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- Earth Quake Risks and Its Reduction Methods for Hill Regions Using Dampers Tec
- A Review of Research on Seismic Behaviour of Irregular Building Structures Since 2002
- ASCE 7-05 Section 121011 Diaphragm Design Forces Civil Structural ENGINEER
- ASCE705.Seismic
- structural analysis of crane hook
- Retrofitting and Rehabilitation of Existing Elevated Water Tank
- Semi-rigid.pdf
- Performance of reinforced concrete frames using force and displacement based seismic assessment methods
- performance based design
- IRJET-PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC EVALUATION OF MULTI-STOREYED REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS USING PUSHOVER ANALYSIS
- GP6 Seismic Design Criteria Salmon
- LRFDGuidelinesForSeismicDesign
- Urban Assessment Rehabilitation Urban Plan
- Performance-Based Seismic Design
- TR132_Gupta.pdf
- Torque Optimization in Triple Offset Butterfly Valve-IJAERDV04I0165062
- Capacity Spectrum Method
- Structural Analysis
- Earthquake Amplification Factors for self supporting 4 legged Tower.pdf
- Robot 2010 Training Manual Metric Pag51-55

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dynamic and non

linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

pbl@civil.uminho.pt

www.civil.uminho.pt/masonry

Safety

Assessment of

Existing Buildings

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

Linear static analysis

Simplification

Paulo B. Loureno

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Ut tensio sic vis or / E = is the elasticity law established by R.

Hooke in 1676.The theory is so extensively used that its limitations and

deficiencies are often forgotten. This is in opposition with early forms of

limit analysis.

B

of the hypothesis for the stress distribution at AB

to Coulomb (1773)

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

As structural collapse does not generally coincide with the appearance

of the first crack or localized early crushing, it seems that the elasticity

theory is a step back with respect to limit analysis

Full nonlinear analysis (the most advanced form of structural analysis)

covers the complete loading process, from the initial stress-free state,

through the weakly nonlinear behavior under service loading, up to the

strongly nonlinear behavior leading to collapse

Interest has been growing since 1970s but it remains a field for

selected (few) specialists due to complexity (knowledge) and costs

(time) involved

packages include some form of nonlinear behavior, but an incorrect use

can be very dangerous

Paulo B. Loureno

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

The modern use of nonlinear analysis focuses mostly on these three

fields:

Complex / stringent safety requirement structures (e.g. nuclear plants,

dams, bridges)

Virtual laboratory for parametric studies

Concrete

(code model)

Steel

(code model)

Geometrical

nonlinearity

Contact nonlinearity

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

Existing Buildings

Vehicles

Settlements

Institute for Sustainability and Innovation

in Structural Engineering

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

Elastic analysis leads

to excessively

conservative

solutions for

unreinforced,

confined, and

possibly, reinforced

masonry

Tomazevic

(Many authors)

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

Robert Hooke (1635-1703)- Principle of the inverted catenary

In 1675 Hooke provided the solution for he

equilibrium of an arch by means of an

anagram included in the book "A

description of Helioscopes and some

other Instruments", which was only

deciphered after his death in 1703.

stabit contiguum rigidum inversum as hangs the

flexible line, so but inverted will stand the rigid arch.

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

| 10

Graphic Statics

The arch is first decomposed in a series of real or fictitious voussoirs

separated by a series of planes (the planes do not need to be parallel)

The thrust line is defined as the geometrical locus of the points of

application of the sectional forces (the resulting forces over each plane

between voussoirs) across the arch

An arch is stable if it is possible

to find a thrust line contained

between its boundaries

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

| 11

Kinematic Analysis

Charles-Agustin COULOMB (1736-1806) proposed in 1773 the first general

and accurate theory on the stability of masonry arches

(1) Sliding between voussoirs is unlikely due to the existing frictional forces

(2) Collapse will be caused by the rotation between parts due to the

appearance of a number of hinges. The location of the hinges is a priori

unknown but can be determined by the method of maxima and minima

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

| 12

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

time the equilibrium line becomes tangent to an alternate boundary. In

this condition (failure), the thrust line is determined and unique.

| 13

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

| 14

Paulo B. Loureno

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

| 15

Linear Elastic Analysis

elastic properties + maximum admissible

stress

1.25

10 kN

2.5

inelastic properties = friction angle +

tensile and compressive strengths

5

Non-linear

Analysis

(Physical

and

Combined)

FULL inelastic properties (ft = 0 and ft

0) + elastic properties

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

Linear Elastic

Failure Mechanism

Linear Elastic

Thrust Line

Phys. Non-Linear

Institute for Sustainability and Innovation in Structural Engineering

Comb. Non-Linear

| 16

Paulo B. Loureno

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

3.0

Load factor

2.5

2.0

1.5

Limit analysis

ft = 0, Physically non-linear

1.0

ft = 0.2 N/mm2, Physically non-linear

0.5

0.0

0

10

Institute for Sustainability and Innovation in Structural Engineering

15

| 17

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

| 18

Approach/Analysis type

Semi-circular arch

Kinematic limit analysis

Geometric safety factor

ft = 0, Physically non-linear

ft = 0, Physically and geometrically non-linear

0.31

1.8

1.2

1.8

1.7

ft = 0.2 N/mm2, Phys. and geom. non-linear

2.5

2.5

The safety factors of a linear elastic analysis and a static limit analysis cannot

be compared with the remaining safety factors.

Physically non-linear analysis and kinematic limit analysis yield the same failure

mechanisms and safety factors?

The consideration of a non-zero, yet low and degrading, tensile strength

increased the safety factors considerably. The post-peak is a key issue.

Different methods of analysis lead to different safety factors and different

completeness of results.

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

| 19

Safety factor: 124%

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

Modal superposition

Linear static analysis

Simplification

| 20

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

| 21

In the recent years new methods of seismic assessment and design have

been developed, particularly with respect to push-over analysis

- Traditional force method, combined with control of performance requirements

based on deformation

- Displacement based method, in which the analysis starts by defining a target

displacement (measuring the structural response).

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

| 22

Traditional Force Method

The stiffness of the members is also considered (the codes might consider

elastic stiffness or 30 to 50% of the elastic stiffness)

Periods are based on stiffness (Note: The design forces can be reduced

about 30 to 50% if the stiffness is reduced to the half)

Forces are distributed in the elements according to the stiffness

Paulo B. Loureno

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Moment (kNm)

Moment (kNm)

Curvature (1/m)

Percentage of reinforcement = 1%

Curvature (1/m)

Percentage of reinforcement = 3%

Moment-curvature curves for circular columns (D=2 m, fc=35 MPa, fy=450 MPa)

Stiffness and strength are correlated!!

Institute for Sustainability and Innovation in Structural Engineering

| 23

Paulo B. Loureno

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

| 24

`

F

HA

HB

Hc

HC

HA

C

HB

Stiffness:

proportional to 1/H3

proportional to 1/H

Shear:

proportional to 1/H3

proportional to 1/H

Moment:

proportional to 1/H2

equal

Reinforcement:

proportional to 1/H2

equal

Ductility:

equal (!)

proportional to 1/H2

Masonry

Structures With

Box Behavior

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

Worst case scenario: Embedded ring beam + Unfilled vertical joints

Moderate damage up to 100% of the design earthquake in Lisbon

Ductile failure for 250% of the design earthquake in Lisbon

| 26

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

URM possesses considerable

capacity for inelastic

deformations, and then the

application of nonlinear analysis

is obvious

Seismic pushover analysis simulates the evolution of the condition of

structures during earthquakes, through application of incremental

horizontal forces until collapse

Assumptions of box behaviour and in-plane response are considered

| 27

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

| 28

Developed in former Yugoslavia and Italy as a reaction of the Skopje earthquake

in 1963, and implemented in the region Friuli-Venezia Giulia after the Friuli

earthquake in 1976 (DT2, 1977)

The following hypothesis are considered:

Thickness of the wall is constant in each level

Slabs are rigid in-plane diaphragms

Ends of the piers do not rotate, but only suffer

translation

Behavior of the piers is elastic-perfectly plastic, with a

predefined ductility

Elastic stiffness of each panel remains constant

Panels collapse by diagonal shear according the

Turnsek-Cacovic expression

Paulo B. Loureno

Additional Macro-Mechanisms

Since the 1980s, observation of damage in masonry

buildings subjected to significant vertical load due to use

of slabs, and constituted by slender piers, introduces a

new trend of research on the combined flexural mechanism

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

1

0.75

Combined

flexural

0.5

Diagonal shear

0.25

Sliding

0

0

0.5

1.5

Slenderness (H/L)

Comb. flexural

Diagonal shear

Sliding shear

| 29

Mixed

2.5

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

Initially these methods only had an impact in the scientific community and the

POR persisted as the method most used by Italian designers

RAN

(Raithel & Augenti)

PEFV

(DAsdia & Viskovic)

MAS3D

(Braga et al.)

| 30

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

As a consequence of the 2002 Molise Earthquake the new Italian code OPCM

3274/2003(3431/2005) was introduced, and macro-elements methods emerge as

modern and practical tools

Spandrel

Pier

Joint

SAM

(Magenes et al.)

3Muri

(Lagomarsino et al.)

3DMacro

(Cali et al.)

| 31

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Validation Example

Paulo B. Loureno

| 32

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

One-dimensional macro-element

Bi-dimensional macro-element

Paulo B. Loureno

| 33

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

| 34

There is commercial software available for structural UR masonry, particularly

in Italy. Benchmarking was made in two publications: Azores 1998, Eds. C.

Sousa Oliveira et al., (2008) and Marques, R., Loureno, P.B., Possibilities and

comparison of structural component models for the seismic assessment of

masonry buildings, Computers and Structures, 89 (21-22), p. 2079-2091 (2011)

Program

AEDES

CMT+L

FEDRA

WIN-Statik MurDim+

Por 2000

TQS CAD/Alvest

Tricalc.13

Tricalc.17

WinMason

3DMacro

3Muri

ANDILWall

MURATS

Sismur

TRAVILOG

Tecnobit

CDMaWin

Country

Italy

Spain

Norway

Sweden

Italy

Brazil

Spain

Spain

USA

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Code

Italian

Eurocode

Eurocode

?

Italian

Brazilian

Eurocode

Spanish

USA

Italian

Italian

Italian

Italian

Italian

Italian

Italian

Italian

Approach

Web adress

FEM and SCM

www.aedes.it

FEM

www.arktec.com/cmtl.htm

FEM

www.runet-software.com/FEDRA.htm

?

www.strusoft.com

SCM

www.newsoft-eng.it/Por2000.htm

?

www.tqs.com.br/v13/alvest.htm

FEM

www.arktec.com/new_t13.htm

FEM

www.arktec.com/new_t17.htm

Storey Mech. www.archonengineering.com/winmason.html

SCM

http://www.3dmacro.it/

SCM

www.stadata.com

SCM

www.crsoft.it/andilwall

Storey Mech.

www.softwareparadiso.it/murats.htm

Storey Mech.

www.franiac.it/sismur.html

Storey Mech.

www.logical.it/software_travilog.aspx

Storey Mech.

www.tecnobit.info/products/murature.php

FEM and SCM www.stsweb.net/STSWeb/ITA/homepage.htm

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Efficient and high level modeling

Paulo B. Loureno

| 35

Paulo B. Loureno

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Recent methods implement capacity/displacement-based seismic design, by

evaluating the evolution of damage and displacement

If the damage evolution can be

used as a measure of seismic

performance, the confrontation

between displacement capacity

and displacement demand is the

rule for safety verification

500

DXF/DWG

Geometric

definition

Structural

objects

Structural

characteristics

Automatic

mesh definition

Equivalent

mesh/frame definition

Non-linear

analysis

A Displacement

capacity

Seismic

parameters

B Displacement

demand

400

300

200

100

Final analysis

0

0

10

20

30

40

Displacement (mm)

| 36

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

In a force based method, the non-linear reserve capacity must be considered

buildings with 2 or more storeys:

EC8:

q = 1.5-2.5 (recommended 1.5)

OPCM 3431:

u /1 (OSR) = 1.8

q = q0 x OSR = 3.6

| 37

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

| 38

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

necessrio ter em conta a reserva de capacidade no linear das estruturas em

ductilidade

simples com 2 ou mais pisos:

EC8:

q(0) = 2.0

OPCM 3431:

u /1 (OSR) = 1.8

q = q0 x OSR = 3.6

| 39

Application

Paulo B. Loureno

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

| 41

Specific weight ,

17.0 kN/m3

2.56 MPa

0.15 MPa

2560 MPa

1024 MPa

1.00

Live load = 1.0 kN/m2

1.50

1.00

1.50

1.50

2.00

1.00

1.50

6.50

1.50

1.50

1.00

1.50

1.00

1.50

0.30

0.30

0.30

1.00

6.50

6.50

6.50

1.00

1.00

1.00

9.00

2.00

2.00

3.00

6.00

Live load = 1.5 kN/m2

1.50

6.50

6.50

Undamaged

Plastic by shear

Failure by shear

Plastic by flexural

Failure by flexural

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

| 42

Pushover Analysis

agR

Zone Soil (m/s2)

1.1 A 2.50

B

1.2 A 2.00

B

1.3

1.4

1.5

S

1.00

1.20

1.00

1.20

agR

Zone Soil (m/s2)

A

B

A

B

1.50 1.00

1.20

1.00 1.00

1.30

2.3

A

B

0.50 1.00

1.30

2.5

2.4

1.70 1.00

B

A

B

A

B

1.35

1.10 1.00

1.33

0.80 1.00

1.35

Elastic Analysis ac. PT NA to EC8 (q=1.5) Elastic Analysis ac. IT OPCM 3431

q q0

Unsafe

Fy

Fel

q 0 OSR

Masonry

Structures

Without Box

Behavior

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

| 44

Gaioleiro-type structure (late 19th century / early 20th century)

Moderate damage for 100% of the design earthquake in Lisbon

Light strengthening and collapse for 150% of the design earthquake in Lisbon

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

Qutb Minar

| 45

28.96

71.48

15.39

12.42

7.73

6.98

3.13

Material: Masonry

Total Height: 72.5 m

Crosss section: shell (3 leaves) + core (2 leaves)

14.07

Paulo B. Loureno

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

| 46

Numerical Modeling

7.0

FEM

UPadova

FEM

CBRI

Beam

Rigid

Blocks

6.0

FEM

UMinho

Axial

Experimental

FEM - UMinho

FEM - UPadova

FEM - CBRI

BEAM

REM

5.0

Bending

Torsion

4.0

Bending

3.0

2.0

Bending

1.0

Bending

0.0

0

Calibration

Paulo B. Loureno

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

| 47

Push-Over Analysis

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.25

Beam model

Rigid model

Solid model

0.05

Mass Proportional

0.00

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Load Factor

Linear Proportional

0.20

1 Mode proportional

1.2

Collapse at the base

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Paulo B. Loureno

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

0.6

1.5

Seismic coefficient Ah

Acceleration [m/s 2]

2.0

1.0

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5

-2.0

10th mode

0.16

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

10

15

Time [s]

20

0.5

1.5

Period [s]

0.4

70

0.3

Collapse: 4th

balcony

0.2

DBE

Record 1

Record 2

Record 3

Record 4

Record 5

Srie7

Srie8

Srie9

0.1

60

50

0

H [m]

-0.1

-0.2

Record 1

Record 2

Record 3

Record 4

Record 5

Srie6

Srie7

40

30

-0.3

20

-0.4

5 balco

4 balco

3 balco

2 balco

1 balco

-0.5

-0.6

-0.7

10

0

0

-0.8

0

10

15

20

25

Tempo [s]

Institute for Sustainability and Innovation in Structural Engineering

50

100

150

200

250

Maximum excentricity

(Bending Moment / Axial Load )

300

REM

| 48

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

Gaioleiro Building

Location: Lisboa

Material: Masonry walls and

timber pavements

No. of storeys: 4 to 6

Numerical model

| 49

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Gaioleiro Building

Paulo B. Loureno

| 50

Paulo B. Loureno

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

| 51

Pushover Analysis

Transversal Direction

Longitudinal Direction

0.3

[ h]

Seismic

de carga []

Factorcoefficient

0.25

[ h]

de carga ()

Seismic

Factorcoefficient

Pushover_1st Mode

Pushover_Mass

Dynamic

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

Pushover_1st Mode

Pushover_Mass

Dynamic

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

Deslocamento

Displacement [m]

0

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

Displacement

Deslocamento

[m]

[m]

0.02

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Numerical model

1 [m/m]

Principal strains

(external surface)

Paulo B. Loureno

Experimental model

| 52

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

Limit equilibrium analysis using the principle of virtual work is currently

understood as the best analysis technique

Overturning

| 53

Conclusions

Types of analysis: Linear static, linear dynamic and non linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

Conclusions

Design and assessment methods based on non-linear analysis should be

used for masonry structures. Linear elastic analysis methods (application of

equivalent static forces and modal superposition) are questionable

are available for masonry with box behavior

It was shown that pushover analyses do not simulate correctly the failure

mode of masonry structures without box behavior, meaning that higher

vibration modes have a significant contribution

Pushover analysis proportional to the mass are probably the best solution is

global structural analysis models are used

For design purposes, particularly for strengthening design, macro-block limit

analysis is probably the best analysis tool for practitioners

More research needs to be done in the field of masonry structures without

box behavior and earthquakes

| 55

Types of analysis:

Linear static, linear

dynamic and non

linear static

Paulo B. Loureno

pbl@civil.uminho.pt

www.civil.uminho.pt/masonry

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