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Cell Biology

Properties of Cells
CellTheory
1.Allorganismsarecomposedofoneormorecells
2.Cellsarethesmallestlivingthingsandarethebasicunitsoforganization
3.Cellsariseonlybydivisionofapreviouslyexistingcell
CellSizeandLimitation
Theadvantagesofalargesurfaceareaofvolumeratio:
1. Ascellsizeincreases,volumeincreasesmorerapidlythansurfacearea
2. Thecellsurfaceprovidestheonlyopportunityforinteractionwiththeenvironment
3. Thereismoreareafordiffusion
Prokaryoticvs.EukaryoticCells
Characteristic
SizeofCell
Nucleus
Flagella
CellWall
PlasmaMembrane
Ribosomes
Chromosomes
CellDivision

Prokaryotic
Typicallyverysmall
Nonuclearmembraneor
nucleoli
Consistoftwoprotein
buildingblocks
Usuallypresentand
chemicallycomplex
Nocarbohydrates
Smallersize(70S)
Singlecircularchromosomes;
lackshistones
BinaryFission

Eukaryotic
Typicallylarger
Tuenuclear,consistingofa
nuclearmembrane
Complex;consistofmultiple
microtubules
Whenpresent,chemically
simple
Carbohydratesthatserveas
receptorsarepresent
Largersize(80S)
Multiplelinearchromosomes
withhistonesarrangement
Mitosis

Organelles
Nucleus
Structure:surroundedbythenuclearenvelopeandcontainschromatinandnucleolus
Function:controlsallthecellsactivitiesbecauseitcontainsDNA
Nucleolus
Structure:visiblestructureinthenuclear
Function:producesribosomes
Cytoplasm
Structure:consistsofallorganellesandcytosolcombined
Function:providesaplaceforcellularfunctionstooccur

Centrosome
Structure:madeofmicrotubules
Function:involvedincreatingmicrotubulescalledspindlefibersinmitosis
GolgiApparatus
Structure:Astackofmembraneboundvesicles
Function:involvedinpackagingproteinsandsendingthemoutforusebytheorganism
Lysosomes
Structure:vesiclesthatcontainenzymes
Function:enzymesinthelysosomeareusedtobreakdownfood,oldorganellesanddamaged
cells
CellMembrane
Structure:madeofaphospholipidbilayer,containsmembraneproteins
Function:controlswhatentersandleavesthecell
Mitochondria
Structure:hastwomembranesandtheinnermembranehasmanyfoldscalledcristae
Function:isusedduringcellularrespirationtoproduceenergyforthecell
Vacuoles
Structure:amembraneboundsacthatislargerinplantcellsthaninanimalcells
Function:usedforthestorageofwater,foodandwastes.Inplantcellsithelpsmaintainturgor
pressure
CellWall
Structure:arigidstructureoutsidethemembraneinaplantcellmadeofcellulose
Function:providesstructuretosupportthecellandaprotectivebarrierforthecell
Chloroplasts
Structure:hasadoubleoutermembraneandcontainsmanystacksofstructurescalledthylakoids,
whicharecoveredwithchlorophyll
Function:Photosynthesisoccursinthechloroplastsonthesurfaceofthethylakoids
SmoothEndoplasmicReticulum
Structure:anetworkofmembraneboundvesiclesandtubulesasacontinuationoftheouter
nuclearmembrane
Function:somefunctionsincludelipidandsteroidhormonesynthesisandthebreakdownof
toxinsinlivercells
RoughEndoplasmicReticulum
Structure:Anetworkofmembraneboundvesiclesandtubules.Itappearsroughbecauseit
coveredinribosomes
Function:Proteinsmadeontheribosomesarepackagedandtransportedthroughoutthecell
Ribosomes

Structure:madeofrRNAandprotein,containstwopartscalledthelargeandsmallsubunit
Function:proteinsaresynthesizedontheribosomes

Drawing Biological Specimens


CalculatingMagnification

actual cell=

field of view
number of cells across

average real c ell


the drawingmicrometers
magnification=

BiologicalDrawings
1.Titleshouldbethenameofthethingthatisbeingdrawn
2.Showingmagnificationcalculationsatthebottomofthepage
3.Labelsshouldlineupontherightsideofthedrawing

Cell Division
BinaryFission
OccursinProkaryoticCells
1.DNAreplicationoccursforthenakedDNA(nohistones)toduplicate
2.DNAseparatesascytokinesisoccurs
CellCycle
Interphase=growthofthecell,proteinsynthesis,metabolicpathways
Mitosis=thecellisduplicated
Cytokinesis=thecytoplasmissplitintotwodaughtercells
Mitosis
OccursinEukaryoticCells
1.Prophase
2.Metaphase
3.Anaphase
4.Telophase

Prophase
1.Thenuclearmembranebreaksdownsoall92chromosomescanfitacrossthecell
2.DNAcondensestoformchromosomesandspindlefibersfromthecentrosomesonpolarends
ofthecell
Metaphase
1.Chromosomesaremovedtothecentralplaceinthecell
2.Spindlefibersattachtoeachsisterchromatidatthecentromere
Anaphase
1.Thesisterchromatidsseparatebythespindlefibersandthecentromeresdivide
Telophase
1.ThesisterchromatidsrelaxintomessyDNA
2.ThenuclearmembranebeginstoreformaroundtheDNA
3.Spindlefibersbreakdown
CytokinesisinAnimalvs.PlantCells
Animals:Microfilamentscontracttoformacleavagefurrowwhichthenpinchesofftoformtwo
daughtercells
Plants:vesiclesforminthemiddleandjointoformacellwallbetweendaughtercells

CellCycleRegulation
Itisimportantthatcellsonlygrowwhentheyareneededandnotallthetime

Cyclinsareproteinsthatregulatethecellcyclebybindingtoenzymescalledcyclindependent
kinases(CDK)
Theattachmenttriggerstheotherproteinstobecomeactiveandcarryouttasksspecifictooneof
thephasesofthecellcycle
CyclinD:coordinatescellgrowthandthestartofanewcycle(presentinG1,S,G2andM)
CyclinE:startstheinitialprocessofDNAreplication(presentinS)
CyclinA:inducesDNAreplicationandactivatesDNAproteins(presentinG2)
CyclinB:influencestheformationofmitoticspindlesandalignmentofsisterchromatids(present
inM)

Membrane Structure
BilipidLayer
TheBilipidlayersofphospholidsareamphipathic(bothhydrophobicandhydrophilic).The
phosphateheadishydrophilicwhilethefattyacidtailsarehydrophobic.
CholesterolinMembranes
Cholesterolkeepsthemembranefluidandflexiblebydisruptedfattyacidtailpackingsothe
membraneisntsolid,theOHpartofcholesterolstaysnearthehydrophilicendsofthe
membrane.
Proteins
IntegralProteins:spanthehydrophobicandhydrophiliclayersbecausetheyareamphipathic
PeripheralProteins:stayontheoutsideofinsidebutnotthroughthemembrane
Glycoproteins:havecarbohydratesontheendusedforcellsignalandcommunication,aswellas
selfrecognition

Membrane Transport
SimpleDiffusion
SendingmoleculesthroughtheBilipidlayerdowntheconcentrationgradient,mostlygasesand
smallparticles.Requiresnoenergyorproteins,thereforeitispassivetransport.
FacilitatedDiffusion
Requiresanintegralproteintomovemoleculesdowntheconcentrationgradient,usesprotein
channelsandisusedforlargermoleculesthereforeitispassivetransport
ActiveTransport
RequiresATPtochangetheconfirmationofaproteintopumpmoleculesfromlowtohigh
concentrations.Usedforsugars,ionsandlargemolecules.

Osmosis
Osmosisisthemovementofwatermoleculesacrossamembranefromhighconcentrationtolow
concentrations.
HypotonicSolution
Cellhasahighersoluteconcentration,watergoesintothecellandthecellswellsbecausewater
goesintothecell
HypertonicSolution
Cellhasalessersoluteconcentration,waterleavesthecellandthecellshrivelsup
IsotonicSolution
Thesamepercentageofsoluteisinthesurroundingsolutionandthecellsothecellremains
constant

Bulk Transport
Endocytosis
Theprocessinwhichthecelltakesinmoleculesbypinchingofftheplasmamembrane
1. Phagocytosis=celleatinginwhichittakesinsolidparticles
2. Pinocytosis=celldrinkingwhereittakesinextracellularfluid
Exocytosis
Moleculesareejectedfromvesiclesasitbindstothecellmembrane

Molecular Biology
The Basics
Organicvs.Inorganic
Organicmoleculeshavethepresenceofcarbon
Inorganicmoleculesdoesnotcontaincarbonbutarestillnecessarytolife
ImportantElementsandtheirFunctions
Sulfur=importantelementfoundinaminoacids
Calcium=foundinbonesandusedformusclecontractions
Iron=foundinhemoglobintocarryoxygen
Phosphorus=foundincellmembranestructures

Carbohydrates
Monosaccharaides
Singlesugarsthatcontaincarbon,hydrogenandoxygen
Glucose=mostsimplesugar
Fructose=fruitsugar
Galactose=milksugar

Disaccharides
Twosugarsjoinedbyacovalentbond
Sucrose=glucose+fructose
Lactose=glucose+Galactose
Maltose=glucose+glucose
DehydrationSynthesis
Twomonomersjointogetherintopolymerswhileloosingwatermolecules.Thishappensasone
monomerlosesOHandtheotherloosesHformingaglycosidicbond.

Hydrolysis
Theprocesstobreakdownlargemoleculesintomonomerssotheybecomeunusableforthebody,
anenzymeaddswatertoaglycosidicbond,whichbreaksapartintoOHandH.
Polysaccharides
Longchainsofsugarusedforstrangebecausetheyarenotwatersolubleandarebondedby
glycosidicbonds
Starch=mainlyfoundinplantsandisalongchainofglucose
Cellulose=longchainofglucosefoundinthecellwall
Glycogen=foundinanimalsforenergystorage,longchainofbranchedglucose

Lipids (Fats)
Triglyceride
Amonomerofafatmolecule
Aglycerolandthreefattyacidtailsarejoinedbycondensationsynthesistoformanesterbond
andproducethreemoleculesofwater
Insolubleinwater(hydrophobic)

Saturatedvs.UnsaturatedFat
SaturatedFat:Sincethefattyacidtailsarestraight,theyareeasilystackedandthereforebecome
asolidatroomtemperature,andbecauseitissoliditcanclogarteries
UnsaturatedFat:sincefattyacidtrailsarebenttheydonotstackorstoreeasilyandareliquidat
roomtemperature.TheCISbondwiththehydrogensonthesamesidedistinguishesan
unsaturatedfat.

Transfats
Thetranstailisclassifiedbecausehydrogensareondifferentsidesthereforeitisnotaccepted
bythebody.Alsothetailisnotasbentthereforeitcanbesolidatroomtemperature.

Carbohydratesvs.Lipids
Carbohydrates:Moreeasilydigestedthanlipidssotheenergystoredbythemcanbereleased
morerapidly.Theyaresolubleinwaterthereforeeasilymoveinandoutfromstorage.
Lipids:Containmoreenergythancarbohydrateshoweverlipidsareinsolubleinwaterandcan
onlybeutilizedatlowerlevelsofenergy

Cholesterol
Cholesterolisawaxy,fatlikesubstancethatthebodyusesincellsandnervestomakehormones,
protectnerves,andmakeupmembranes.Itisfoundinfoodsofhighsaturatedfats.
Problems:Cholesterolisdistributedthroughthebloodstreamandifyouhaveanexcessive
amount,itgetsstoredinthearteriesasplaqueandcancausecoronaryheartdisease

Protein Functions
Proteins
Polymersofaminoacids(polypeptide)
Eachsequenceofaminoacidsidentifiestheprotein
Madeofcarbon,hydrogen,oxygenandnitrogen
Rubisco
Anenzymeinvolvedincarbonfixationinphotosynthesis
Immunoglobin
AlargeYshapedproteinproducedbytheimmunesystemtofightinfection
Collagen
Aproteinthatbuildsmuscle,tendonsandligaments
Rhodopsin
Aproteinlinkedtoapigmentfoundinthephotoreceptorcellsintheretinaoftheeyes,it
recognizeslightandsendstheinformationtothebrain
ProteinFolding
1.Primary=sequenceoflongaminoacidchain
2.Secondary=sidegroupsformtogetherbyhydrogenbondstomakeshapes,eitherabetasheet
oranalphahelix.
3.Tertiary=formationofa3Dshape.Therearefourbondsthatstabilizetheshape.
Hydrogenbond(OHbindswithH)
HydrophobicInteraction
DisulfideBridge(SS)
IonicBond(NH3O)
4.Quaternary=multiple3Dshapesformtogether

FormationofaPeptideBond
DehydrationsynthesisoccurssuchthattheOHfromoneaminoacidandtheHfromanotherform
water,whichleavesthebondtoformapeptidebond.

Apolypeptidechainwillalwaysstartandendwiththesamething,highlightedinyellowinthe
diagramabove.

Properties of Water
CohesionFactor
H2Ohassurfacetension
Goodforwatertransportinplants
ThermalFactor
Highspecificheatcapacity(waterneedsalotofenergytoheatup)
Regulatestemperatureinwaterbecauseofhydrogenbonds
UniversalSolvent
Waterhasapositiveandnegativeside,whichattractsionstoeitherside
HydrogenBonding
Temporarybonding(weak)betweenthepositivehydrogensideandthenegativeoxygenside

Enzymes
Enzymes
Enzymesspeedupchemicalreactionsastheyserveasacatalyst
Hasaspecific3Dshapewithanactivesitethatonlyfitsonemolecule
Theshapeoftheproteinisdictatebysequenceofaminoacids
Enzymesworktobreakdownaspecificsubstrateintoafinalproduct
EnzymeRegulation
Enzymesaretertiaryfolded(3Dshape)theretheycanbeirreversibledenatured(nomoreactive
site),theyneedtoberegulatedbecausethebodyneedsabalancebetweenthesubstrateandthe
finalproduct.
NegativeFeedbackRegulation

Thefinalproducttellsthefirstenzymeintheanabolicpathwaytostopproducingitwhenthere
becomesasurplusofthefinalproduct,orashortageoftheoriginalsubstrate
Exampleofthisisthreonine(aminoacid)thatgetsturnedintoisoleucine,whichcaninhibit
Enzyme1topreventtheproductofthefinalproduct.
CompetitiveInhibition
Aninhibitorlookssimilartoasubstrateandoccupiestheactivesitesothesubstratecannotbind
Athighsubstrateconcentrationsthereislesseffectbytheinhibitorasitismorelikelythe
substratewillbindthantheinhibitor
Toreverseyoumustaddmoreinhibitors
NonCompetitiveInhibition
Thefinalproductbindswithasitecalledtheallostericsitetoturnoffenzymeactivity
Oncetheinhibitorbindsandshiftsofftheactivesite,thesubstratecannolongerbindsotherate
ofreactionisalwayslow
Toreverseyoucanremoveinhibitorsoraddenzymes

DiagramsofNoncompetitiveandCompetitiveInhibition

DNA
The structure of DNA/RNA
NucleicAcids(NitrogenousBases)
Adenine(A)=purine(2rings)
Guanine(G)=purine(2rings)
Cytosine(C)=pyrimidine(1ring)
Thymine(T)=pyrimidine(1ring)
A+T,C+GbecauseDNAisalways3ringswide
SugarPhosphateBackbone

DNAconsistsofaphosphateandadeoxyribose(sugar)base
Thesugar/phosphatebackbonedoesnotchangeeventhoughthesequenceofATCGpairingsdoes
change
Thenitrogenousbases(ATCG)arebondedwithhydrogenbonds
DNAhasanantiparallelstructuresuchthatonesidegoesfrom5to3,whiletheothergoesfrom
3to5andisinadoublehelixform
RNA
RNAissimilartoDNAhoweverthedifferenceisthatthebasesugarisribose,andinsteadof
Thymine,RNAcontainsUracil(U),whichstillpairswithA
MeselsonandStahlsExperiment
TheirexperimentprovedhowDNAreplicatesinasemiconservativemanner(suchthatthereis
alwaysoneparentstrandandonedaughterstrand
1. GrewbacteriainanN15medium,thereforeDNAwastaggedwithN15
2. RemovedbacteriaandallowsittogrowinN14medium
3. IsolatedtheDNAfrombacteriaandplaceitinasolutionofchlorideinacentrifugeand
spunitaround,DNAcontainingjustN15washeavyandsunkinthesolution,DNAthat
washalfN15,floatedinthemiddleandDNAthatwaspurelyN14floatednearthetop

4. Theyobservedthatasmoregenerationsreproduced,thattherewasalwayssomeofthe
N15presentbecauseofthesemiconservationmannerofreproduction
SupercoilingofDNA
1.Doublehelixstructurewrapsaroundanucleosome(madeupof8proteinscalledhistones)
2.Coiledintoa30nmchromatinfiberofpackednucleosomes
3.Coiledtoformachromosome
Leadingvs.LaggingStrand
LeadingStrand:the5to3end,isabletobesynthesizedcontinuously
LaggingStrand:the3to5endthereforeitmustbesynthesizeddiscontinuously

DNA Replication
Helicase
HelicaseunwindsDNAbybreakinghydrogenbonds
DNAPolymeraseIII
AddsnewDNAnucleotidestothe3end
Primase
EnzymethataddsRNAprimertostartthelaggingstrand
RNAPrimer
GivesDNApolymeraseIIIa3OHendtoaddnucleotidesto
DNApolymeraseI
ReplacesRNAprimerwithDNA
Ligase
JoinstheOkazakifragmentstogetherwithaphophodiesterbond
Gyrase
KeepsDNAfromcoilinginfrontofhelicase
StepsinDNAReplication
1.Helicaseunwindsthedoublehelixandsinglestrandbindingproteinsstabilizetheunwound
DNA
2.Theleadingstrandissynthesizedinthe5to3directionbyDNAPolymeraseIII
3.Thelaggingstrandissynthesizeddiscontinuously.PrimasemakesashortRUNAprimer,
whichisextendedbyDNApolymeraseIIItoformanOkazakiFragment
4.AftertheRNAprimerisreplacedbyDNAbyDNApolymeraseI,LigasejoinstheOkazaki
fragment

Transcription and Translation

Codon
ThethreeletterfragmentonMRNA
AUGcodoncodesforstart
UAA,UAG,UGAcodonscodeforstop
Transcription
TheprocessinwhichDNAgetstranscribedintomRNA
1.Initiation=RNApolymerasebindstoDNAatthesiteofthepromotercodonwhichtellsthe
enzymewherethegenestarts
2.Elongation=RNApolymerasemakesacomplimentarycopyofDNA(usingUracilnot
Thymine)usinganticodons
3.Termination=RNApolymerasereachestheterminatoranddisassociates.ThemRNAexitsthe
nucleusthroughthemembraneporestobetranslated.
Translation
1.5MRNAAUGcodonbindswiththesmallsubunit.ThetRNAwithUACanticodonbrings
Met(aminoacid)andthelargesubunitjoins
2.NewtRNAwithcorrectanticodonenterstheAsite(aminoacylsite)thenanaminoacidjoins
thepolypeptideheldinthePsite(peptidylsite)
3.Whenendcodonisreached,allpartsdisassociate

RepressorstoRegulateGeneExpression
ArepressorisaproteinthatblockstranscriptionbybindingtoDNAtostopRNApolymerase
Ifamoleculeispresentlikelactose,itwillfindtotherepressorchangingthe3Dshapeand
allowingRNApolymerasetosynthesizelactaseenzymes
Ifthemoleculeisnotpresent,therepressorbindstoDNAtostoptranscriptionofthegenethat
makesthatenzyme

EnvironmentalFactorstoRegulateGeneExpression
GenesexposedtodifferenttemperaturesorUVcanexpressdifferently
Forexample,Siamesecatshaveamutantgenethatisturnedonbecauseoflowertemperaturesat
theearsnoseandpawssothefurturnsblack
NucleosomestoRegulateGeneExpression
Addingdifferentgroupscanmodifyhistonesfoundinnucleosomes
1. AcetylGroup
2. MethylGroup
3. Phosphategroup
DNAhasanegativechargesoifyouaddagrouptothehistonesitwouldneutralizeDNAcharge
andthehistoneswontbindastightlythereforeincreasingtranscription(acetylgroup),oritmay
preventtranscriptionbywindingDNAmoretightly(methylgroup)
PostTranscriptionalModification
PremRNAcanbesplicedbyaspliceosometoremovepartstocreatedifferentproteinsturningit
intomaturemRNA
Thepartsthatareremovedarecalledintronsandthepartsthatarekeptarecalledexons

Basics of Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis


ATP
EnergycomesfrombreakingbondsbetweenphosphategroupsinATP
Whenphosphateisbrokenoff,ATPbecomeadenosinediphosphateplusphosphate
ATPADP+P
RedoxReactions
Oxidization:lossofelectrons/hydrogen(OIL)

Reduction:gainofelectrons/hydrogen(RIG)
AnaerobicRespiration
Intheabsenceofoxygen,thecellgoesthroughaprocesscalledfermentation
1. Alcoholfermentationglucose=ethanol+carbondioxide
2. LacticAcidFermentationglucose=lacticacid
Factorsthataffectphotosynthesis
1.IrradianceLevel=morelightthatispresent,themorephotosynthesisuntilamaximumis
reachedbecausethereisonlyafinitenumberofchloroplasts
2.CarbonDioxide=themoreCO2,themorephotosynthesisuptoamaximumlevelbecause
thereisonlyafinitenumberofchloroplasts
3.Temperature=thereisanoptimaltemperatureforphotosynthesistooccur
ATPSynthase
Thepumpingofprotonsestablishesaconcentrationgradient.AStheprotonsfallbackintothe
matricthroughATPSynthase,oxidativephosphorylationoccurstocreateATP.

Cellular Respiration
StepsofCellularRespiration
1.Glycolysis=occursinthecytoplasm
2.KrebCycle=occursinthemitochondria(matrix)
3.ElectronTransportChain=occursinmitochondria(cristae)
Glycolysis
1.A6Cglucosegetssplitintotwo3carbonmoleculesbytwomoleculesofATP
2.Electronsandhydrogenareremovedfromthe3carbonmoleculestoturnNADinto
NADH(electroncarrier)
3.EnergyisremovedtocreateATPfromADPleavingtwomoleculesofpyruvate
NETGAINS
2ATP
2NADH
2Pyruvates
LinkReaction
Pyruvateentersthemitochondriaandundergoesoxidativedecarboxylationtocreate
AcetylCoA.Inthisprocess,CO2islostfrompyruvate,andelectrons/hydrogenare
removedtoformNADH
NETGAINS
2AcetylCoA
2CO2molecules
2NADH

KrebCycle
BothmoleculesofAcetylCoAenterthematrixandgothroughtheKrebCycle
NETGAIN(perAcetylCoA)
3NADH
2CO2
1FADH2
1GTP
ElectronTransportChain
1.HydrogenIonsarepumpedintotheintermembranespacebymovingelectronsalone
integralproteins,bidingH2andO2making6H2O
2.ATPSynthasedoesoxidativephosphorylationtoaddphosphatetoADPtomakeATP
NETGAINS
34ATP
6H2O
MitochondriaLabeled

Photosynthesis
PhotosynthesisSteps
1.LightDependentReaction=occursonthethylakoids
2.LightIndependentreaction(Calvincycle)=occursinthestroma
LightDependentReaction
Lightenergyisconvertedtochemicalenergy
Chlorophyllsisattachedtothylakoidmembranealongwithotherproteinstoformphotostems,
whichabsorbredandbluelight
Electronswithinchlorophyllabsorbenergyfromphotonsandbecomeexcited,movingthem
alonetheproteinchain
ElectroncausesproteinpumpingusedbyATPsynthasetodriveproductionofATP
LightIndependentReaction
1.CarbonFixation=acarboxylase(Rubisco)catalyzesthecarboxylation(addingcarbon)of
riblosebiphosphase(RuBP)
2.Reduction=G3PisreducedtotriosephosphateusingreducedNADPandATP.Triose
phosphateisusedtoregenerateRuBPtoproductcarbohydrates
3.Regeneration=RuBPisreformedusingATP
ChloroplastLabeled

ChloroplastStructureandFunction
Largesurfaceareaofthylakoids=greaterabsorptionoflight
Smallspacebetweenthylakoids=fasteraccumulationofprotonconcentrationgradient
ComparePhotosynthesisandRespiration
Botuseaconcentrationgradient
ATPisafinalproductbyATPsynthase
Bothuseelectroncarriers

ContrastPhotosynthesisandRespiration
RESPIRATION
Mitochondria
UsesNAD+FADH
Nolightisrequiredandmakeswater
OxygenisthefinalacceptorintheETC

PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Chloroplasts
UsesNADP
Plantssplitwaterusinglightenergy
NADPisthefinalelectronacceptorinlight
reaction

Human Physiology
Digestive System
PartsoftheBody
Liver:Makesbilewhichhelpswithfatdigestion
Gallbladder:Bileisstoredinthegallbladderandisaddedtothesmallintestine
LargeIntestine:Saltandwaterisabsorbedfromchymethusconvertingittofeces
Esophagus:connectsthemouthtothestomachandpusheschymedownbyperistalsis
Pancreas:secretesenzymesintothelumenofthesmallintestine
Smallintestine:thelocationinwhichnutrientsaredigestedandabsorbed
Rectum:storesfecesandtheanalcavityeliminatesfeces
Chyme
Thepulpyacidicfluidmadeofbolus,whichisfoodafterbeingpushedpastthepharynx
Peristalsis
Thecontractionofbothcircularandlongitudinalmusclestopushfoodthroughthedigestivetract

DigestiveSystemDiagram

TheStomach
Holdschymetobechemicallybrokendownbyenzymesandhydrochloricacid
Thestomachcontainsmucuscellstoproductaprotectivelayerofmucusfromhydrochloricacid
andproteaseenzymes

Enzymes Responsible for Digestion


Amylase
FoundIn:salivaryglandsandpancreas
OptimalConditions:mouthatpHof6,intestinesatpHof8
Action:breaksdowncarbohydrates
Polysaccharidesdisaccharides
Lipase
FoundIn:pancreas
OptimalConditions:smallintestineatpHof8
Action:breaksdownlipids
Triglyceridesglycerol+fattyacids

Nucleases
FoundIn:smallintestine
OptimalConditions:immobilizedontheepitheliumcellsoftheintestine
Action:breaksdownnucleicmaterials
Nucleicacid,DNA,RNAnucleotides
Protease
FoundIn:stomachandpancreas
OptimalConditions:stomachatapHof1
Action:breakdownproteins
Chainofaminoacidsaminoacids
Phospholipase
FoundIn:smallintestine
OptimalConditions:smallintestineatapHof8
Action:breaksdownphospholipids
Phospholipidphosphate+fattyacid

Small Intestine

Villiinthesmall
Intestine
Villiincreasethesurfaceareaofepitheliumoverwhichabsorptioniscarriedout.Villiabsorb
monomersaswellasmineralionsandvitamins.Eachvillicoveredinmicrovilli.

LipidAbsorption
1.Triglyceridessimplydiffusethroughthevillimembranebecauseitismadeofphospholipids
2.Triglycerideispackedintoalipoproteininsidethevillicell
3.Lipoproteingoesthroughexocytosisintothelacteal,whichtransportsfatandwhitebloodcells
throughthelymphaticsystem
GlucoseAbsorption
1.SodiumPotassiumpumpdecreasessodiumconcentrationsinthevillicell
2.Sodiumandglucoseenterpassivelyusingthesodiumglucosetransporterprotein
3.Glucosegetssenttothebloodthroughtheglucosechannel

Circulatory System
ComponentsofBlood
RedBloodcells:ironinhemoglobincarriesoxygen
Whitebloodcells:defendsagainstinfectionsandmakesantibodies
Platelets:helpbloodclot
Plasma:water,glucose,minerals,saltsandhormones
Veins
Carriesdeoxygenatedbloodtotheheart
Lowerpressure
Largelumenbutverilythinwalls
Valvespreventbloodfromgoingdownwards
Musclesmovementhelpsmoveblood
Arteries
Carriesoxygenatedbloodawayfromtheheart
Higherpressure
Thickmuscularlayersurroundingasmallerlumen
Novaluesbecausebloodispumped
CardiacCycle

1.Deoxygenatedbloodflowsintotherightatriumthenthroughthetricuspidvalueintotheright
ventricle
2.Therightventriclepumpsthebloodthroughthepulmonicvalveintothepulmonaryarteryto
thelungs
3.Oxygenatedbloodreturnsthroughthepulmonaryveinintotheleftatrium
4.Bloodpassesthroughthebicuspidvalueintotheleftventricle
5.Theleftventriclepumpsbloodintotheaortatobetransportedtoallpartsofthebody
DiagramoftheHeart

PressureduringtheCardiacCycle
AtrialVentricularDiastole:atriumsexpandandfillwithred/blueblood
AtrialSystole:atriumscontract(pressureincreases)andbloodgoesintoventricles
VentricularSystole:ventriclescontractandbloodgoestoeithertheaortaorpulmonaryartery
Capillaries
Smallestbloodvesselsthatdeliveroxygenandremovewastefromcells
Onecellthickforquickdiffusionandconnectsarteriesandveins
SinoatrialNode
Thesinoatrialnodesendsoutelectricalimpulsesthatstimulatecontractioncreatingtheheartbeat
CoronaryThrombosis
Thisdiseaseisaclotinthecoronaryarteries.Risksforthisdiseaseincludehighcholesterol,
smokingandhighbloodpressure.

Endocrine System
EndocrineSystem
Organsthatproducthormones(achemicalmadeinonepartofthebodybutusedinanother)
Partsofthehormonesysteminclude:pituitarygland,thyroid,adrenalgland,pancreasand
ovaries/testis
NegativeFeedback
STIMULUSHOMEOSTATICCONDITIONRECEPTORSRESPONSE
Theresponseeliminateschangeandreturnstohomeostaticcondition
Thyroxin
Ahormonesecretedbythethyroidglandtoregulatemetabolicrate(nutrientuse)thushasthe
abilitytocontrolbodytemperature
Insulin
Ahormonethatcausesglucosetobeabsorbedbyliverormusclesforstorage,youneedinsulin
whenbloodsugarishighsoglucosecanbestoredasglycogen.
Secretedby cellsinthepancreas
Glucagon
Ahormonethatcausesliverandmusclestoreleaseglucoseintothebloodstreamandhelpsturn
storedglycogenintoglucose
Secretedby cellsinthepancreas
IsletofLangerhans
Theareaofthepancreasthatmakeshormonesandcontains and cells
Melatonin
Ahormonesecretedbythepinealglandtocontrolcircadianrhythms(sleep)
Pinealglandproducesmoremelatoninwhenlightisdimandlesswhenlightisbright
TypeIDiabetes
Cause:theimmunesystemattacksandkills cells
Effect:glucosebuildsupinthebloodinsteadofbeingusedforenergy
Treatment:insulininjectionsororalmedication
Prevention:itisnotyetknownwhatcausesTypeIdiabeteshoweverresearchshowsitisstrongly
linkedtogenetics
TypeIIDiabetes
Cause:thebodycannotproperlyusetheinsulinthatisproduced
Effect:glucosebuildsupinthebloodinsteadofbeingusedasenergy
Treatment:healthylifestyleandmedications
Prevention:controllingbloodpressure/cholesterolandexercisingandeatinghealthy

Respiratory System
Alveoli
Airsacsattheendofbronchiolesthatarecoveredincapillariesforgasexchange/diffusion
Largesurfaceareaforgasexchange
TypeIPneumocytesvs.TypeIIPneumocytes
TypeI:Extremelythinalveolarcellsthatareadaptedtocarryoutgasexchange
TypeII:Secretesasolutioncontainingmucusthatcreatesamoistsurfaceinsidethealveolito
preventthesidesfromadheringtoeachother
GasExchange
1.Deoxygenatedbloodcomesfromthepulmonaryartery
2.BlooddropsoffCO2
3.BloodpicksupO2
4.Oxygenatedbloodreturnsthroughpulmonaryveins
Inhalation
RibCage:expands
Diaphragm:contractsandmovesdownward
Muscles:contracttopullribcagebothupandout
ThorasticPressure:decreases
Airmovement:oxygengoesintothelungstothealveolisacs
Exhalation
RibCage:contracts
Diaphragm:relaxesandmovesupwards
Muscles:expandsandrelaxestoreducespaceinchest
Thorasticpressure:increases
Airmovement:airgoesoutofthelungs
LungCancer
Causes:tobacco,pollution,chemicalcarcinogens,exposuretoradiationorhereditary
Effect:infectionofcellsthatlinethebronchi
Treatment:surgery,radiation,chemotherapy
Emphysema
Causes:tobacco,marijuana,pollution,exposuretofumesanddust
Effect:graduallydamagesthealveolicausingthemnottoworkproperlyandairbecomestrapped
Treatment:lungtransplant,medication

Immune System
BloodClotting

1.Endothelialdamage
2.Plateletsreleaseclottingfactors
3.ProthrombinturnsintoThrombrinwhichhelpsturnFibrogen(soluble)intoFibrin(insoluble)
Fibrin
Fibrinnetcatchesplateletsandredbloodcellstofirmascabtopreventpathogensfromentering
SkinandMucousMembranes
Skin:lowerpHleveltopreventbacterialgrowth
Mucous:linesnasalanddigestivetractandincludesenzymesthatcankillpathogens
Antibodies
Antibodieshavemultiplefunctionsthathelptodestroyapathogen.Thereisoneantibodyforone
typeofantigen,whichisachemicalsignalthatisfoundonpathogensthattriggeranimmune
response
RolesofAntibodies
Coagulatethepathogen(clumping)
Lysisofthecellcoat/membranetohelpblockadhesiontohost
Attachestopathogentomakerecognizabletowhitebloodcells,whichcausesphagocytosisby
macrophages/neutrophils
BCells
1.Bcellsencounteranantigenandrespondbyproliferatingbymitosis
2.SomeBcellsdifferentiateintomemorycells,whichremaininthebloodstreamincaseofa
secondexposure,whilesomedifferentiateintoplasmacells,whichsecreteantibodiesintothe
circulation
Antibiotics
Preventmembraneformation
AffectsDNAreplication
Canstoptranscriptionandtranslation
Blocksprocessesthatoccurinprokaryoticcellsbutnoteukaryoticcells,whichiswhytheydonot
workagainstviruses
FloreyandChainsPenicillinTest
Penicillin:achemicalmadebyfungiusedtotreatcompetitivebacteria
TheExperiment:eightmicewereinjectedwithbacteriayetonlyfourweretreatedwithpenicillin.
After16hours,thefourmicethatdidnotreceivetreatmentweredead.
Bacteria
20xlargerthanviruses
Noncellularandsubmicroscopic
Contains:singlechromosomes,organellesandenzymes
Capableofindependentreproduction
Livingbecausetheyfeed,growandreproduce

Viruses
20xsmallerthanbacteria
Singlecelledorganism
Contains:centralcoreofDNAsurroundedbyproteincoat
Onlycapableofreproducinginsideothercells
Nonlivingbecausetheydonotfeedorgrow
WhiteBloodCells
Neutrophils:endocytosistoeatpathogens
Macrophage:sendsourhormonetosignalmorewhitebloodcells
MastCells:secretesfactorsthatmediatevasodilation(deliveryofbloodplasmaandcellsto
wound)
SelfRecognition
Glycoproteinsareonthesurfaceofeverycellinyourbodyandifglycoproteinisnotpresent
therewillbeanimmuneresponse
BloodType
Antigensonthesurfaceofredbloodcellsstimulateantibodyproductionandimmunesystem.If
thewrongbloodcellistransfused,antibodieswillagglutinate(clump)theredbloodcellstogether
TYPE
ANTIBODIES
ANTIGENS
CANACCEPT

A
AntiB
A
AandO

B
AntiA
B
BandO

AB
None
AandB
AandBandO

O
AandB
None
O

Allergies
Mastcellsareactivatedbyaharmlesspathogenandproducehistamine.Histamineincreasesthe
bloodsupplytoincreasewhitebloodcellsinresponsestohealinflammation.
SpecificImmuneResponse
1.Macrophagesengulfpathogenbyendocytosisafteritdisplaysantigenonthesurface
2.OnlyBandTcellswithcorrectmatchtoantigenwillbeactivatedandmultiplied
3.HelperTcellsquicklymultiplyandproducespecificBcellsfortheantigen(clonalselection),
whichcandifferentiateintoplasma,andmemorycells
4.Insecondexposure,antigenstimulatesmemoryBcellstodifferentiateintoplasmacells

Nervous System
HumanNervousSystem
CentralNervousSystem:brainandspinalcord
PeripheralNervousSystem:sensoryandmotor
Somaticnervoussystem:controlledbytheperson,motorneuronsandskeletalmuscles
AutonomicNervousSystem:involuntary,nervesfrominternalreceptors
Neuron

PartsofNeuron
MyelinSheath:thelayeroffatwrappedaroundtheaxon,eachrolloffatiscalledaSchwanncell
NodeofRanvier:thepointbetweenSchwanncellswhereimpulsesjump
TheSodium/PotassiumPump
Neuronspumpsodiumandpotassiumionsacrosstheirmembranestogeneraterestingpotential.
Only2Kenterforevery3Naoutthereforeanegativeinteriorpotentialismaintained.
NerveImpulses
Depolarization:Sodiumchannelsopen,sodium
entersthecellmakingtheaxonpositiveafter
thresholdisreached
Repolarization:Sodiumchannelsclose,potassium
channelsopenandpotassiumleavesthecell
makingaxonmorenegative
RefractoryPeriod:Muchpotassiumleavesthecell
thatthenervebecomestoonegativesoexcess
potassiumoutsidediffuses
ActionPotential:onceanactionpotentialis
reacheditispropagatedalongthenerve

NerveCommunication
1.Actionpotentialreachesthesynapticcleftadcalciumionsenterthepresynapticmembrane
2.Calciumcausesexocytosisofneurotransmittersintosynapticcleft
3.Neurotransmittersbindtosodiumchannelsonthepostsynapticmembranetoallowsodiumto
flowintoeitherthatnerveormuscle
4.Neurotransmittersarebrokendownbyenzymesandareabsorbedtoberecycled
AcetylcholineandNeonicotinoid
Acetylcholine:Aneurotransmittersmadeofacetylgroupandchorineusedformuscle
contractions
Neonicotinoid:Asyntheticcompoundthatbindstoacetylcholinereceptorsininsectscausingthe
postsynapticnervetoconstantlyproduceactionpotential

Reproductive System
Testosterone
AgeneontheYchromosomecausesthedevelopmentoftestestosecretetestosterone
Thishormonecausesprenataldevelopmentofmalegenitalsandspermproductionand
developmentofsalesexualcharacteristicsduringpuberty
AgenecalledSRVcodesforTDF(testisdeterminingfactor)
SpermDiagramandFunctions

Acrosome:breaksdowntheoutershelloftheegg
MaleReproductiveSystemandFunctions

VasDeferens:carriesspermtotheurethra
SeminalVesicleandProstateGlands:
MakesemeninahighpHsolutiontoprotect
thesperm

Estrogen/Progesterone
Bothhormonescauseprenataldevelopmentofthefemalereproductiveorgansandsecondary
sexualcharacteristicsduringpuberty
OvumDiagramandFunction

FemaleReproductiveSystemDiagramandFunction

Ovaries:produceseggsandestrogen
Cervix:protectsthefetus
FallopianTube:collectedeggandisplace
wherefertilizationoccurs

IVF
1.Womentakemedicationtoincreasethenumberoffolliclesdevelopedinovaries
2.Removetheeggsfromtheovaries
3.Fertilizetheeggswithdonorsperm
4.Embryosgrowonplaceandfewselectedonesareimplantedintouterus

Menstrual Cycle
MenstrualPhase
Day15
Menstruationoccurs
Theliningoftheuterusshedbecauseprogesteroneislow
FSHfromthepitutataryglandcausesafollicletodevelop
ProliferativePhase

Day514
Thisiswheretheliningrebuildstoprepareembryoforimplantationduetoanincreasein
estrogen
OvulationDay
ThematureeggleavestheovarycausedbyaspikeinLH(luteinizinghormone)
SecretoryPhase
Day14end
Ifimplantationoccurs,progesteronestayshightomaintaintheliningoftheuterus
Ifnoimplantationoccurs,thelevelsofprogesteronedecreaseandthecyclestartsagain

Fertilization
ExternalFertilization
Nocopulation
Malegametesareshedintoalargespacereducingthechanceoffertilization
Manyfemalegametesareproduced
Zygotesdevelopoutsidethemaleandfemaleparents
InternalFertilization
Copulationoccurs
Malegametesareshedintoaconfinedspace
Fewfemalegametesareproduced
Zygoteisdevelopedinsidethemotherforprotection
ProcessofFertilization
1.Acrosomereleasesenzymestobreakdownzonapellucita
2.Nucleusofspermenterstheeggwhiletailremainsoutside
3.Tinyproteinbagscalledcorticlegranualsarereleasedafterfertilizationandbindto
glycoproteinstohardenzonapellucita
BlastocystImplantation
Attheuterus,thezonapellucitabreaksandtheblastocystescapestosinkintotheendometrium
(liningoftheuterus)
Syncytiotrophoblastissecretedtotryandfindthematernalbloodsupply
HCG
ThefetusproducesahormonecalledHCG,whichstimulatestheovarytosecreteprogesterone
duringthepregnancytomaintaintheliningoftheuterus
Oxytocin

Duringpregnancy,progesteroneinhibitsoxytocin,whichfacilitatesuterinecontractions.Atthe
endofthepregnancy,fetusreleaseshormonestolimitprogesteronethereforethepituitarygland
willmakeoxytocin
Placenta
Theplacentafacilitatestheexchangeofmaterialsbetweenmotherandfetus
At9weeks,theplacentatakesovertheproductionofhormonessuchasestrogenand
progesterone
MaterialExchangebetweenMotherandFetus
1.Mothersbloodbringsnutrientssuchasglucose,lipids,water,hormones,antibodiesandamino
acidsandbathesthebloodaroundthevilli
2.Fetalblooddropsoffcarbondioxide,urea,hormonesandwater
3.Gasexchangeandnutrientexchangeoccursoverthevillisurfacesomotherandbabiesblood
nevermeet
4.Bloodreturnstothefetusviaumbilicalvein

Ecology
Key Terms
Species
Agroupoforganismsthathavethepotentialtointerbreedandproducefertileoffspring
Population
Agroupoforganismsofthesamespeciesthatliveinthesameareaatthesametime
Community
Agroupofpopulationslivingandinteractingwitheachotherinanarea
Ecosystem
Acommunityanditsabioticenvironment
Autotrophs
Speciesthatareabletomaketheirownfoodfrombasicinorganicmaterials
Heterotrophs
Consumersthatobtaintheirfoodfromorganicmatter,canincludeherbivores,carnivoresand
omnivores
Sapotrophs
Bacteriaandfungithatsecreteenzymesontoorganicmatterandthenabsorbtheirnutrients
Detrivores

Organismsthatdigestdeadorganicmatter
FoodChains
Ahierarchyoffeedingrelationshipthatinfluenceshownutrientsandenergypassthroughit
Autotrophsstartfoodchainssincetheyareabletoconvertthesunsenergyintochemicalenergy.
Thischemicalenergyincarboncompoundspassesthroughfoodchangesasorganismsconsume
EnergyinFoodChains
Onlyabout10%ofenergypassesontothenexttrophiclevel.Energylossescanoccurfrom
cellularrespiration,notabsorbedorlosttodecomposers,ortheorganismisnotconsumed

Carbon Cycling
CarbonCycling
Intheatmosphere,carbonispresentascarbondioxidegas
Carbondioxideisconvertedintocarbohydratesandothercarboncompoundsbyautotrophs
Carbondioxideentersthecellsofautotrophsfromtheairorwaterbydiffusion
Carbondioxideisproducedduringrespirationanddiffusesoutoforganisms
Inanaerobicconditions,methaneisproducedfromorganicmatteranddiffusesintothe
atmosphere
Whenorganicmatterisnotfullydecomposedbecauseofacidicoranaerobicconditionsin
waterloggedsoils,peatforms
Oil,gasandcoalareformedfrompartiallydecomposedorganicmatterthathasaccumulatedin
porousrocks
Combustionofbiomassandfossilizedorganicmatterproducescarbondioxide
GreenhouseEffect
Occurswhentheconcentrationofgreenhousegasessuchascarbondioxideandwatervapor
increasessomoreheatistrappedratherthanreflectedbackintospacethereforeincreasingglobal
temperature

Classification of Biodiversity
Hierarchy
Speciesareclassifiedusingahierarchyofgroupscalledtaxa.Thereareeightlevels:
1. Domain
2. Kingdom
3. Phylum
4. Class
5. Order
6. Family
7. Genuspartofthenamethatindicatesagroupofspeciesthatarecloselyrelated
8. Speciesdefinesagroupofindividualsthatarecapableofinterbreeding

Phyla of the Plant Kingdom


Bryophyta
Plantsinthisphylumincludemosses
Usuallysmallandgrowindampplacesbecausetheyhavenovascularsystem
Reproducebywayofspores
Theyhavenoroots
Filicinophyta
Thisgroupincludesmossesandferns
Haverootsstemsandleavesandpossessinternalstructures
Somehavefibrousrootswhileotherproduceanundergroundstemcalledarhizome
Coniferophyta
Thisgroupincludesshrubsandtrees,whichareoftenlargeandevergreen
Producepollenratherthansporesofteninhugeamounts
Theyproduceseeds
Haveneedlelieleavestoreducewaterloss
Angiospermophyta
Thisgroupincludesallfloweringplants,whicharepollinatedbywindoranimals
Theyproduceseedswhichareassociatedwithafruitornut

Phyla of the Animal Kingdom


Porifera
Thisgroupcontainsthesponges
Theyareaquaticandmanyproduceaskeletonofcalciumcarbonate
Cnidaria
Seacoralsandjellyfish
Theyfeedonotheranimalsbystingingthemwithspecialcellscallednematocysts
Platyhelminthes
Thesehavealayerofcellsandhaveabodycavitywithamouthandananus
Somearefreelivingitwaterwhileothersareparasiteslivinginotherorganisms
Theyhaveaflattenedappearance
Annelida
Thisgroupcontainslugworms,earthwormsandleeches
Allannelidshavebodiesthataredividedintosectionscalledsegments