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# HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK REPRESENTATION

## THE GRID DIAGRAM

Which only shows heat transfer operation

Hot stream 1
Hot stream 2

Cold stream 1
Cold stream 2

Heat
Exchanger

## TYPICAL GRID DIAGRAM (CONTD)

Utilities can be presented as

hot/cold streams
Can use this diagram to represent

multiple utilities

HP Steam
MP Steam
Hot stream 1
Hot stream 2

Cold stream 1
Cold stream 2
Cooling Water
(CW)

## Hot streams run left to right

Cold streams run right to left
Hot streams on top; cold stream below

Hot utility =
Cold utility =

H
C

## WHERE IS THE PINCH?

Pinch is easily shown:

Pinch

Hot stream 1
Hot stream 2

100 oC

100 oC

100 oC

100 oC

90 oC

90 oC

Cold stream 1

90 oC
Cold stream 2

90 oC

## WHERE IS THE PINCH? (CONTD)

Can easily assess the implication of the pinch

Hot 1
Hot 2

Hot 1
Hot 2

Cold 1

Cold 2

Allowed match

Cold 1
Cold 2

Forbidden match
(heat exchange across the pinch)

H
1

E1

E3

E2

E4

## CONVENTIONAL HEN FLOWSHEET (CONTD)

Change position of exchangers 2 and 4
H

E
1

E
3

E
2

E
4

E
1

E
4

2
3

E
3

E
2

1

1
1

3
2

3
4

3
3

## HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK DESIGN FOR

MAXIMUM ENERGY RECOVERY

RULES SO FAR :

## No exchanger has a temperature difference < Tmin

No process to process heat transfer across the pinch
No heat transfer across pinch by inappropriate use of utilities

EXAMPLE 2
CP
(KW/oC)
Hot stream 1
Hot stream 2

250 oC

50 oC

200 oC

80 oC

15
25

180 oC

20 oC

240 oC

140 oC

QHmin =
750kW

Cold stream 1

20

Cold stream 2

30

Qcmin =
1000kW

## Divide at the pinch

Hot stream 1
Hot stream 2

250 oC
200

oC

150 oC
150

80

oC

15
25

140 oC

240 oC

140 oC

QHmin = 750kW

50 oC

oC

180 oC

GRID DIAGRAM
REPRESENTATION

CP
(KW/oC)

20 oC
140 oC

Cold stream 1

20

Cold stream 2

30

Qcmin = 1000kW

Start the network design at the pinch and move away from it.
Go from more constraint to less constraint.

Qhmin

Pinch

Utilities

Qcmin

if CPH < CPC

## CP INEQUALITIES: ABOVE PINCH (CONTD)

Above pinch:
The CP inequalities (only apply at the pinch when both ends of the match are at

## pinch conditions) away from the pinch, temperature difference increase; no

longer essential to obey the CP inequalities

## Above pinch: CPH CPC

If the hot stream is at pinch condition the cold stream it is to be matched with

## must also at pinch conditions

Cold utility must not be used above the pinch

if CPH > CPC

## CP INEQUALITIES: BELOW PINCH (CONTD)

Below pinch:

The CP inequalities (only apply at the pinch when both ends of the match are at pinch conditions) away from the pinch,
temperature difference increase; no longer essential to obey the CP inequalities

## Below pinch: CPH CPC

If the cold stream is at pinch condition, the hot stream it is to be matched with must also at pinch conditions

## Hot utility must not be used below the pinch

PROCEDURES HEN
1. Develope CPs Tables

CPH CPC

CPH CPC

## PROCEDURES HEN (CONTD)

Now we have identified

feasible matches

## PROCEDURES HEN (CONTD)

2. Maximise loads to "tick off" streams
(keeps capital costs down)

## PROCEDURES HEN (CONTD)

3. Then fill in the rest

CPH CPC

## But it is away from the pinch and therefore feasible

(Must check temperature though!)

COMPLETED DESIGN.

## SUMMARY - PINCH DESIGN METHOD

Divide at the pinch.
Start at the pinch and move away.
Above pinch CPH < CPC
Below pinch CPH > CPC

## CP table identifies essential matches.

Use the tick-off heuristic to maximize loads.

## NUNITS = [SABOVE PINCH 1] + [SBELOW PINCH 1]

S = number of streams including the utility stream

CPH CPC

CPH CPC