worrisome uncertainties about the sustainability of its economic growth.
Unless these weaknesses are addressed, this situation could lead the
economy back into the erratic fluctuations of the past, characterized by
high expansionary periods followed by deep recessions.
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III.

ITC ADOPTION IN THE REGION

Latin America continues to suffer from an important lag in adopting ICT and
technology more broadly. This is reflected in the rankings, as no country
manages to reach the top 30 and only a handful of small economies manage to
be included among the top 50 the exceptions are Chile and Uruguay. Although
the region is vast and heterogeneous, three shared reasons for this lag can be
identified: these countries all exhibit an insufficient investment in developing
their ICT infrastructure, a weak skill base in the population because of poor
educational systems that hinder societys capacity to make an effective use of
these technologies, and unfavorable business conditions that do not support
the spur of entrepreneurship and innovation. Addressing these weaknesses will
be crucial for improving the regions competitiveness and shifting its economies
toward more knowledge-based activities. Information and communication
technologies have an important role to play, both in reducing educations costs
and in organizational innovation to optimize the allocation and distribution of
human resources.

Chile, in 38th position, clearly depicts the strongest performance in Latin


America. Benefiting from an entrepreneurial-friendly and well-functioning legal
framework, recent efforts to improve the overall innovation system, while still
insufficient, have paved the way for this top position within the region.
Notwithstanding these important merits, the country still suffers from a series of
weaknesses that do not allow it to benefit from the potential benefits of ICT and
technology more broadly. Although its ICT infrastructure achieves good scores
in certain dimensions, notably mobile network coverage (1st), the technological
preparedness of the country is severely hindered by the excessive costs of
accessing ICT (89th) and above all the poor quality of an educational system
that requires improvement and that fails to provide the necessary skill base
(83rd) to fully optimize the use of ICT. Therefore, despite the government-led
effort to leverage ICT (26th) with one of the widest offerings of online services
in the world (18th), the penetration rates in individual households (55th) still
lags behind. In addition, the business community needs to invest in upgrading
its capacity for innovation (62nd) in order to facilitate the achievement of further
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economic impacts and shift the national economy toward more knowledge
intensive, higher-value-added activities.

Uruguay, at 44th place, is one of the leading countries in the region that has
recognized the importance of ICT. This process has been led by the
government (36th), which has made important efforts to build a good ICT
infrastructure in the country (49th) and grant wide access to ICT to school
pupils (11th) with its one computer per student policy. Despite these efforts, the
technological readiness (63rd) of the country still needs improvement,
especially in terms of raising the quality of the educational system that
presently hinders the ability to seize the full benefits of the opportunities that
ICT, and technology more broadly, can offer. Moreover, weaknesses in the
innovation system, especially at the corporate level (65th), hamper the capacity
of the country to move toward more knowledge-intensive activities (67th).
Addressing these weaknesses would represent the next step to fully leveraging
ICT deployment for competitiveness and social well-being.

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Panama and Costa Rica, in 57th and 58th position, respectively, clearly stand
out from the rest of the countries in Central America a region that suffers overall
from an important connectivity lag, a low skill base, and weaknesses in its
business environment. Despite obtaining similar scores and levels of ICT usage
(56th and 63rd, respectively), Panama and Costa Rica face different challenges
to improving their level of preparedness to leverage ICT for competitiveness
and well-being. In the case of Panamawhile by regional standards the
country benefits from a fairly good ICT infrastructure (55th), especially in terms
of international Internet bandwidth (47th)the very low skill base hinders its
capacity to achieve higher ICT uptakes and stronger economic impacts (65th).
Conversely, Costa Rica benefits from a strong skill base (26th) thanks to a wellperforming educational system (23rd), but the country suffers from an ICT
infrastructure lag (77th) that thwarts its ability to achieve higher ICT uptake
rates. In both cases, improving their overall innovation systems would allow
them to benefit further from the ICT efforts and contribute to shifting their
economies toward more knowledge-intensive activities, especially in the case
of Panama (84th).

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Brazil, positioned narrowly above the middle range of our rankings at 65th
place, benefits from strong levels of business ICT usage (33rd). These,
combined with fairly advanced levels of technological capacity (31st) in
particular segments of its industry, allows the country to achieve one of the
strongest performances of ICT-enabled innovations in the region, both in terms
of new products and services (29th) and more efficient processes (34th).
Notwithstanding these strengths, its overall business environment with its
burdensome procedures to create new businesses (138th) and its high tax
rates (130th), in addition to its high mobile cellular tariffs (133rd) and poor skill
availability (86th), hinder the potential of the Brazilian economy to fully benefit
from ICT and shift toward more knowledge-based activities (76th) at a faster
pace.

Colombia, at 73rd place, right below the median of our sample, presents a
mixed picture in terms of ICT development and uptake. On the one hand, the
government offers a large number of public services online (9th) and the
information it provides through its websites encourages citizens participation
(26th). Moreover, Colombia benefits from a relatively skillful population (58th).
On the other hand, the country still suffers from important challenges that
hamper its capacity to leverage ICT to boost competitiveness and raise wellbeing. The lag in terms of ICT infrastructure and digital content (88th), coupled
with unfavorable framework conditions for entrepreneurship and innovation
(95th), result in a low ICT usage by businesses (71st). In addition, the uptake of
ICT by individuals (76th) is still low, with less than 20 percent of the population
accessing the Internet at home.
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Mexico government has made important efforts to increase the number of


services online (38th) and boost the e-participation of citizens through useful,
high-quality, and relevant websites (32nd) that provide information, thus
enhancing public governance. However, the country still faces significant
weaknesses. An insufficient development of ICT infrastructure (81st), especially
in terms of international Internet bandwidth (87th), coupled with the high costs
of telecommunications (100th) and poor educational standards (107th)
negatively influence the effective and productive use of ICT by individuals
(77th) and businesses (75th). Moreover, despite the recent improvements that
facilitate entrepreneurship by reducing the number of procedures and time to
open a business (42nd), the functioning of some public institutions and the
development of a strong innovation system are still pending challenges to
creating a conducive environment for higher ICT impacts (79th). Addressing
these weaknesses in a holistic manner will determine the success of the
country in benefitting from the opportunities that ICT has to offer.

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Argentina, in 92nd position, benefits from a fairly well developed ICT


infrastructure (58th), especially in terms of international Internet bandwidth
(41st) and high levels of adult literacy (51st) that could pave the way to a high
and effective ICT uptake by all members of society. However, while individuals
reach acceptable usage rates (58th), businesses (86th) seem to lag behind,
and the perception of the business community is that the government is not
prioritizing the use of ICT sufficiently (134th). In order to further leverage ICT
usage, reducing the high costs of accessing ICT (103rd) would be beneficial. In
addition, addressing the enduring shortcomings in the political and regulatory
environment (122nd) as well as in the framework conditions to boost
entrepreneurship and innovation (113rd) would allow the country to increasingly
shift its economy toward more knowledge-intensive, higher-value-added
activities.

Peru, despite the economic growth, has experienced in the past year, at 106th
place the country still lags significantly behind in terms of ICT. An insufficiently
developed and expensive (141st) ICT infrastructure (86th) coupled with a lowquality educational system (128th) hinders the preparedness of Peru to make
an effective use of ICT. As a result, the use of ICT by all three actors individual,
business, and government is still low (81st), and despite relatively good
framework conditions for entrepreneurship (56th), the potential economic
impacts are not yet accruing.

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Venezuela (107th), Paraguay (111th), Bolivia (127th), and, closing the


rankings Nicaragua (131st), trail behind the rest of countries in the region.
These countries continue to suffer from some worrisome connectivity
weaknesses, both in terms of physical and human infrastructure, which coupled
with an innovation-adverse environment result in poor leverage of ICT for
boosting competitiveness and raising well-being.

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IV.

LATAM E-GORVERNMENTS OVERVIEW

In the current recessionary world climate, in which the lives of people have
become ever more interconnected, governments have been harnessing the
power of information and communications technologies (ICT) for delivering
much needed sustainability in social, security and economic services to their
citizens. As part of this shift towards e-government, there has been an
increasing recognition that efforts towards an approach to governance for
sustainable development require strategic national planning to ensure efficacy,
transparency, responsiveness, participation and inclusion in the delivery of
public services. These aims could not be achieved without the underlying
notion of sustainable development for the people.

E-government has an important role to play, now and in the future. As the world
moves towards 2015, the date set for reaching the Millennium Development
Goals, the unmet targets of poverty reduction and other social and economic
development goals are being revisited.

As part of their effort to advance citizen services, developed countries are


paying greater attention to the concepts of an integrated government portal and
the re-engineering of back-office processes in designing their e-government
capabilities. E-government strategies are geared towards user centric solutions,
which serve to synergize governance processes and systems across multiple
public administration domains.

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The following figures show us AMERICAS Region E-Governments Ranking:

Regional E-Governement:

Central America Ranking:

Top Ranked Countries Americas:

South America Ranking:

As it appears, all countries of the Central America region increased their


offerings in 2012. Mexico (0.6240) was the leader with e-government offerings
around 27 per cent higher than other countries of the region. Closely following
Mexico as number two in the region, Panama (0.5733) improved its world
ranking from 79 in 2010 to 66 in 2012. It is followed by El Salvador (0.5513)
and Costa Rica (0.5397). On the other hand, even as mobile telephony
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increased in El Salvador, broadband and other access infrastructure remained


low, impeding its online service delivery uptake. Other countries of the subregion that improved e-services are also demonstrating that the expansion of
mobile infrastructure has allowed them to complement, and indeed supplement,
traditional access to narrow the digital divide.

V.

SECURITY THROUGH BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGY

Considering the development of security policies, we can observe a shift


towards an increasing concern with identity and an accompanying focus on the
need for new identification technologies to ease and speed up the task of
identification on the assumption that this will offer greater security. This is
arguably a trend that the introduction of ideas such as governmental identity
management.

In other words, security and defense are no longer just a question of observing
whether a neighboring state is increasing its weaponry or carrying out research
into novel defense technology that is perceived as a threat. Today, an
additional security concern is the problem of accurately identifying which
individuals are regarded as embodying the potential to become a future threat
one that security policies need to target and act upon before this potential
materializes as reality. Indeed, it has been noted that confronted with these
new threat perceptions: defense and intelligence communities require
automated methods capable of rapidly determining an individuals true identity
as well as any previously used identities and past activities. In this particular
context, identification has thus come to be regarded as a prerequisite for
countering contemporary threats before they materialize as reality, a
prerequisite for security from individuals who are defined as portraying a
potential to become threats.
Similarly, it has been noted that: as the scope of threats are widening with
globalization, the targets are becoming individuals. It is within this context that
biometric technology has gained prominence, given its claim to produce a
specific type of knowledge needed for such types of identification: biometric
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technology is not only capable of linking a person to past activities and/or


monitoring a persons present activity. More than that, the collection and
storage of biometric data allows for data mining, i.e. a process that extracts
predictions about a persons future becoming from his or her biometric data
and, in that way, promises to deliver superior knowledge about who might and
might not come to be of particular danger.

VI.

THE POPULAR BIOMETRICS MODALITIES

As our society becomes electronically connected to form one big global


community, it has become necessary to carry out reliable person recognition
often remotely and through automatic means. Surrogate representations of
identity such as passwords (prevalent in electronic access control) and cards
(prevalent in banking and government applications) no longer suffice.
Biometrics, which refers to automatic recognition of people based on their
distinctive anatomical (e.g., face, fingerprint, iris, retina, hand geometry)
characteristics, is becoming an essential component of effective person
identification solutions because biometric identifiers cannot be shared or
misplaced, and they represent the individual's bodily identity. Biometrics will be
an enabling technology with the potential to make our society safer, reduce
fraud and lead to user convenience by using the following modalities:

Face: Face recognition systems typically utilize the spatial relationship among
the locations of facial features such as eyes, nose, lips, chin, and the global
appearance of a face. The problems associated with illumination, gesture, facial
makeup, occlusion, and pose variations adversely affect the face recognition
performance. While face recognition is non-intrusive, has high user acceptance,
and provides acceptable levels of recognition performance in controlled
environments, robust face recognition in non-ideal situations continues to pose
challenges.

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Fingerprint: Fingerprints consist of a regular texture pattern composed of


ridges and valleys. These ridges are characterized by several landmark points,
known as minutiae, which are mostly in the form of ridge endings and ridge
bifurcations. The spatial distribution of these minutiae points is claimed to be
unique to each finger; it is the collection of minutiae points in a fingerprint that is
primarily employed for matching two fingerprints. Emergence of low cost and
compact fingerprint readers has made fingerprint modality a preferred choice in
many civil and commercial applications.
Iris: Iris images acquired under infrared illumination consist of complex texture
pattern with numerous individual attributes. Iris recognition has been integrated
in several large-scale personal identification systems. However, relatively high
sensor cost, along with relatively large failure to enroll (FTE) rate reported in
some studies, and lack of legacy iris databases may limit its usage in some
large-scale government applications.
Palm print: Similar to fingerprints, latent palm print systems utilize minutiae
and creases for matching. While law enforcement and forensics agencies have
always collected fingerprints, it is only in recent years that large palm print
databases are becoming available. Palm print recognition systems have not yet
been deployed for civilian applications, mainly due to their large physical size
and the fact that fingerprint identification based on compact and embedded
sensors works quite well for such applications.
Hand Geometry: Person identification using hand geometry to extract a
number of geometrical features such as finger length, width, thickness,
perimeter, and finger area. The discriminatory power of these features is quite
limited, and therefore hand geometry systems are employed only for verification
applications

in

low

security

access

control

and

time-and-attendance

applications. The hand geometry systems have large physical size, so they
cannot be easily embedded in existing security systems.

Voice: The generation of human voice involves a combination of behavioral


and physiological features. The movement of lips, jaws, tongue, velum, and
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larynx constitute the behavioral component of voice which can vary over time
due to persons age and medical condition. The spectral content of the voice is
analyzed to extract its intensity, duration, quality, and pitch information, which is
used to build a model for speaker recognition. Speaker recognition is highly
suitable for applications like tele-banking but it is quite sensitive to background
noise and playback spoofing. Again, voice biometric is primarily used in
verification mode.
Signature: Signature is a behavioral biometric modality that is used in daily
business transactions. However, attempts to develop highly accurate signature
recognition systems have not been successful. Dynamic signatures help in
acquiring the shape, speed, acceleration, pen pressure, order and speed of
strokes, during the actual act of signing. This additional information seems to
improve the verification performance (over static signatures) as well as
circumvent signature forgeries. Still, very few automatic signature verification
systems have been deployed.
DNA: Human DNA samples can be acquired from a wide variety of sources;
from hair, finger nails, saliva and blood samples. Currently, not all the steps in
DNA matching are automated and therefore results can be skewed if the
process is not conducted properly or the DNA samples themselves get
contaminated.

In summary, the DNA matching process is expensive, time

consuming and therefore not yet suitable for large scale biometrics applications
for civilian usage.
Hand Veins: The vein patterns are generally stable for adults (age of 20-50
years) but begin to shrink later due to decline in strength of bones and muscles.
Biometric authentication devices using finger and palm vein imaging are now
available for some commercial applications; there is no known large scale
vascular biometric system. This could be primarily due to concerns about the
system cost and lack of large scale studies on vein individuality and stability.

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VII.

BIOMETRICS MARKET FORECAST DATA

Biometrics market is forecast to reach US$14 billion by 2015. The market is


mainly driven by an increasing need for security against terrorist activity,
sophisticated crimes and financial frauds. Legislative compulsions in major
markets worldwide including North America, Europe and The Middle East are
also expected to play an important role in furthering the cause of Biometrics.
Market growth in the rapidly developing economies including Latin America and
Asia Pacific would result from government expenditures and customer focused
corporate investments. Emerging Countries will be the most relevant markets to
develop in the next 5 years.

Applications with the potential of short-term, quantifiable returns on investment


such as biometrics enabled time and attendance tools will also experience
increased demand in the upcoming years. Government mandates and
regulations have and will continue to boost market prospects for biometrics.
Security compulsions of government and law enforcement services will
continue to encourage governments to enhance their spending on biometric
technologies. Incremental technology development induced rise in product
sophistication and fall in prices will also help expand demand further. With
businesses prioritizing safety and security of physical assets, its opportunities
galore in the biometrics market in the upcoming years.

1. Global Civil Biometrics Revenues @ 2016

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2. Global Criminal Biometrics Revenues @ 2016

3. Civil Biometrics Technology Mapping @ 2016

As we can see Fingerprint plays a dominant role within the biometrics


market and still holds tremendous potential followed by high potential
emerging modalities such as face and iris recognition. Multimodal biometrics
offering high levels of accuracy while maintaining a relatively non-invasive
approach is expected to offer tremendous potential throughout the forecast
period. However price and usability still hinder widespread uptake
particularly for emerging region as Latin America

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4. Civil Biometrics Analysis of Percent of Revenues by Verticals (World),


2009 and 2016
During this period of
time, we can expect a
continued success within
government installations
critical in building
awareness and uptake
within regulated
industries (healthcare,
finance, transportation)
and eventually towards
mass adoption in other

commercial sectors.

5. Civil Biometrics Analysis of Percent of Revenues by Applications


(World), 2009 and 2016

Government sector will remain the largest contributor, Healthcare sector


share of the market will almost double (because of adoption of
biometrics within access control, healthcare cards and for transactional
authentication). At last Automotive, retail, corporate and education are
expected to increase investments in the medium to long term to perform
stronger authentications.

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6. Civil Biometrics Market: Geographic Analysis (World), 2009 and 2016

As stated, the US continues to remain the largest regional market for


biometrics. Asia-Pacific represents one of the fastest growing regional
markets for biometrics, with dollar sales from the region waxing at a CAGR
of about 23.8% over the analysis period. Characterized by burgeoning
economies, increase in foreign investments, rise in business formation
activities, presence of large relatively untapped private security markets and
increase in crime rates, Latin America have been witnessing increased
adoption of security systems, particularly latest biometric technologies like
iris scans, facial recognition. Iris/Retinal Scan market is the fastest growing
segment, by technology, with dollar sales waxing at a CAGR of about 25.9%
over the next four years.

The technologies on the Hype Cycle that make this possible include human
augmentation, volumetric and holographic displays, automatic content
recognition,

natural-language

question

answering,

speech-to-speech

translation, big data, gamification, augmented reality, cloud computing, NFC,


gesture control, virtual worlds, biometric authentication methods and speech
recognition. Many of these technologies have been "emerging" for multiple
years and are starting to become commonplace, however, a few stand out
as tipping point technologies including natural-language question answering
and NFC.
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2012 Gartners latest Hype Cycle statement concludes that rising up the
slope of enlightenment are consumerization of IT and biometric
authentication. The issue is that both are still two to five years away from
the Plateau of Enlightenment.

7. Priority Matrix for New Technologies

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8. Players
Major players in the marketplace include 3M Corporation, AcSys Biometrics
Corp., AuthenTec, Inc., BIO-key International, Inc., SecureTouch Retail
Systems, Biometric Security Limited, Communication Intelligence Corporation,
Ivrnet, DigitalPersona, Inc., Fujitsu Limited, i2 Inc., Imprivata, RCG Holdings
Limited, SAFRAN Group, Morpho, SecuGen Corporation, NEC Corporation of
America, Precise Biometrics AB, Sensory Inc., Atos Origin S.A., TSSI Systems
Ltd., ZK Software, among others.
VIII.

BIOMETRICS GROUTH AREAS

The biometrics market is projected to experience strong growth in the coming


years, a fact that is expected to attract buyers and investors to the space. In a
study recently published by ReportLinker, the biometrics industry is projected to
grow at a 21% CAGR during the 20122014 period. Other studies show similar
growth rates extending through 2017. Some of this growth will undoubtedly
result from large government contracts going to sizable public companies. With
such strong growth anticipated, both corporate buyers and private equity
groups are looking for opportunities to enter, or expand in, the market.

As stated, industry growth is being driven by increasing public security


requirements and the need for superior security systems around the world,
including those concerning Internet & network access and in financial
transactions. The biometrics industry has made great progress in the markets
of national and homeland security, the military and law enforcement;
approximately 59% of industry revenues are generated by the public sector. But
the commercial market has been gaining share in recent years and industry
experts believe that targeted commercial opportunities will drive rapid market
expansion and represent exciting growth potential for the industry. Declining
prices, increased standardization, improved developer toolkits and the
increased involvement of established IT and electronics companies will all lead
to further penetration of the commercial market.
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Government mandates and regulations will continue to boost the civil market,
while consumerbased applications will be widereaching, from securing
personal computers, mobile devices, and physical locations to improving social
media experiences, ecommerce and time and attendance tools.

Growth areas include:

Mobile Security: Mobile biometrics is slated to grow dramatically as mobile


payment systems will require greater security than devices currently offer.
Mobile payment technology is on the rise and biometrics will likely follow.
Biometric Passports: While biometric passports have been around for a
number of years, their prevalence is increasing. eGate implementation is
expected to be a main revenue generator for civil and military biometrics
markets globally in the coming years.

Banking and Financial Services: Biometrics is increasingly being used to


improve security in financial transactions, especially abroad. While the
established US financial sector may be more reluctant to adopt this approach to
security, overseas growth is likely to be strong.

In terms of biometric technologies, fingerprint technology continues to dominate


the industry, but iris and face recognition are gaining ground. There are plenty
of emerging technologies as well, including DNA, fingernail patterns, gait
recognition, vein patterns and skin biometrics. In the coming years,
technological advancements should continue to revolutionize the ease of use,
accuracy, performance and cost of biometrics, expanding their use in both
commercial and government applications.

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IX.

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES ON THE RISE

1. Security- as- a-service & managed Services:


Definition: Security-as-a-service (SaaS) is a fast emerging outsourcing
model for security management and the technology is expected to play a
significant role in the development of safer cities in the coming years. It may
refer

to

security

management

provided

in-house

by

an

external

organization.
Numerous security vendors are planning to leverage cloud based models to
deliver security solutions.

Advice: With growing interest from various security solutions providers, the
market expects this technology to fast catch up and witness significant
growth in the coming years.

Business Impact: Following are some of the major drivers of the global
SaaS market:

Replacement of human resources

Convergence of physical security

Switch from CAPEX to OPEX

Complexity reduction

Following are some of the major restraints of the SaaS market:

Privacy & data concern

Reduced control of security systems

2. Biometric Authentication

Definition: Biometric authentication methods use biometric characteristics


or traits to verify users' claimed identities when accessing devices,
networks, networked applications or Web applications. Across a wide range
of use cases, any biometric authentication method may be used in one of
two modes: one-to-one comparison or one-to-many search mode.

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Advice: While the availability of device-embedded biometric authentication


in mobile phones remains low and inconsistent, server- or cloud-based
biometric authentication products can exploit phones' (as well as PCs')
microphones, user-facing cameras and keyboards (including touchscreen
keyboards) as capture devices for voice, face topography (and possibly iris
structure) and typing rhythm. Some vendors offer solutions that exploit
phones as capture devices to authenticate access from users' PCs and
without tying users to particular PCs. Mobile phones will overtake PCs as
the most common Web access device worldwide by 2013. A significantly
increased interest should be expected in biometric authentication for
workforce and external users accessing higher-value Web applications via
mobile phones during the next two years, as well as increased success in
the year or two following.

Benefit Rating: Moderate


Market Penetration: 5% to 20% of target audience
Maturity: Early mainstream

3. Phone-Based Authentication

Definition: Phone-based authentication methods are those that make use


of a mobile phone as an authentication token.
There are two popular options:

A one-time password (OTP) software token for a mobile phone,


which allows the phone to be used like a traditional OTP hardware
token with a display and PIN pad

An out-of-band (OOB) authentication method, in which a user and an


authentication server exchange authentication information over a
different channel from the one between the endpoint and the server

In both cases, the same mechanism can be used to provide transaction


verification. While this is an important component of online customer
security, especially in financial services, transaction verification is out of
scope for this profile.

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Advice: The visibility of phone-based authentication methods increased


over the past 2 years, most notably when Google announced that it was
offering both OTP software tokens for phones and SMS-based OOB
authentication for access to Google Apps, and when Facebook (in 2011)
announced it was enabling SMS-based OOB authentication for user access.
OTP software tokens for mobile phones are less popular, but enterprises
tend to prefer them for users with time-critical remote access needs,
because OOB authentication methods can be vulnerable to cellular-network
coverage, availability and latency problems. OTP software tokens also
provide higher assurance than OOB authentication methods, and so suit
higher-value access. However, phone-based authentication methods alone
may still be suitable for medium-risk use cases. It is now evident that there
is a significant volume of use cases where this is appropriate, that the
incidence of these use cases is rapidly increasing, and thus that there will
be productive use of phone-based authentication methods and adoption by
20% to 50% of the market within the next few years but these methods will
take more than 10 years to reach the plateau. Mechanisms that generate a
digital signature on the phone to provide transaction verification are
emerging.

Business

Impact:

Phone-based

authentication

methods

provide

authentication in a form that is independent of any particular PC or OS, at a


lower cost than traditional OTP tokens, and with greater convenience for the
user. Furthermore, these methods help with "green" IT initiatives, because
they avoid the need for further devices that will have an environmental
impact. Some phone-based authentication methods can provide additional
value through transaction verification via the same mechanism.

Benefit Rating: Moderate


Market Penetration: 5% to 20% of target audience
Maturity: Early mainstream

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4. Device-Embedded Biometric Authentication


Definition: Device-embedded biometric authentication is a specialized use
of biometric authentication methods to improve the endpoint security of
mobile devices, such as PCs and phones, using capture devices ("sensors")
and feature extraction and comparison software built into the device itself.
Because such a mobile device is essentially personal to one user, the mode
is typically a one-to one comparison of a probe biometric sample against the
user's biometric reference stored on the device.

Advice: There is good reason to believe that enterprise interest will


increase as mobile phones become ever more capable and endpoint
security for phones grows in importance. Even with continued improvement
in fingerprint-sensor technologies, we should expect "passive" biometric
authentication (for example, using face topography) to provide more
consistency and universality. Thus, it will become more prevalent during the
next five years, particularly on phones, where front-facing cameras are
increasingly common. A more robust strategy for access to the network and
downstream or Web applications is to leverage the endpoint (PC or
smartphone) as just a capture device for back-end biometric authentication.

Business Impact: For mobile devices, such as PCs and phones, deviceembedded biometric authentication provides endpoint authentication without
the need for passwords or additional tokens. Thus, it has the potential to
provide significant improvements in user convenience and reduced
operational costs. However, usability issues and a lack of consistency of
technology across different endpoints and vendors will continue to limit the
potential value, and the approach is unsuited for access to the network and
downstream or Web applications.

Benefit Rating: Low


Market Penetration: 1% to 5% of target audience
Maturity: Adolescent

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X.

ISSUES & CHALENGES

Despite the encouraging results and the success of biometric technology in


controlled laboratory environments, there are still a few concerns and
challenges when collecting and using biometrics in actual environments with
plans to a major scaling up to establish an identification system at a national
level.
1. Not everyone can be enrolled in a fingerprint-based identification
system. Fingerprints can be unrecognizable due to cuts or burns or
extreme weight gain or loss. In addition, older individuals may have poor
fingerprints, or the operation of fingerprint readers may be jeopardized due
to arthritis. In other cases skin pigmentation obfuscates the possibility of
getting readable prints. In the most comprehensive study to test the process
and customer attitude during the recording of biometric information, the UK
Passport Service Trial reports an enrolment success rate of 100 per cent for
the 9,250 non-disabled participants and 96 per cent for the 750 disabled
participants.
2. The accuracy of biometric technology remains untested. Biometric
companies report very high accuracy rates from highly controlled trials
which typically use artificially generated data. However, because the
performance of a technology depends greatly on the context, trials using
real life data are far less impressive. Different Trials reports that only 80 per
cent of the cases could be correctly verified, younger individuals being more
successful than older. According to a recent review of available systems,
only a handful of products achieved an equal error rate of under 3%, and
the performance of most was much worse. The cautionary tale is that as the
collection of biometric information increases, and as it moves from law
enforcement to civilian applications, the error rate may significantly increase
3. Individuals negative attitude towards providing their biometrics. there
is the widespread public perception that fingerprinting is linked to the
criminal justice process, individuals may refuse to provide biometrics for fear
of persecution by authorities or others that gain illegal access to such
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biometric records. The collection of biometric information could be


considered an infringement of civil liberties.
4. The cost of collecting biometrics can be high. The estimates are sparse
and

detailed

cost-benefits

analyses have

not

been

systematically

conducted. However, the costs of using different types of biometric


technology starting from basic fingerprinting techniques to voice and iris
recognition software can be prohibitively expensive.
5. Biometric technology is not infallible. While biometric technology can be
big step forward to combating issues of identity theft, fraud, and moneylaundering efforts, it is essentially a technological application. As is the case
with any other technology, it can be hacked, infiltrated, or runs the risk of
having data fall into the wrong hands. Since biometric technology in only at
present being piloted on a large scale in some pockets of the world,
legitimate concerns on privacy do arise. For example, it is possible to
imagine that workers on the ID database will be corrupted, threatened or
blackmailed. After all, the perpetrators of 80 per cent of all computer
security lapses are not hackers, but employees. Optical scanners that use
minutiae-based and pattern-matching technologies have been tricked into
accepting reactivated latent prints or artificial fingers with forged fingerprints.

It is important that a common platform is used if biometrics data is merged with


other datasets. Biometric data is stored in formats that may not be compatible
with the information systems of other government agencies so an effort must be
made to have compatibility if it has to serve as the basis for a national
identification system.

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XI.

STRATEGIC RECOMMENDATIONS
The following recommendations, based on literature review for this paper, may
provide useful advices for Biometrics Solutions business initiatives in Latin
America.

1. Strategic Vision:
Japan is the worlds leading and most innovative biometric environment.
The Japanese biometric industry leads international competition in research,
technology, applications and sales. Sovereign, other public and private
customers worldwide prefer Japanese biometric solutions due to their
superior quality and reliability. The industry is a strong and growth oriented
part of the Japanese economy and sells products and solutions that make
the society safer and provide convenience to users.

2. Business Mission:
Biometric solutions are dedicated to meet and exceed the requirements of
governmental, other public, private sector and consumer needs in the field
of biometrics fast, efficient, with superior quality, and on the highest security
level. They research, develop, manufacture, integrate, sell, operate and
consult in the field of biometrics. Understanding the societal responsibility of
any business, the industry commits to the Corporate Governance Code and
the values of ethical business behavior. This means respect for human
dignity, responsibility, trustworthiness, fairness and caring towards their
customers, all interest groups and the society. Biometric solutions seek to
improve the legal and societal framework of biometric technologies, and
they support environmental issues.

Summarizing basic values, these are:

Public and private customer orientation

High security

Superior quality

Technological

competence

and

leadership

in

international

competition
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Innovation & future orientation

Research & application orientation

Commitment to economic policy

Ethical

commitment

responsibility,

trustworthiness,

respect,

fairness, and caring

Environmental commitment

3. Objectives:
Objectives translate both vision and mission into concrete outcomes and
milestones, and they express the commitment to achieve a given result in a
given time. Therefore, they should be measurable, tied to a time restraint,
and achievable. Objectives are either financial (e.g., a higher Return on
Investment) or strategic (market-, efficiency-, competition-, prestigeoriented etc.). Moreover, they can be oriented towards social and
ecological achievements. Based upon the strategic analysis results, and
pursuing vision and mission, the following objectives are suggested:
4. Financial
Annual revenue growth equivalent to total world biometric revenue
growth, i.e. at least 15% annually in the next 5 years. In the long term,
the LATAM market growth rate should even exceed the world market
growth rate to close the gap to the main competitors.
Biometric investments should create a positive and steadily increasing
net cash flow.
Costs and prices of biometric products should reduce faster than the
U.S. and British biometric industries.
Other financial objectives could be defined by the Strategy Department.

5. Strategic
Achieve a world market share over 5% by 2017. This means to
participate in the growth of international markets and, simultaneously,
large-scale entry in the Latam Region and other emerging Markets.

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Diversify the structure of domestic demand to diminish dependency on


government purchases.
Gain technology and quality leadership in the world biometric market,
demonstrated by internationally recognized comparative tests.
Brand recognition should exceeds the U.S. and British biometric brand
recognition among customers in terms of quality, reliability and security.
Research and develop new innovative biometric technologies and
market new products faster than international competitors.
Achieve legal certainty with respect to detailed data protection and
biometric application guidelines.
Support market consolidation to become competitive in size on the
company level.

6. Social & Environmental


Enhance public perception of biometrics and technology acceptance.
This should be reflected in positive media coverage.
Reduce risk aversion among customers.
Prevent ecological criticism in biometric technologies, e.g. concerning
recycling of sort-out products.
7. Strategy Recommendations
The pursued strategy approach for biometric solutions entry should be
strongly market-oriented for three reasons. First, the strategic analysis
indicated that developing the LATAM biometric market is the most difficult
strategic aspect. Second, the industry comprises many players with
contradictory competitive and financial interests. Therefore, an industry
strategy will concentrate on non-competitive domestic aspects and
international competition. Financial aspects must remain general as
described by the objectives in the previous section. Third, this approach is
supported by the observation that increasingly, markets are the bottleneck
of managerial and business activities. Therefore, strategic marketing applies
strategic management methods to analyze complex market situations and
provide the basis for decision making and implementation of activities. This

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enables the permanent adaption of objectives, resources and strategies to


changing environment and market conditions to guarantee the survival of
the company. Modern, market-oriented management has to comprise all
these fields. The strategy should also consider general regional economic
and security interests. Considering these premises, a joint industry
strategy is possible as a consensus that can differ from the companies
individual strategies.Based on this approach, the sub-strategies should be
develop systematically, then illustrated in a strategy grid.
XII.

CONCLUSIONS

Four technological developments will lead to evolution of second generation


biometrics systems; (i) emergence of potentially new biometric traits, (ii)
added value offered by soft biometrics, (iii) effective use of multiple
biometric traits for large-scale human identification, and (iv) technologies
to ensure a high degree of privacy, security and flexibility in the usage of
biometrics systems.

The expectations and the challenges for the second generation biometrics
technologies are huge, technologies is going to be cumulative and continuous
effort, rather than resulting from a single novel invention. The low cost of
biometrics sensors and acceptable matching performance have been the
dominating factors in the popularity of fingerprint modality for commercial
usage. Continued improvements in the matching performance and gradual
reduction in cost of biometrics sensors can be cumulative enough to alter the
selection of biometrics modalities in future. The development of smart sensing
technologies will allow the researchers to effectively exploit extended biometric
features and develop high performance matchers using efficient noise
elimination techniques.

Surveillance will be a key issue for social and political analysis in the 21st
century. It is also a crucial arena for ethical scrutiny and for policy debate. It
takes its place within a larger politics of information that promises to expand as
organizations come increasingly to depend on informational infrastructures.
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Information, and above all personal information, has become valuable both to
corporations seeking to construct customers for their products and for
governments concerned about the adequacy of their security arrangements.
Because these two very powerful entities are pushing hard for access to everincreasing sources of digital data it is clear that the struggle to ensure that
sufficient safeguards are in place to protect persons will be severe.

Social and privacy concerns associated with biometrics technologies can be


effectively handled with a two-fold approach. Firstly, the personal privacy
should be regarded as an essential component of biometrics technologies.
Policy makers, system developers and system integrators must ensure that
these technologies are used properly. Secondly, the policy issues (ethical and
legal framework) relating to the deployment of biometrics technologies should
be clearly formulated to demarcate the conflict of interests among the
stakeholders. The development of widely acceptable biometrics standards,
practices and policies should address not only the problems relating to identity
thefts but also ensure that the advantages of biometrics technologies reaches,
particularly to the underprivileged segments of society who have been largely
suffering from identity hacking.

The future of biometrics societies is by no means a foregone conclusion. What


actually happens from day to day is not the result of some technological fate or
some relentless social process. Organizations are governed by many other
factors in addition to bureaucratic rationality. Human beings are knowledgeable
and reflexive, fully capable of intelligent response to the growth of surveillance
systems, particularly when the latter appear to operate in unfair or inappropriate
ways. So much, in other words, is contingent, that no definitive forecasts about
surveillance societies are either possible or desirable. At the same time,
standing back to take a long-term view of where discernible trends seem to be
leading is worthwhile.

Positively, this means that every effort should be made both to understand and
to intervene in surveillance societies, on multiple levels. More research is
required to follow through the implications of surveillance expansion, especially
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in areas involving biometrics, universal identifiers, and video (CCTV), along


with the growing cross-border traffic in personal data for both law-enforcement
and commercial purposes. Ethical and policy research is also vital as a
background to how governments and other authorities should debate attempts
to regulate personal data flows. Educational initiatives are also required, both at
a general level within high schools and universities and (especially) within
university departments of computer and information science, to encourage
contextual understanding of everyday processes involving personal information.

While the future of the surveillance society may not be a foregone conclusion,
present directions suggest that urgent, concerted and informed action will have
to be taken on a number of fronts to harness surveillance power for humane
and just purposes, and thus to preclude the possibility that it creates as many
risks as it sets out to limit. While there are palpable risks to be faced yes, with
the aid of technology in the unstable globalized world of the 21st century, it
must be seen that these risks include ones that are technologically mediated
and augmented. Companies and governments must come to realize that
nothing important is lost, and much that is vital could be gained, by attending
carefully to the social and political consequences of automating personal data
processing. The future of liveable democratic societies will depend in part on
seeing questions of data protection and civil liberties as more than mere noise
in the process of selling technologies and promoting security.

.
Herve Delhumeau
Managing Partner
H+D Consulting Group

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About.com Terrorism Issues. History of Biometrics URL:


http://terrorism.about.com/od/issuestrends/tp/History-of-Biometrics.htm
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DNA as A Biometric Identifier, URL:
http://www.cse.msu.edu/~cse891/Sect601/CaseStudy/DNABiometricIde
ntifier.pdf
Gartner Group / July 2012 Report
Frost & Sullivan

H+D Consulting Group / Biometrics LATAM REPORT -

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