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All organizations must manage four resources: money, equipment,
information, and people. Investments in better equipment may speed up
production or reduce waste. Information is power; data about products,
prices, and customers are essential to every business. Investments in
training and development of employees can make them more productive
or more effective in their jobs, directly contributing to the bottom line.
Training and development for employment is very important. In a modern
economy like our own the nature of work is constantly changing. New
technologies mean that new work skills are constantly required. To
succeed in business or in a career, people will need to be very flexible
about where they work and how they work, and to constantly change the
range of skills they use at work. To be effective, training and development
and management development programs need to take into account that
employees are adult learners (Forrest &Peterson, 2006). Knowless (1990)
theory of adult learning or Andragogy is based on five ideas:
a) adults need to know why they are learning something,
b) adults need to be self-directed,
c) adults bring more work-related experiences into the learning
d) adults enter into a learning experience with a problem-centered
approach to learning, and
e) adults are motivated to learn by both extrinsic and intrinsic
Burke and Days (1986) meta-analysis of managerial training and
development effects (across six training and development content areas,
seven training and development methods, and four types of training and
development outcomes) showed that managerial training and
development is moderately effective. Collins and Holton (2004), in their
evaluation of 83 studies from 1982 to 2001, including education,
government, medical, and military organizations, came to a similar
conclusion. Even a moderately effective training and development
program can have a substantial effect.
Having a problem-centered approach means that workers will learn
better when they can see how learning will help them perform tasks or
deal with problems that they confront in their work (Aik & Tway, 2006). At
different stages of their careers, employees need different kinds of

training and development and different kinds of development

experiences. Although a business degree might prepare students for their
first job, they will need to gain knowledge and skills through education
and experience as they progress through their career. Peters (2006)
suggests that there are four stages of training and development
management education with different learning outcomes:
a) Functional competence, an understanding of finance, accounting,
marketing, strategy, information technology, economics,
operations, and human resources management;
b) Understanding context and strategy and how organizational
processes interrelate, to make sense of societal changes, politics,
social values, global issues, and technological change;
c) Ability to influence people, based on a broad understanding of
people and motivations; and
d) Reflective skills, to set priorities for work efforts and life goals.
If one wishes to make a distinction between training and development,
it would be that training is directed at helping employees perform better
on their current jobs, whereas development represents a future-oriented
investment in employees.
Many discussions of training emphasize a difference between training
and education. Training programs are considered to be designed to limit
possible employee responses to those behaviors preferred by an
employer. (). Education is considered a means by which the range
of possible employee responses is increased rather than reduced.
Education represents a broadening of the individual so that he or she may
be prepared to assess a variety of situations and select the most
appropriate response. Although many unskilled, semiskilled, and skilled
positions primarily require training, supervisory and management
positions require elements of education. Recently there has been a
blurring of the distinction between training and education. Training
programs have sought to broaden and develop the individual through
education. For instance, employees in the service industries may be
required to make independent decisions regarding their work and their
relationships with clients. Hence, organizations should consider elements
of both education and training when planning their training programs.
Therefore, to maximize the effectiveness of training and development,
organizations must constantly assess their employee current training and
development and development needs and identify training and
development needs to prepare employees for their next position. This
requires that organizations recognize that different employees will have
different needs and that these needs will change over time as these
workers continue in their careers.
Here is a relatively simple overview of typical reference models,

processes and tools found in the effective planning and delivery of

organizational training.

Assess and
agree training

Create training

learning styles
and personality

Plan training
and evaluation

Conduct some
sort of training
identified what
needs analysis.
you want to
Another method
train and
example of
develop in
assessing and
people, you
must break
training is DIF
down the
training or
This commonly
happens in the
Involve the
people in
standards or
identifying and
measures or
parameters to
relevant aligned
each element.
The 360
degree process
and template
values and
and the simple
aspects of
integrity and
planner are
ethics, and
useful tools.
spirituality, love
and compassion Revisit the
at work as well
'skill-sets' and
as skills.
training needs
analysis tools Look also at
they can help
organize and
processes -

learning styles
greatly affect
what type of
training they
will find easiest
and most

Consider modern
innovative methods
- see the
which includes
Community for lots
of providers and

The Kirkpatrick
Look also at
especially helps
you to structure
Remember you
training design.
are dealing with
people, not
Bloom's theory
objects. People
too, so that you
have feelings as
can understand
well as skills
what sort of
and knowledge.
The Erikson
you are actually
model is
wonderful for
Consider team
activities and
more about this.
So is the Johari
Window model. See the selfstudy program
Consider the
design tips team and the
the internet
group. Adair's
offers more
theory helps. So
does the
than ever.
Tuckman model.

Design materials,
methods and deliver

Presentation is an
important aspect to
See also running
meetings and
Good writing
techniques help with
the design of
So do the principles
of advertising - it's
all about meaningful
There is a useful
training providers
selection template
on the sales training
page, which can be
adapted for all sorts
of providers and

there is no point
training people
if they are not
the right people
to begin with.

assessment on
a large scale.

Why people
leave also helps

There are many different training and development methods. On-thejob training, informal training, classroom training, internal training
courses, external training courses, on-the-job coaching, life-coaching,
mentoring, training assignments and tasks, skills training, product
training, technical training, behavioural development training, role-playing
and role-play games and exercises, attitudinal training and development,
accredited training and learning, distance learning - all part of the training
menu, available to use and apply according to individual training needs
and organisational training needs.
Training is also available far beyond and outside the classroom. More
importantly, training - or learning, to look at it from the trainee's
view - is anything offering learning and developmental
experience. Training and learning development includes aspects such as:
ethics and morality; attitude and behaviour; leadership and determination,
as well as skills and knowledge.
Development isn't restricted to training - it's anything that helps a
person to grow, in ability, skills, confidence, tolerance, commitment,
initiative, inter-personal skills, understanding, self-control, motivation (see
the motivation theory section), and more.
If you consider the attributes of really effective people, be they leaders,
managers, operators, technicians; any role at all, the important
qualities which make good performers special are likely to be
attitudinal. Skills and knowledge, and the processes available to people,
are no great advantage. What makes people effective and valuable
to any organization is their attitude.
Attitude includes qualities that require different training and learning
methods. Attitude stems from a person's mind-set, belief system,
emotional maturity, self-confidence, and experience. These are the
greatest training and development challenges faced, and there are better
ways of achieving this sort of change and development than putting
people in a classroom, or indeed by delivering most sorts of conventional
business or skills training, which people see as a chore.

This is why training and learning must extend far beyond conventional
classroom training courses. Be creative, innovative, and open-minded, and
you will discover learning in virtually every new experience, whether for
yourself, your team, or your organization. If you want to make a
difference, think about what really helps people to change.
Many of these methodologies are explained on this website. Explore
them and enjoy them, and encourage others to do the same.
All supervisors and managers should enable and provide training and
development for their people - training develops people, it improves
performance, raises morale; training and developing people increases the
health and effectiveness of the organization, and the productivity of the
The leader's ethics and behaviour set the standard for their people's,
which determines how productively they use their skills and knowledge.
Training is nothing without the motivation to apply it effectively. A strong
capability to plan and manage skills training, the acquisition of knowledge,
and the development of motivation and attitude, largely determines how
well people perform in their jobs.
Training - and also enabling learning and personal development is essential for the organisation. It helps improve quality, customer
satisfaction, productivity, morale, management succession, business
development and profitability.
So, we could conclude that training and development is a systematic
process through which an organizations human resource gain
knowledge and develop skills by instruction and practical activities
that result in improved organizations performance.
The world is changing rapidly in everyday life. In order to be able to
catch up the paces, making the best use of the personnels abilities
became of tremendous significance in the businesses, therefore Human
Resource Management needs to be carefully considered and implemented.
It should be able to deal with the effects of the changing world of work,
which means that people who work in the Human Resources Department
have to be aware of the implications of globalization, technology
requirements, the contingent workforce, decentralized work sites, and
employee involvement etc. Because when either one aspect of above
changes in the working process, it could change the whole business
operation, therefore, it is important for the Human Resource Department
to be prepared and to take control. (Christina Pomoni 2009.) Staff training
and development is an essential and indispensable part of Human

Resource Management, the importance and value of staff training

and development has long been recognized. Consider the popular and
often repeated quotation, Give a person a fish and you feed him for a day.
Teach a person to fish and you feed him for a lifetime. (McClelland 2002,
7) This understandable and far-sighted saying was from a famous ancient
Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius. This saying has explained
clearly how important it is to train an employee to conquer his/her work
than just give him/her a job of income. By observing todays business
climate and the exponential growth in technology with its effect on the
economy and society, the need for training and development is more
pronounced than ever.
Training and development are the process that provides employees
with the knowledge and the skills required to operate within the systems
and standards set by management. (Sommerville 2007, 208)
Training, in the most simplistic definition, is an activity that
changes peoples behavior. (Mccleland 2002, 7)
As discussed above, training and development is an indispensible
part of Human Resource Management activities, more and more
companies have realized how important it is to maintain training and
increase development in the changing and complex work environment.
In modern hotel business, it is all about competence in people, and
especially the employees qualities. The level of service quality
depends on the qualities of employees. The qualities are about
knowledge, skills and thoughts which lead to a hotels survival and
development. Therefore, staff training is essential in many ways; it
increases productivity while employees are armed with professional
knowledge, experienced skills and valid thoughts; staff training also
motivates and inspires workers by providing employees all needed
information in work as well as help them to recognize how important their
jobs are. (Yafang Wang 2008.)
Training and development can be seen as a key instrument in the
implementation of HRM practices and policies. (Nickson 2007, 154155) Successful hotels always include staff training as their important
development strategy. Staff training is a significant part as well as the key
function of Human Resource Management and Development; it is the
crucial path of motivating employees and increasing productivity in the
business. (Mcclelland 2002, 7). Absorbing its rationales from strategic
management, human capital theory and resource-based view (e.g Lepak
and Snell, 1998), human resource development (HRD) is a bundle of
theories, which initially emerged and developed from the traditional
training function and is generally seen as the strategic management of
training and learning, so as ultimately to achieve the objectives of
organization and to ensure the full utilization of the knowledge and skills of
individual employees (Griego; Geroy, and Wright, 2000). In compared with

traditional training, some of the often-argued features of

integration with organizational missions and goals; top
support; line manager commitment and involvement;
complementary HRM activities; recognition of culture; and
evaluation (Garavan, 1991).

HRD include:
existence of
emphasis on

With the development of the technologies and the whole business

environment, employees are requested to be more skilled and qualified,
even if you are a good employee today, you could be out of the line some
other day if you do not keep studying. A company needs organized
staff training if wants to be competitive among others. (Yafang Wang
Staff training is the key task to help everyone in the company to be
more united. An enterprise could hire experienced employees or train
employees to be skilled. When the company trains their own staff, by
providing and forming a harmonious atmosphere, accurate work
specification and the passion of work, team spirit will be built between
employees and management team within the process. (Train, 2009.)
Training of work tasks is one of the main aspects of staff
training, including principles at work, professional knowledge and
skills, by offering employees these essentials, staff training helps
personal abilities match with business requirements. (Train, 2009.)
Training could be enormously demanding and should be in-depth; lack
of training or poor training brings out high employee turnover and
the delivery of substandard products and services. (Sommerville 2007,
However, there is considerable debate within the training and
development literature regarding those distinctions. One of the most
noticeable disagreements is about the applicability of HRD's assumptions
into the organizational context, since there have hardly been any empirical
evidence supporting the successful implementation of a whole set HRD
principles (e.g. Mabey, Salaman and Storey, 1998). This raises a need for
more empirical research to monitor such strategic changes in workplace
training, if it is happening.
Having well-trained and motivated employees cannot be more critical
in service industries, such as hotels. As a labour-intensive industry, the
hotel industry depends upon employees to deliver service to their
customers. It seems obvious that training staff how to deal with people
and provide the right service with the required standards is a must for
hotels in obtaining satisfied customers and generating profit as a result.
Indeed, facing more turbulent market environments, development of
human resources has become a critical issue for the hotel industry in
recent years with the growing interests of relying on it to achieve
competitive advantages (Nolan, 2002). Also, there is a great deal of

literature focusing on and verifying the benefits of offering better training

to improve employee productivity, performance, and motivation in the
service industry.
Yet little research focus has been placed on the strategic aspect of
training and development at hotels organizational level (e.g. Baum, 1995).
On the other hand, due to various reasons, such as the financial constrains
(Wood, 1994), high labour turnover (Boella, 2000) and lack of training
customs (Mullins, 1998), the management of human resources in hotels is
underdeveloped and lacking in sophistication (Lucas, 2004). Given the fact
that the hospitality industries are growing globally in a rapid speed, more
research attention on strategic training and development is needed to
sustain these industries prosperous development.
Training Dates Back to Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution ...
Corporate organizations emerged. Need for training employees on how to
complete specific tasks. Development of technical schools, agriculture and
mechanical colleges, factor schools, etc.
40's ...
Mass production ruled how people worked. Vocational teachers were
teaching job-related skills to those individuals who replaced men that
reported for military duty.
50's ...
Application of scientific management and the need to involve top
management when determining training needs.
60's ...
Training focused on group and individual behavior, motivation, and attitude
70's ...
Training focused







80's ...
Popular training topics were behavior modeling, teamwork, empowerment,
diversity, feedback, and quality circles.
90's ...
Popular training topics have been visioning, learning organizations,
performance management, sexual harassment, reengineering, and
balancing work and family.
00's ...

Popular training topics are employment law, computer security, workplace

violence awareness and prevention, stress management, generational
differences in the workplace, and teamwork.
The purpose of training and development management programs is to
improve employee capabilities and organizational capabilities. When the
organization invests in improving the knowledge and skills of its
employees, the investment is returned in the form of more productive and
effective employees. Training and development programs may be focused
on individual performance or team performance. The creation and
implementation of training and development and management
development programs should be based on training and development and
management development needs identified by a training and
development needs analysis so that the time and money invested in
training and development management programs is linked to the mission
or core business of the organization (Watad & Ospina, 1999). The singular
function of training and development is to produce change. It is the
upgrading of a persons skill or the addition of a new skill, which in turn
can bring about the desired change an agency is seeking. It is important
to understand that training and development in and of itself cannot
motivate a work force. However, it is an integral part of what is needed to
accomplish the long-term goals of the agency.
Often supervisors ask, "Why should I provide training and development
to my staff?" There are many reasons agencies provide training and
development to their employees:
to foster growth and development
to provide opportunities for employees to accept greater
to aid employees in contributing to the achievement
department goals and the agencys mission and vision


to build employee self-confidence and commitment

to produce a measurable change in performance
to bring about the desired changes that can solve a variety of


Providing training and development to an employee benefits both the

employer and employee by:
improving an employees performance
developing the group
organizational goals







giving employees the needed skills and knowledge to complete

assigned jobs, duties and tasks
motivating employees to achieve higher standards
increasing overall efficiency
improving customer service, which leads to customer satisfaction
preparing employees for promotional opportunities
decreasing employee turnover, which reduces down time
enhancing employee morale, motivation, and creativity
enabling managers to reach unit goals and objectives
giving employees the tools needed to analyze interpersonal and
situational factors that create obstacles to achieving high
There are a number of ways to determine the type of training and
development an employee will need.
1) Request from employee Employees usually are the first to recognize
the need for additional training and development. This need can
result from the assignment of a new task, technological changes, or
just a realization that additional training and development would
result in a more efficient work product.
2) Change in agency vision or mission Agency vision and mission can
sometimes change due to state or federal legislation. Thus
employees may be assigned new duties or positions may be
restructured. Before assigning new duties and responsibilities to
employees, decide if the employees will need additional training and
development. Remember, the reason for providing training and
development is to produce a change or provide support so employees
can reach their goals and objectives; thus attaining the agencys
vision and mission.
3) Determination through performance management review An
excellent time to determine training and development needs is when
a performance review is completed on employees. What additional

training and development would be needed to assist employees to

meet or exceed job expectations? Based on the employees selfassessment of identified strengths and improvement opportunities,
an analysis should follow to determine training and development that
may be needed to improve overall work performance.


There is no pre-determined "check list" regarding the type of training
and development needed to ensure employees will always meet
performance expectations. Since each individual is different, supervisors
will have to make a thorough assessment of the type of training and
development needed. Human Resource Management Services conducts a
yearly training and development needs assessment to ensure programs
are being offered that meet agency requirements. Agencies can also
contact Human Resource Management Services to arrange for specific
training and development based on performance management review,
revised missions and vision, etc. There are basically two types of training:
A. On The-Job Training
Employees develop and improve their work skills whilst actually
doing the job in question. For example, word processor operators
rapidly improve their skills by constant practice. A supermarket till
operator quickly learn effective practice by working alongside a
more skilled mentor.
B. Off-The-Job Training
Employers will often encourage their employees to develop their
skills through off-the-job training courses. For example, a trainee
may be allowed to attend a day-release course at the local college.
This might apply to a wide range of different skills including
hairdressing, banking, insurance, electrical work and plumbing.
Moreover, the two types of training and development above can be
divided into seven types of training and development programs.
1. Technical Training And Development
Technical training and development can take place in the classroom.
However, most technical training and development sessions are
practical training and development. On-the-job training and
development is part of the technical training and development. The
benefits of providing technical training and development is to
improve on work performance. Many organizations provide in-house
technical training and development.
2. Quality Training And Development
Quality training and development includes customer service training
manufacturing plant involves knowledge of total quality
management. Quality training and development involves finding
solutions to improve processes and products. Quality training and






development is an on-going effort to instill the philosophy of

continuous improvement.
Skills Training And Development
Skills training and development involves presentation, selling,
languages, public speaking, negotiation, and languages. Many
organizations realize the potential of soft-skills training and
development. They spend money to develop in-house soft-skills
training and development program. They want their employees to
develop creative-thinking skills, communication skills, and other
skills essential to the long-term survival of the organization.
Professional Training And Development
Organizations needs professionals in various departments. However,
organizations generally do not have the expertise to provide
professional training and development. They send their employees
for courses to obtain professional qualifications.
Functional Training And Development
Functional training and development can take place as part of onthe-job training and development. Functional training and
development includes diplomas or degrees in the respective field of
expertise. For example, a diploma program in purchasing and
material management is a part time academic program.
Team-Bonding Activity
The organization pays money to engage employees in team-bonding
activities. The purpose of this training and development is to develop
leadership and teamwork. Team-bonding activity usually took place
outdoor. Organizations use rock climbing, canoeing, and other
outdoor activities as part of a team-bonding program.
Managerial Training And Development
Some organizations encourage their managers to attend expensive
seminars as part of managerial training and development. The
purpose of managerial training and development is to learn from the
best practices in the industry. The organizations want their managers
associates.Organizations usually apply a top-down approach in
administration of training and development and development
program. Organizations do not encourage staff to use the company's
resources to learn about cooking or other self-improvement

There are core or basic training programs needed when a person

accepts supervisory or management positions, such as:
Understanding management, organizational and motivational
theory, and application
Planning, setting, and carrying out organizational objectives
Planning and leading effectively

Specific training needed when an individual enters a supervisory

position is:
Planning, scheduling, and delegating work assignments.
Communicating, handling conflict, and handling grievance
Understanding various state and federal employment laws.
Interviewing and completing performance management reviews.
Setting unit goals and objectives.


Figure below presents important steps in the training process.

A. Assess Objectives & Training Needs

An organization must first assess its objectives: what business are
we in? What product or service do we wish to provide to customers? At
what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service?
Once an organization has answered these and similar questions, an
assessment of human resource requirements should be undertaken.
Can our human resource provide the skills, knowledge, abilities, and
other personal attributes that are necessary? To the extent that they
may lack these attributes, training may be required. The assessment
of training needs is perhaps the most important step in the process.
Use a restaurant as an example, table 8.1 shows skills, knowledge, and
attitudes need to be used in planning menus for special occasions.
Table 8.1 Planning Menus for Special Occasions (Food & Beverage
Task elements
Ability to:
Conferring with organizer
Assessing the circumstances, situation, and occasion
Assessing the potential of the kitchen
Taking account of seasonal variations
Considering the suitability of different menu items
Suggesting a range of prices
Suggesting appropriate menus/beverages
Finalizing the organizers requirements
Obtaining agreement
Skills, knowledge, and attitudes

Ability to:
Comprehend, read, write, calculate, and communicate
Use price lists
Suggest dishes, wines, beverages suitable for various
Liaise with kitchen staff
Plan menus
Knowledge of:
Dishes available in the establishment
Suitability of various dishes
Foods in season
Gastronomic rules when planning a menu
Wines and beverages available and their suitability
Planning for various types of special occasions
Types of meals suitable for special occasions
Establishments marketing policy
Legal aspects
B. Select Trainees and Training Goals
After needs have been assessed, trainees must be selected and
training goals established. Trainees should be selected with care,
ensuring that they and the organization will benefit from their inclusion
in the training program. The training goals should ensure that the
assessed needs will be served.
C. Select Training methods and Trainers
Once training goals have been established, it is necessary to
determine how to conduct the training. This includes the selection of
training and development techniques and trainers for the
program. Additionally, employees ability should be considered when

designing the training program.

Great care must be exercised in choosing effective instructors or
trainers. Personal characteristics (such as the ability to speak well, to
write convincingly, to organize the work of others, to be inventive, and
to inspire others to greater achievements) are important factors in the
selection f trainers. HR specialists or hired outside consultants who
report to the HR manager or other top managers are also used to
perform a needs analysis and to conduct the training. Although much
formal training is performed by professional trainers, often operating
supervisors may be the best trainers technically, especially if the
training manager helps them prepare the material. Using operating
managers as trainers overcomes the frequent criticism that training is
OK in the classroom, but it wont work on the shop floor or back on the
After that the program is run. That includes selection of content and
methods to be used and the actual training method. In many situations
a combination of instructional methods are used.

objectives and strategies

Nature of current or
anticipated training

Selection of trainees

Establishment of
training goals

Selection of appropriate
training techniques and

Application of training

Selection and
application of
evaluation design

Monitoring of
training program

Overall evaluation of
training program
Flowchart of Training and Development Process

On-the-job training
Probably the most widely used method of training is on the job
training. It is estimated that more than 60% of training occurs on
the job. The employees are placed in the real work situation and
shown the job and the tricks of the trade by an experienced
employee or the supervisor. One approach to systematic on the job
training is the job instruction training (JIT) system developed during
World War . In this system the trainers first train the supervisors,
who in turn train the employees.
Case method
One widespread technique is the case method, which uses a written
description of a real decision-making situation in the organization or
a situation that occurred in another organization. Managers are
asked to study the case to identify the problems, analyze the

problems for their significance, propose solutions, choose the best

solution, and implement it. More learning takes place if there is
interaction between the managers and the instructor.

Role playing is a cross between the case method and an attitude
development program. Each person is assigned a role in a situation
(such as a case) and asked to play the role and to react to other
players role playing. The success of this method depends on the
ability of the players to play the assigned roles believably. If done
well, role playing can help a manager become more aware of and
more sensitive to the feelings of others. Although role playing is a
cross between the two, comparison of the general forms of role
playing and the case method suggests a few differences between
Case Study

Role Playing


Presents a problem
for analysis and discussion.

1) Places the problem in a real-life



Uses problems that

have already occurred in the
company or elsewhere.

2) Uses problems that are now

current or are happening on the


Deals with problems

involving others.


Deals with emotional

and attitudinal aspects in an

3) Deals with problems in which

participants themselves are


Emphasis is on using


Trains in the exercise

of judgments.


Provides practice in
analysis of problems.

4) Deals with



5) Emphasis is on feelings.
6) Trains in emotional control.
7) Provides
interpersonal skills.


In-Basket Technique
Another method used to develop managerial decision-making
abilities is the in-basket technique. The participant is given
materials (typically memos or descriptions of things to do) that
include typical items from a specific managers mails, and a
telephone list. Important and pressing matters, such as complaints

by customers and a demand for a report from a supervisor, are

mixed in with routine business matters, such as a request to speak
at a dinner or a decision on the date of the company picnic four
weeks hence. The trainee is analyzed and critique on the number of
decisions made on the time allotted, the quality of the decisions,
and the priorities chosen for making them. In order to generate
interest, the in-basket materials must be realistic, job-related, and
not impossible to make decision on.

Management Games
Management games describe the operating characteristics of a
company, industry, or enterprise. These descriptions take the form
of equations that are manipulated after decisions have been made.
Management games emphasize development of problem solving
skills. There are so many kinds of management games, such as
computerized management game procedure, Looking Glass,
Simmons Simulator, Financial Services Industry.
Behavior Modeling
A development approach for improving interpersonal skills is
behavior modeling, which is also called interaction management or
imitating models. The key to behavior modeling is learning through
observation or imagination. Thus modeling is a vicarious process
that emphasizes observation. There are 4 steps in the process: 1.
Modeling of effective behavior often by use of films. 2. Role
playing. 3. Social reinforcement trainees and trainers praise
effective role playing. 4. Transfer of training to the job.

Outdoor Oriented Programs

Cases, games, modeling, and role playing, are still popular, but an
increasingly popular form of development is outdoor or real-life,
action-oriented programs. Leadership, teamwork, and risk-taking
are top-priority items in the outdoor oriented programs.


In a labor intensive industry such as hospitality, the effective
utilization of human resources can give a hotel a competitive advantage.
In view of the growing importance of tourism in both Singapore and Bali, it
is absolutely essential for hotels in both countries to develop efficient
human resource management practices capable of providing excellent
quality of service. Hotels must develop human resource practices which
will enable them to recruit, select and retain competent employees who
can contribute to the achievement of their objectives. Hotels in both

Singapore and Bali have overseas guests who require high standards of
service quality. To encourage tourists to stay in hotels, the hotels must
meet the guests expectations of service quality (Nankervis and Debrah,
Steps In Needs Assessment In Human And Resources Department
Bali Hyatt Hotel,Sanur
There are certain kinds of models with different steps suggested for
needs assessment in Human And Resources Department Bali Hyatt Hotel,
Sanur. To begin with, steps in needs assessment are stated as the
1) Identify users and the uses of the needs assessment
2) Describe the target population and the service environment
3) Identify needs by describe problems & solutions
4) Assess the importance of the needs
5) Communicate results
Richards (2001) suggests that decisions on the practical procedures
in collecting, organizing,
analyzing and reporting the
information collected be made. He states that there needs to be a clear
reason for collecting different kinds of information and so as to ensure
that only information that will actually be used is collected.
Training and Development Assessment In Human And Resources
Department Bali Hyatt Hotel,
Based on the data that I got from HR Department Bali Hyatt Hotel, I
can conclude that the employee-centered workforce development involves
a series of interactions between job experiences and skill development.
The employee-centered workforce development strategy would provide
first-job employees with a development experience consisting of training
in general job skills such as
problem solving, and
working with others.
The training experience will also provide an opportunity to
counsel employees on self-management,
work habits, and
work attitudes.
In the employee centered model, employees acquire knowledge as a
career-long process with a heavy emphasis on self-learning. The
employee-centered model also places a heavy emphasis on developing
the capacity for learning new skills with expanding job opportunities.
have shown that through training, employee morale and
satisfaction, company productivity and service quality improved. Proper
evaluation of training programs must be done to ensure the programs

benefits outweigh the costs. Hotels can also look at other industries for
ideas when developing new training programs as a way to have a
competitive advantage. Hotels should also develop training programs with
its business objectives, core values and strategic goals in mind. Lastly, to
ensure the success of training programs in the hotel industry, programs
should be evaluated regularly to monitor the
success of the
programs.Training and development are essential in providing employees
with the right skills for their present and future jobs. The world today is
constantly evolving, with customers demanding more, which in turn adds
pressure to companies and their employees. Assessing the needs of hotel
staff members will lead to other studies such as syllabus design, materials
development and design, implementation and evaluation of the courses
in the program. A variety of factors, including resources and the target
population, can influence the decision of when to conduct another needs
assessment. Regularly revisiting the data from a prior needs assessment
in light of changing conditionshelps signal when the earlier information
becomes seriously outdated or is no longer appropriate for characterizing
the target population. Using a variety of needs assessment techniques
and instruments and including stakeholders; especially those involved in
tourism and travel business; namely, tour guides, travel agents, tour
operators and hotel managers as data collection sources may enhance
the quality of a needs assessment study.
It would be interesting to see how further studies about hospitality
training in terms of training designs can be developed. Assessing the
needs of staff members will lead to other studies such as training design,
materials development and design, implementation and evaluation of the
training. A variety of factors, including resources and the target
population, can influence the decision of when to conduct another needs
assessment. Regularly revisiting the data from a prior needs assessment
in light of changing conditions helps signal when the earlier information
becomes seriously outdated or is no longer appropriate for characterizing
the target population.
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