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HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK REPRESENTATION

HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK DESIGN FOR MAXIMUM ENERGY RECOVERY

WHERE IS THE PINCH?

Pinch is hard to see on a conventional flow sheet

The pinch is much clearly shown on:

THE GRID DIAGRAM


Which only shows heat transfer operation

TYPICAL GRID DIAGRAM

Hot stream 1
Hot stream 2

Cold stream 1
Cold stream 2

Heat
Exchanger

TYPICAL GRID DIAGRAM (CONTD)


Utilities can be presented as

hot/cold streams
Can use this diagram to represent

multiple utilities

HP Steam
MP Steam
Hot stream 1
Hot stream 2

Cold stream 1
Cold stream 2
Cooling Water
(CW)

RULES FOR CONSTRUCTION

Hot streams run left to right


Cold streams run right to left
Hot streams on top; cold stream below

Hot utility =
Cold utility =

H
C

Heat exchanger between streams =

WHERE IS THE PINCH?


Pinch is easily shown:

Pinch

Hot stream 1
Hot stream 2

100 oC

100 oC

100 oC

100 oC

90 oC

90 oC

Cold stream 1

90 oC
Cold stream 2

90 oC

WHERE IS THE PINCH? (CONTD)


Can easily assess the implication of the pinch

Hot 1
Hot 2

Hot 1
Hot 2

Cold 1

Cold 2

Allowed match

Cold 1
Cold 2

Forbidden match
(heat exchange across the pinch)

CONVENTIONAL HEN FLOWSHEET

H
1

E1

E3

E2

E4

CONVENTIONAL HEN FLOWSHEET (CONTD)


Change position of exchangers 2 and 4
H

E
1

E
3

E
2

E
4

Must re-route the process stream

E
1

E
4

2
3

E
3

E
2

THE GRID DIAGRAM


1

1
1

3
2

3
4

3
3

No need to re-route the streams

HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK DESIGN FOR


MAXIMUM ENERGY RECOVERY

RULES SO FAR :

No exchanger has a temperature difference < Tmin


No process to process heat transfer across the pinch
No heat transfer across pinch by inappropriate use of utilities

EXAMPLE 2
CP
(KW/oC)
Hot stream 1
Hot stream 2

250 oC

50 oC

200 oC

80 oC

15
25

180 oC

20 oC

240 oC

140 oC

QHmin =
750kW

Cold stream 1

20

Cold stream 2

30

Qcmin =
1000kW

COMPOSITE CURVES FOR EXAMPLE 2

Divide at the pinch


Hot stream 1
Hot stream 2

250 oC
200

oC

150 oC
150

80

oC

15
25

140 oC

240 oC

140 oC

QHmin = 750kW

50 oC

oC

180 oC

GRID DIAGRAM
REPRESENTATION

CP
(KW/oC)

20 oC
140 oC

Cold stream 1

20

Cold stream 2

30

Qcmin = 1000kW

Start the network design at the pinch and move away from it.
Go from more constraint to less constraint.

Qhmin

Utilities creates degree of freedom

Pinch

Utilities

Qcmin

CP INEQUALITIES: ABOVE PINCH


if CPH < CPC

CP INEQUALITIES: ABOVE PINCH (CONTD)


Above pinch:
The CP inequalities (only apply at the pinch when both ends of the match are at

pinch conditions) away from the pinch, temperature difference increase; no


longer essential to obey the CP inequalities

Above pinch: CPH CPC


If the hot stream is at pinch condition the cold stream it is to be matched with

must also at pinch conditions


Cold utility must not be used above the pinch

CP INEQUALITIES: BELOW PINCH


if CPH > CPC

CP INEQUALITIES: BELOW PINCH (CONTD)

Below pinch:

The CP inequalities (only apply at the pinch when both ends of the match are at pinch conditions) away from the pinch,
temperature difference increase; no longer essential to obey the CP inequalities

Below pinch: CPH CPC

If the cold stream is at pinch condition, the hot stream it is to be matched with must also at pinch conditions

Hot utility must not be used below the pinch

PROCEDURES HEN
1. Develope CPs Tables

CPH CPC

CPH CPC

PROCEDURES HEN (CONTD)


Now we have identified

feasible matches

How big should we make them?

PROCEDURES HEN (CONTD)


2. Maximise loads to "tick off" streams
(keeps capital costs down)

PROCEDURES HEN (CONTD)


3. Then fill in the rest

DESIGN BELOW THE PINCH

DESIGN BELOW THE PINCH

Maximise loads to tick off streams


CPH CPC

DESIGN BELOW THE PINCH

Fill in the rest

But it is away from the pinch and therefore feasible


(Must check temperature though!)

COMPLETED DESIGN.

SUMMARY - PINCH DESIGN METHOD


Divide at the pinch.
Start at the pinch and move away.
Above pinch CPH < CPC
Below pinch CPH > CPC

CP table identifies essential matches.


Use the tick-off heuristic to maximize loads.

Then fill in the rest.

NUMBER OF HEAT EXCHANGER UNIT

NUNITS = [SABOVE PINCH 1] + [SBELOW PINCH 1]


S = number of streams including the utility stream

CPH CPC

CPH CPC