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Article a/an

1. a/an -> one


A and an have the meaning of one.
When you use countable nouns, If it is singular noun, you should use
countable nouns with article (a/an), and if it is plural noun you should
use plural forms of the nouns.
(ex) I have an apple. (one)
(ex) I have two apples.

2. any, every -> represent something


In this case, a/an have the meaning of every or any.
(ex) An owl can see in the dark.
(ex) A frog eats insects.

3. any one or a certain, unspecific things


You can use a/an when you are thinking of unspecific things.
When you don't know about a person, you can use a/an with the
person.
(ex) I have a book about internet.
(ex) A man came to me, and he asked me where a library was.

4. emphasis
You can use a/an after negative, when you need to emphasize
something.
(ex) He didn't tell us a thing about his travel.

5. for each or per


A/an have the meaning of for each or per.
(ex) It cost $2 a kilogram.
(ex) I play computer games 4 times a week.

6. difference between 'a' and 'an'


'a' is used in front of consonants.
'an' is used in front of vowels (a,e,i,o,u)
Article 'a'
a book
a man
a pen

Article 'an'
an apple
an illness
an antenna

You must be careful, in case of 'u' and 'h'.


When 'h' is not pronounced, you should use article 'an' and when 'u' is
pronounced like the consonant, you should use article 'a'.
Article 'a'
Article 'an'
a university
an understanding
a use
an unexpected accident
a hospital
an hour
a horse
an honors
(ex) I'll go to your house in an hour.
(ex) He has to choose a university before taking an examination.

Article 'the'
1. the only one
We use 'the', when there is only one of something.
We can use 'the' with the superlatives.
the moon
the world
the shortest

the earth
the highest
.....

the sun
the longest
.....

(ex) What is the highest mountain in the world?


(The highest mountain is only one in the world)
(ex) Your car is the most expensive car in our school.
(the superlative)
2. to indicate already referred something
We can use 'the', when something (noun) is referred in previous
sentence.
(ex) I have a computer, and the computer is made in U.S.A
(ex) I have a pencil with me, and the pencil costs $2.
3. nouns with qualifying phrases
Sometimes when nouns with qualifying phrases, you can use the nouns
with 'the'.
(ex) The history of Chinese is interesting.
(ex) This is the pencil that I used the day before yesterday.

4. the superlatives, the ordinal numerals, very, only, same


The superlative : the most beautiful, the best, the oldest, .....
The ordinal numbers : the first, the second, the third, the forth, .....
We use the before very, only, same.
(ex) She is the most beautiful women in our school.
(ex) It was the first time that he won in the race.
(ex) Your English book is the same as mine.

5. the + adjective
When we refer to all members of a group, we use the + adjective.
the employed
the homeless
the injured

the dead
the young
the old

the sick
the rich
.....

(ex) The rich should pay more tax than the poor.
(ex) The young can do anything.
6. the + nationality
The + nationality is the people of that country.
the French
the English

the people of France


the people of England

(ex) The French love their country.


(ex) The Chinese have the great of wall.
7. the + a proper noun
a government office, a public institution

the White House


the Central Museum
the Parliament House .....

the state Department


.....

a ship, a train, an airplane

the KAL
the JAL

the Quantas
the Mayflower

the Titanic
.....

a river, a peninsula, a sea, a canal, mountains

the Korean Peninsula


the Pacific

the Atlantic
the Suez

the Yara
.....

a newspaper, a magazine

the Time
the Donga

the Washington Post the Age


.....
.....

(ex) She usually reads the Time.


(ex) When he visited the White House, there were many people.

With the and without the


1. cities, countries, continents, islands, mountains, states
These are examples.
cities
Seoul, New York, Melbourne, London ...
continents North America, Europe, Asia, Africa ...
countries Australia, France, German, China, Korea ...
islands
Bermuda, Hawaii ...
mountains Everest, Fuji, Kilimanjaro ...
states
California, Victoria, Texas ...
But we use the in names of some countries (Kingdom, Republic,
States) : the United States of America (the USA), the USSR, the
United Kingdom, the Philippines ...
(ex) He visited Germany last year and He will visit the USA this year.
(ex) How long had you been in Australia?
2. breakfast, disease, sports game, academic subjects
These are examples.
academic mathematics, politics, physics ...
breakfast breakfast, lunch, dinner
disease
cancer, measles, mumps ...
sports
baseball, basketball, soccer ...
'breakfast', 'lunch', 'dinner' are can be a countable noun or
can be a uncountable noun. (first and second ex)
(ex) We had lunch at 2 PM.
(ex) I'm hungry because I had a poor breakfast.
(ex) She was teaching mathematics in high school.
(ex) He would rather play soccer than watch a soccer game.

3. Names of company
We don't use 'the' with names of company.
Hyundai
Sony
GM

Microsoft
BMW
.....

IBM
Toyota
.....

(ex) He worked for GM in the United States of America.


(ex) Hyundai is the biggest company in Korea.
4. streets, roads, squares, parks .....
We don't use 'the' with names of most streets, roads, squares
parks and so on.
Second Avenue Blackburn Road Spancer street
Seoul Park
.....
.....
(ex) Is there a post office near Spancer street?
(ex) Where is Seoul Park?
5. some social positions and members of family + names ....
When we use some word which indicate social positions, we do
not use 'the'.
Mr, Mrs, Ms, Captain, Doctor .....
President, Princess, Saint, Queen, King ....
Uncle, Father, Mother, Aunt ...
(ex) President Kim was elected last year.
(ex) Many people love Princess Diana.