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Continuing Education

Fuel-Gas Piping Systems


Low- and Medium-Pressure Natural Gas Systems

Design Considerations

The composition, specific gravity, and heating value of


natural gas vary depending upon the well (or field) from
which the gas is gathered. Natural gas is a mixture of gases, most of which are hydrocarbons, and the predominant
hydrocarbon is methane. Some natural gases contain significant quantities of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or sulfur
(usually as H2S). Natural gases containing sulfur or carbon
dioxide are apt to be corrosive. These corrosive substances are usually eliminated by treatment of the natural
gas before it is transmitted to the customers. Readily condensable petroleum gases are also usually extracted before the natural gas is put into the pipeline to prevent
condensation during transmission.
The specific gravity of natural gas varies from 0.55 to 1.0
and the heating value varies from 900 to 1100 BTU/ft3
(33.9 to 41.5 mJ/m3). Natural gas is nominally rated at
1000 BTU/ft3 (37.7 J/m3), manufactured gas is nominally
rated at 520 BTU/ft3 (20 mJ/m3), and mixed gas is nominally rated at 800 BTU/ft3 (30.1 mJ/m3). Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) are nominally rated at 2500 BTU/ft3 (94.1
mJ/m3). Natural gas is transmitted from the fields to the local marketing and distribution systems at very high pressures, usually in the range of 500 to 1000 psi (3447.4 to
6894.8 kPa). Local distribution systems are at much lower
pressures. The plumbing engineer should determine the
specific gravity, pressure, and heating value of the gas
from the utility company or LPG provider serving the project area.
This chapter covers fuel-gas systems on consumers
premisesthat is, upstream and downstream from the gas
suppliers meter set assemblyand includes system design and appliance gas usage, gas train venting, ventilation, and combustion air requirements. Since natural gas
is a depletable energy resource, the engineer should design for its efficient use. The direct utilization of natural
gas is preferable to the use of electrical energy when electricity is obtained from the combustion of gas or oil.
However, in many areas, the gas supplier and/or governmental agencies may impose regulations that restrict the
use of natural gas. Refer to the chapter Energy
Conservation in Plumbing Systems in Data Book Volume
1 for information on appliance efficiencies and energy
conservation recommendations.

The energy available in 1 cubic foot (cubic meter) of natural gas, at atmospheric pressure, is called the heating (or
caloric) value. The flow of gas, expressed in cubic feet per
hour (cfh) or cubic meters per hour (m3/h), in the distribution piping depends on the amount of gas being consumed
by the appliances. This quantity of gas depends on the requirements of the appliances. For example, 33,200 BTU/h
(35 mJ/h) are required to raise the temperature of 40 gal
(151.4 L) of water from 40 to 140F (4.4 to 60C) in 1 hour.
This value is obtained as follows:
Q = m Cp T

Equation 1

where
Q = Energy required, BTU/h (J/h)
m = Mass flow, gal/h (L/h)
Cp = Specific heat of water, 1 BTU/F (J/C)
T = Temperature rise, F (C)
Q = (40 gal/h)(8.33 lb/gal)(1 BTU/lb-F)(100F) =
33,320 BTU/h
[Q = (151 L/h)(1 kg/L)(6.1 kJ/kg-C)(38C) = 35 MJ/h]
If the water heater in this case is 80% efficient, then
41,650 BTU/h (43.8 mJ/h) of gas will be needed at the appliances burner (33,320 BTU/h/.80). If natural gas with a
heating value of 1000 BTU/ft3 (37.7 mJ/m3) serves the appliance, the piping system must supply 41.7 cfh (1.2 m3/h)
of gas to the appliance with adequate pressure to allow
proper burner operation. The formula for the flow rate of
gas is shown below:
Q = Output
(Eff x HV)

Equation 2

where
Q = Gas flow rate, cfh (m3/h)
Output = Appliances output, BTU/h (J/h)
Eff = Appliances efficiency, %
HV = Heating value of the fuel gas, BTU/ft3 (J/m3)
The difference between the input and the output is the
heat lost in the burner, the heat exchanger, and the flue
gases. Water heating and space heating equipment is usually 75 to 85% efficient, and ratings are given for both input and output. Cooking and laundry equipment is usually
75 to 85% efficient, and ratings are given for both input and
output. However, cooking and laundry equipment is

Reprinted from American Society of Plumbing Engineers Data Book: Vol. 2. Plumbing Systems, 2000, Chicago: American Society of
Plumbing Engineers. Chapter 7, Fuel-Gas Piping Systems (pp. 173174, 176178, 183185), Joseph J. Barbera, PE CIPE, John P.
Callahan, CIPE, Paul D. Finnerty, CIPE, Ronald W. Howie, CIPE, Robert L. Love, PE CIPE, Steven T. Mayer, CIPE CET, Jon G. Moore,
& Rand J. Refrigeri, PE, Contributors. 2000, American Society of Plumbing Engineers.

32 Plumbing Systems & Design May/June 2003

usually rated only by its input requirements. When the input required for the appliance is known, Equation 2 is expressed as follows:
Q=

Input
HV

Equation 3

where
Q = Gas flow rate, cfh (m3/h)
Input = Appliances input, BTU/h (J/h)
HV = Heating value of the fuel gas, BTU/ft3 (J/m3)
The gas pressure in the piping system downstream of the
meter is usually 5 to 14 in. (127 to 355.6 mm) of water column (wc). Design practice limits the pressure losses in the
piping to 0.5 in. (12.7 mm) wc, or less than 10%, when 5 to
14 in. (127 to 355.6 mm) wc is available at the meter outlet.
However, local codes may dictate a more stringent pressure
drop maximum; these should be consulted before the system
is sized. Most appliances require approximately 5 in.
(127mm) wc; however, the designer must be aware that large
appliances, such as boilers, may require higher gas pressures
to operate properly. Where appliances require higher pressures or where long distribution lines are involved, it may be
necessary to use higher pressures at the meter outlet to satisfy the appliance requirements or provide for greater pressure
losses in the piping system. If greater pressure at the meter
outlet can be attained, a greater pressure drop can be allowed
in the piping system. If the greater pressure drop design can
be used, a more economical piping system is possible.
Systems are often designed with meter outlet pressures of 3
to 5 psi (20.7 to 34.5 kPa) and with pressure regulators to reduce the pressure for appliances as required. The designer
has to allow for the venting of such regulators, often to the
atmosphere, when they are installed within buildings.
When bottled gas is used, the tank can have as much as
150 psi (1044.6 kPa) pressure, to be reduced to the burner
design pressure of 11 in. (279.4 mm) wc. The regulator is
normally located at the tank for this pressure reduction.
To size the gas piping for a distribution system, the designer must determine the following items:
1. The appliance requirements, including the gas consumption, pressure, and pipe size required at the appliance connection (total connected load). Is the appliance provided with a pressure regulator?
2. The piping layout, showing the length of (horizontal
and vertical) piping, number of fittings and valves,
and number of appliances.
3. The fuel gas to be supplied, where and by whom; also
the specific gravity and heating value of the fuel gas
and the pressure to be provided at the meter outlet.
4. The allowable pressure loss from the meter to the
appliances.
5. The diversity factorthe number of appliances operating at one time compared to the total number of

connected appliances. This should be provided by the


owner and/or user.
Standard engineering methods may be used to determine
pipe sizes for a system, or the acceptable capacity/pipe size
tables may be used when such tables are available for the
specific operating conditions of the system under consideration. The diversity factor is an important item when determining the most practical pipe sizes to be used in occupancies such as multiple-family dwellings. It is dependent
on the type and number of gas appliances being installed.
Refer to the pipe sizing section later in this chapter.
The most common material used for gas piping is black
steel; however, many other materials are utilized, including
copper, wrought iron, plastic, brass, and aluminum alloy.
The proper material to be used depends on the specific
installation conditions and local code limitations. Any condition that could be detrimental to the integrity of the piping system must be avoided. Corrosion and physical damage are the most obvious causes of pipe failure. The piping material itself and/or the provisions taken for the protection of the piping material must prevent the possibility
of pipe failure. Corrosion can occur because of electrolysis
or because a corrosive material is in contact with either the
exterior or the interior surface of the piping.
Coatings are commonly applied to buried metallic pipe
to prevent corrosion of the exterior surface. The gas supplier should be contacted to determine if the gas contains
any corrosive material, such as moisture, hydrogen sulfide
(H2S), or carbon dioxide (CO2). Due to the grave consequences of leakage in the gas piping system, the designer
must carefully consider the piping material to be used and
the means to protect the piping and protect against leaks.
Gas piping should be installed only in safe locations.
Buried piping should be installed deep enough to protect
the pipe from physical damage. When piping is installed in
concealed spaces, care should be taken so that, in the
event of gas leakage, gas will not accumulate in the concealed space. The installation of gas piping in an unventilated space under a building should be avoided. Such conditions have resulted in disastrous explosions. A gas leak
anywhere along the length of a buried pipe can flow in the
annular space around the pipe and accumulate in a cavity
under the building. Ignition of this accumulated gas can result in an explosion. For this reason, it is best to try to locate the gas main above grade at the point of entrance into
the building. If this is not feasible, the main can be installed
in a ventilated sleeve (containment pipe). The designer
should carefully detail this installation so that leaked gas
will be harmlessly vented to the atmosphere and not accumulated in the building. Gas piping should be located
where it will not be subject to damage by such things as
vehicles, forklifts, cranes, machinery, or occupants. Support
of piping should be in accordance with codes and as described in the chapter Hangers and Supports, in Data
Book Volume 4 (forthcoming).
May/June 2003 Plumbing Systems & Design 33

Continuing Education: Fuel-Gas Piping Systems


Valves, controls, pressure regulators, and safety devices
used in gas systems should be designed and approved for
such use. Shut-off valves should be installed in accessible
locations and near each appliance, with a union between
the valve and the appliance. Shut-off valves should be of the
plug or cock type with a lever handle. Larger sizes should
be of the lubricated plug type. The quarter-turn lever handle provides visual indication of whether the valve is
opened or closed. An approved assembly of semirigid or
flexible tubing and fittings, referred to as an appliance connector, is sometimes used to connect the piping outlet to
the appliance. Appliance connectors are rated by capacity,
based on a specified pressure, flow, and pressure drop.

Laboratory Gas
Natural gas or propane gas is used in laboratories at lab
benches for Bunsen burners and other minor users. Typical
Bunsen burners consume either 5000 cfh (141.6 m3/h)
(small burners) or 10,000 cfh (283.2 m3/h) (large burners).
The maximum pressure at the burner should not exceed 14
in. wc (355.6 mm wc).
The gas distribution piping should be sized in the manner discussed later in this chapter; however, the following
diversities may be applied:
Number
of Outlets
18
916
1729
3079
80162
163325
326742
7431570
15712900
2901 and up

Use Factor
100
90
80
60
50
45
40
30
25
20

Minimum Flow
(m3/h)
9 (0.26)
15 (0.43)
24 (0.68)
48 (1.36)
82 (2.32)
107 (3.03)
131 (3.71)
260 (7.36)
472 (13.37)
726 (20.56)

Branch piping that serves one or two laboratories should


be sized for 100% usage regardless of the number of outlets. Use factors should be modified to suit special conditions and must be used with judgment after consultation
with the owner and/or user.
Some local codes require that laboratory gas systems, especially those in schools or universities, be supplied with
emergency gas shut-off valves on the supply to each laboratory. The valve should be normally closed and opened
only when the gas is being used. It should be located inside the laboratory and used in conjunction with shut-off
valves at the benches or equipment, which may be required by other codes. The designer should ensure that locations meet local code requirements.
Where compressed air is also supplied to the laboratory,
aluminum check valves should be provided on the supply
to the laboratory to prevent air from being injected back
34 Plumbing Systems & Design May/June 2003

into the gas system. An alternative to aluminum check


valves is gas turrets with integral check valves.

Gas Train Vents


Guidelines for the use of vents from pressure regulators,
also referred to as gas-train vents, can be found in the latest editions of NFPA 54 and Factory Mutual (FM) Loss
Prevention Data Sheet 6-4, as well as in other publications
of industry standards, such as those issued by Industrial
Risk Insurers (IRI) and the American Gas Association
(AGA). As a practical matter, many boiler manufacturers
can provide resource materials, such as gas-train venting
schemes, that reference standards organizations. Factors
that determine which standard to reference are based upon
the input (BTU/h) and the owners insurance underwriter.
The plumbing designer must be aware of the existence of
these standardsespecially when designing piping for
boilers with input capacities of 2,500,000 BTU/h (732 kW)
or more that are not listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory agency, e.g., equipment that does not bear a
UL label or have Factory Mutual Research Corporation
(FMRC) approval listing.
Industrial-boiler gas trains often require multiple, piped,
gas-train vents to the atmosphere. These are usually 3/4 in.,
and the material used should follow the classification as
specified in NFPA 54 under the heading Gas Piping System
Design, Materials, and Components. Where multiple gastrain vents are indicated, each shall run independently to
the atmosphere. Care must be exercised in the location of
the termination points of these pipes. Vent pipes should
terminate with 90 ells turned down vertically and be protected with an insect screen over the outlet.
It should be noted that when the pressure regulators activate they can release large amounts of fuel gas. It is not
uncommon for a local fire department to be summoned to
investigate an odor of gas caused by a gas-train vent discharge. Every attempt should be made to locate the terminal point of the vents above the line of the roof and away
from doors, windows, and fresh-air intakes. It should also
be located on a side of the building that is not protected
from the wind. Refer to NFPA 54 and local codes for vent
locations.

Appliances
Most manufacturers of gas appliances rate their equipment by the gas consumption values that are used to determine the maximum gas flow rate in the piping.
The products of combustion from an appliance must be
safely exhausted to the outside. This is accomplished with
a gas vent system in most cases. Where an appliance has a
very low rate of gas consumption (e.g., Bunsen burner or
countertop coffee maker) or where an appliance has an exhaust system associated with the appliance (e.g., gas
clothes dryer or range), and the room size and ventilation
are adequate, a gas vent system may not be required.

Current practice usually dictates the use of factory-fabricated and listed vents for small to medium-sized appliances.
Large appliances and equipment may require specially designed venting or exhaust systems.
For proper operation, the gas vent system must satisfy
the appliance draft and building safety requirements. To
meet these conditions, consideration of combustion and
ventilation air supplies, draft hood dilution, startup conditions, flue gas temperatures, oxygen depletion, external
wind conditions, and pollution dispersion is required. For
example, appliances equipped with draft hoods need excess vent capacity to draw in the draft hood dilution air and
prevent draft hood spillage. Inadequate combustion air
supply can cause oxygen depletion and inadequate firing.
This condition can create a safety hazard because of a combination of draft hood spillage and inadequate flue gas removal. The motive force exhausting flue gases from an appliance can be gravity (a natural draft due to the difference
in densities between hot flue gases and ambient air) or mechanical (induced-draft fan or forced-draft fan). The motive
force involved affects the size and configurations that may
safely be applied to a vent system. The designer is referred
to the chapter on gas vent systems of the local mechanical
or plumbing code and to the data developed by the manufacturers of gas vents for sizing information. Due to the
fact that many codes require that appliances conform to an
approved standard, such as the American Gas Association
(AGA), a simple approach to the design of vent systems
can be as follows:
1. The vent system conforms to the manufacturers instructions and the terms of the listing.
2. The gravity vents cannot exceed certain horizontal
lengths, must exceed certain minimum slopes upward
to their vertical chimneys, and cannot terminate less
than 5 ft (1.5 m) above the appliance outlet.
3. The vent size cannot be smaller than the vent connector collar size of the appliance.
4. The size of a single vent that services more than one
appliance must not be less than the area of the largest
vent connector served plus 50% of the areas of the additional vent connectors.
Since vent chimney heights and flue gas temperatures determine the theoretical draft, there are many situations
where the above approach will produce oversized vent systems. Whatever approach is used, a great deal of care must
be taken when designing vents that are horizontal. It is recommended that every system be engineered and checked
for compliance with codes. A conservative design is warranted in light of the hazards involved.
Combustion air is required for the proper operation of
gas appliances. In addition to the theoretical amount of air
required for combustion, excess air is necessary to ensure
complete combustion. Approximately 1 ft3 (0.03 m3) of air
at standard conditions is needed for each 100 BTU (1055 J)

of fuel burned. Air is also required for the dilution of flue


gases when draft hoods are provided. Some additional
amount of air is also needed for ventilation of the equipment room. This air for combustion, dilution, and ventilation is usually supplied by permanent openings or ducts
connected to the outdoors. Two openings should be supplied. One opening should be high (above the draft hood
inlet) and the other opening should be low (below the
combustion air inlet to the appliance). The size of these
openings can be determined by standard engineering
methods, based on the air balance in the equipment room
and taking into account the energy (natural draft or mechanical) available to draw air into the room; however,
these must comply with codes, which usually give more
conservative opening sizes, based on the area of the opening required per BTU (J) of gas consumed.

Pipe Sizing
A number of formulae can be used to calculate the capacity of natural gas piping based on such variables as delivery
pressure, pressure drop through the piping system, pipe size,
pipe material, and length of piping. Most of these formulae
are referenced in numerous current model codes, as well as
in the NFPA standards. The most commonly referenced formula for gas pressures under 11/2 psi (10.3 kPa) is the NFPA
formula listed in the National Fuel Gas Code, NFPA 54. The
other commonly referenced equation, the Weymouth formula, is applicable only for initial gas pressures greater than 1
psi (6.9 kPa). A third formula, the Spitzglass formula, is limited to gas pressures under 1 psi (6.9 kPa).
The design of piping systems for gas flow is a basic fluid flow problem and its solution is similar to that for any
other pipe-sizing problem. The required flow rate can easily be determined, the pressure losses due to friction can be
calculated, and the required residual pressure at each appliance is usually known. Using basic engineering formulae, the engineer can tabulate the various quantities, establish the pipe sizes for each section of piping, and demonstrate the pressure and flow rate at any point in the system.
The flow of gas in a pipe with pressures not exceeding 1
psi (6.9 kPa) is often computed using the Spitzglass formula, as shown below:
Q = 3550 K h/SL

Equation 4

Q = 3550 K (h/SL)1/2
Q = 3550 [d5h/SL (1 + 3.6/d + 0.03d)]1/2
where
Q = The gas at standard conditions, cfh (m3/h)
K = Constant for a given pipe size
h = The pressure drop, in. (mm) wc
S = Specific gravity of the gas
L = Length of pipe, ft (m)

May/June 2003 Plumbing Systems & Design 35

Continuing Education: Fuel-Gas Piping Systems


Table 1. Equivalent Lengths for Various Valve and Fitting Sizes
Pipe Size, in. (mm)
3/4
1
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
Fitting
(19.1)
(25.4)
(38.1)
(50.8)
(63.5)
(76.2)
Equivalent Lengths, ft (m)
90 elbow
Tee (run)
Tee (branch)
Gas cock
(approx.)

1.00
(0.3)
0.50
(0.15)
2.50
(0.76)
4.00
(1.22)

2.00
(0.61)
0.75
(0.23)
3.50
(1.07)
5.00
(1.52)

2.50
(0.76)
1.00
(0.3)
4.50
(1.37)
7.50
(2.29)

3.00
(0.91)
1.50
(0.46)
5.00
(1.52)
9.00
(2.74)

4.00
(1.22)
2.00
(0.61)
6.00
(1.83)
12.0
(3.66)

5.50
(1.68)
3.00
(0.91)
11.0
(3.35)
17.0
(5.18)

4
(101.6)

5
(127)

6
(152.4)

8
(203.2)

6.50
(1.98)
3.50
(1.07)
13.0
(3.96)
20.0
(6.1)

9.00
(2.74)
4.50
(1.37)
18.0
(5.49)
28.0
(8.53)

12.0
(3.66)
6.00
(1.83)
24.0
(7.32)
37.0
(11.28)

15.0
(4.57)
7.00
(2.13)
30.0
(9.14)
46.0
(14.02)

Note: The pressure drop through valves should be taken from manufacturers published data rather than using the equivalent lengths, since the various patterns
of gas cocks can vary greatly.

The constant for a given pipe size (K) may be calculated


by using the following relation:
K = (D5/1 + 3.6/D + 0.03 x D)1/2

Equation 5

where
K = Constant for a given pipe size
D = Inside diameter of the pipe, in. (mm)
The length used in the above formula should be corrected to allow for the added resistance to flow caused by
valves and fittings in the piping.
This corrected length is called the equivalent length.
Table 1 gives the equivalent lengths for various valve and
fitting sizes. The designer is cautioned to conform to applicable codes for the project location.
The above method is accurate and gives a solution that
Figure 1. Sample System for Pipe-Size Calculation

36 Plumbing Systems & Design May/June 2003

has a definite technical basis. However, in actual practice,


published tables showing the capacities for the various
pipe sizes and lengths give solutions that are quickly and
easily obtained and generally adequate for most situations.
These tables are in many model codes and in National Fire
Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 54. The lengths
shown are developed lengths (lengths measured along the
center line of the piping plus a fitting allowance). The pressure drops include an allowance for a nominal amount of
valves and fittings.
To determine the size of each section of pipe in a gassupply system using the gas pipe-sizing tables, the following method should be used:
1. Measure the length of the pipe from the gas meter location to the most remote outlet on the system. Add a
fitting allowance.
continued on page 37

May/June 2003 Plumbing Systems & Design 37

Table 2. Natural Gas Pipe-Sizing Table


A. For gas pressure < 1.5 psi

Table 2. Natural Gas Pipe-Sizing Table (continued)


B. For gas pressure < 10.3 kPa

Continuing Education: Fuel-Gas Piping Systems

38 Plumbing Systems & Design May/June 2003

2. Select the column showing that distance (or the next


longer distance, if the table does not give the exact
length).
3. Use the vertical column to locate all gas demand figures for this particular system.
4. Starting at the most remote outlet, find in the vertical
column the selected gas demand for that outlet. If the
exact figure is not shown, choose the next larger figure below in the column.
5. Opposite this demand figure, in the first column at the
left, the correct size of pipe will be found.
6. Proceed in a similar manner for each outlet and each
section of pipe. For each section of pipe, determine
the total gas demand supplied by that section.
7. To size all branches, other than the branch to the
most remote outlet, measure the length of pipe from
the outlet to the meter and follow steps 1 through 6
above utilizing the new length.
For conditions other than those covered above, the size
of each gas piping system may be determined by standard
engineering methods acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. The maximum allowable pressure drop through
a system should not exceed 10% of the supply pressure,
which must be verified with the locally referenced code
and the authority having jurisdiction.
Where a gas of a different specific gravity is delivered or
where the pressure differs from what the referenced gas

tables in the local code show, the size of the piping required must be calculated by means of standard engineering methods acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction.
As an example, calculate the following proposed systems pipe size (see Figure 1):
1. The distance from the gas meter to outlet A is 600 ft
(182.9 m).
2. For sizing the pipe from outlet A to the meter, use
Table 2.
Section 1: 400-ft (123-m) length, carrying 150 cfh
(1.2 L/s)using the 400-ft (123 m) column, the size
would be 11/4 in. (31.8 mm).
Section 2: 550-ft (168-m) length, carrying 600 cfh
(4.7 L/s)using an interpolation between the 500-ft
(153.8-m) column and the 750-ft (230.7-m) column,
the size would be 21/2 in. (63.5 mm).
Section 3: 600-ft (183-m) length, carrying 2400 cfh
(18.9 L/s)using an interpolation between the 500-ft
(153.8-m) column and the 750-ft (230.7-m) column,
the size would be 4 in. (101.6 mm).
3. For sizing Section 4: from Table 2 on the 300-ft (91.4m) column, carrying 450 cfh (3.5 L/s), size would be 2
in. (50.8 mm)
4. For sizing Section 5: from Table 2 on the 100-ft (30.5m) column, carrying 1800 cfh (14.2 L/s), size would
be 21/2 in. (63.5 mm).

Continuing Education from Plumbing Systems & Design


Kenneth G. Wentink, PE CPD, and Robert D. Jackson, Chicago Chapter Vice President, Technical
Do you find it difficult to obtain continuing education
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May/June 2003 Plumbing Systems & Design 39

Continuing Education: Fuel-Gas Piping Systems


CE QuestionsFuel-Gas Piping Systems (PSD 115)
1. When multiple industrial gas train vents are
required, the vents should
a. be tied together prior to discharge to the atmosphere.
b. discharge in the room with the gas train.
c. independently extend to the atmosphere.
d. terminate in a weather-protected enclosure on the roof.

7. Which standards formula cannot be used to calculate the capacity of natural gas piping?
a. NFPA
b. National Plumbing Code
c. Spitzglass
d. Weymouth

2. Which of the following must a designer determine


to size the gas piping for a distribution system?
a. Appliance requirements
b. Specific gravity and heating value of the gas to be used
c. Allowable diversity factor
d. All of the above

8. Natural gas has a nominal heating value of __ BTU/Ft 3.


a. 520
b. 800
c. 1,000
d. 2,500

3. The maximum gas pressure that should be delivered to a laboratory Bunsen burner is
a. l0 in. wc.
b. l2 in. wc.
c. l4 in. wc.
d. l6 in. wc.
4. Natural gas is a mixture of gasses, most of which
are hydrocarbons. Which hydrocarbon is the most
predominant?
a. Nitrogen
b. Carbon dioxide
c. Sulfur as H2S
d. Methane

5. One of the motive forces that exhaust flue gases


from an appliance is
a. mechanically induced.
b. air-pressure induced.
c. gas-pressure induced.
d. none of the above.
6. What percentage diversity may be applied to the
gas serving 97 laboratory outlets?
a. 45
b. 50
c. 60
d. None of the above

40 Plumbing Systems & Design May/June 2003

9. Small Bunsen burners in a laboratory typically


consume __ cfh of natural gas.
a. 1,000
b. 5,000
c. 7,500
d. 10,000
10. The most common material used for gas piping
distribution systems is
a. plastic.
b. stainless steel.
c. copper.
d. black steel.
11. An 80% efficient water heater will require __cfh of natural gas, with a heating value of 1,000 BTU/Ft 3, to raise
40 gallons of water 100 F in one hour.
a. 35
b. 41.7
c. 33,200
d. 41,650
12. What percentage of the gas supply pressure is the
maximum allowable pressure drop allowed in a
natural gas piping system?
a. 3
b. 5
c. 10
d. 15

Plumbing Systems & Design


Continuing Education Application Form
1. Make a photocopy of this form. Leaving this page in PSD allows others to use it to obtain continuing education units (CEUs).
2. PRINT your name and address. Be sure to place your membership number in the appropriate space. This form is valid up
to 1 year from date of publication. The PSD continuing education unit program is approved by ASPE for up to 1 contact
hour (0.1 CEU) of credit per article studied.
3. Answer the multiple-choice continuing education (CE) questions (found after each CE article) and the appraisal questions on this
page.
4. Submit this form and the answer sheet below, with the payment of the appropriate fee by check, money order made payable to
ASPE, or submit the credit card information to ASPE Education Credit, 8614 W. Catalpa Avenue, Suite 1007, Chicago, IL
606561116.
5. Participants who earn a passing score (90%) on the CE questions will receive a letter of certification within 30 days of
PSDs receipt of the application (no special certificates will be issued). (CEU information will be retained on the ASPE
Database.) Participants who wish to retake the test should submit their retest along with an additional fee$5 for an ASPE
member (currently waived) or $25 for a nonmember.
Please print or type; this information will be used to process your credits.

Name ________________________________________________________________________________________________
Title ______________________________________________ ASPE Membership No. ______________________________
Organization __________________________________________________________________________________________
Billing Address ________________________________________________________________________________________
City __________________________________________ State/Province ______________________ ZIP ____________
Country __________________________________________ E-mail ____________________________________________
Daytime telephone __________________________________ Fax ______________________________________________
I am applying for the following continuing education
credits:
Fuel-Gas Piping Systems (PSD 115) Total contact
hours applied for: 1.0 (0.1 CEU)
I certify that I have read the article indicated above.
__________________________________________
Signature
Expiration date: Continuing education credit will be given
for this examination through June 30, 2004. Applications
received after that date will not be processed.

ASPE Member

Nonmember

Each examination: $5

Each examination: $25

Limited Time: No Cost to ASPE Member

Payment:

$__________
$__________
$__________

If rebilling of a credit card charge is necessary, a $25 processing fee will be charged.
ASPE is hereby authorized to charge my CE examination fee to my credit card.

Account Number

Signature

PSD Continuing Education Answer Sheet


Fuel-Gas Piping Systems (PSD 115)
Questions appear on page 40. Circle the answer to each question.
Q 1.
A
B
C
D
Q 2.
A
B
C
D
Q 3.
A
B
C
D
Q 4.
A
B
C
D
Q 5.
A
B
C
D
Q 6.
A
B
C
D
Q 7.
A
B
C
D
Q 8.
A
B
C
D
Q 9.
A
B
C
D
Q 10.
A
B
C
D
Q 11.
A
B
C
D
Q 12.
A
B
C
D

Personal Check (payable to ASPE)


Business or government check
VISA MasterCard AMEX

Expiration date

Cardholders name (Please print.)

Appraisal Questions
Fuel-Gas Piping Systems (PSD 115)
Was the material new information for you?
Was the material presented clearly?

Was the material adequately covered?

Did the content help you achieve the


stated objectives?

5. Did the CE questions help you identify specific


ways to use ideas presented in the article?
6. How much time did you need to complete the
CE offering (i.e., to read the article and answer
the post-test questions)? _________________

1.
2.
3.
4.

Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No`
Yes No

May/June 2003 Plumbing Systems & Design 41