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Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010

Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010


Journal of
School SocialPriceWork
Rs 20.00
A National School Social Work monthly dedicated to networking of parents and teachers.
Volume VI Issue 09 Contents February 2010 Page
Editorial 02
Depression in Rural Community Dr Johnson E Janagan 03
Rural Mental Health - Dr Ameer Hamza
Some Plus Points Ubahara Sahayaraj
Jimmy Sebastine 07
Mental Health among Rural Children Dr Lakshmanapathi V 09
Coping Strategies of Rural
Adolescent Girls of Delhi –
An Empirical Study Sadhna Jain 15
Rural Mental Health:
Role of Mental Health Nurse Dr Sailaxmi Gandhi 19
Mental Health of Children–
Tsunami Victims Sivakumar K 22
Promotion of Mental Health Care in Dr Arul Kamaraj J M
Rural Areas Arul Suresh J 24
Mental Health: Sudeshna Chakrabarti
Some Crucial Factors Kamlesh Kumar Sahu
Soma Hazra 29
Hony. Special Editor: Dr.Pandi S
Professor & Head, Dept of Social work,
Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Karaikkal
Focus: Rural Mental Health
Journal of School Social W ork,
8 (New 14), Sridevi Colony, Seventh Avenue,
Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600 083
Mobile: 98406 02325 E-mail: jssw.india@gmail.com
Note: Views expressed by the contributors are not necessarily the official view of the Journal.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 01
Editorial Nip It in the Bud
“Mental health is a state of successful The following factors influence the
performance of mental function mental health of rural children:
resulting in productive activities, 1.The family.
fulfilling relationships with other 2.The environmental factors.
people and the ability to adapt to 3.The psycho-sociall development.
change and to cope with adversity”. 4.The physical health.
India being predominantly an 5.The child-rearing practices.
agricultural country, majority of our 6.The cultural factors.
population is involved in agricultural 7.The genetic factors.
activities. It should be a matter of 8.Social problems.
concern to all of us that nowadays 9.Lack of access to resources.
the suicide rate among farmers is Schools can provide a variety of
high. For example, according to an positive influence on children.
RTI response, 19 farmers ended their Parent-teacher association (PTA)
own lives in Villupuram in 2002-03 can play a vital role in moulding
alone. (Deccan Chronicle, children’s attitude towards life. The
11.11.2009, p.2.) The reason was school curriculum should be changed
debt. Our farmers’ interest should be according to the needs of the rural
safeguarded. children. While parents are the most
Stressful life events along with significant source of social support
mental disorders and substance system, the school too can play a
abuse disorders are among the risk crucial role. The root cause of the
factors for suicide. Marital conflicts, problems can be solved only by
incompatibility in sexual life, social workers with other’s help.
alcoholism, dowry-related problems, So, school social worker should be
lack of facilities in the house, adverse employed by the Government or by
employment conditions, unequal the management (as in the case of
educational levels of life partners are industrial welfare officers) in all
other common factors contributing to schools without fail to nip the problem
the problem. in the bud.
02 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
Depression in Rural Community
Emmanuel Janagan*
*Dr Johnson Emmanuel Janagan, M A(SW), M Phil(SW), PGDPM, PhD (SW),
ILM(London), Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Social Administration and Justice,
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Introduction generally more intense or of much
Currently there is a severe shortage longer duration, or both. Along with
of mental health professionals in rural feelings of sadness, depression also
areas throughout India. Without causes a number of physical
adequate mental health care, mental symptoms, the most obvious being
health problems often worsen, fatigue through which the problem is
negatively impacting productivity in magnified.
the agricultural and food sectors, Types of mental depression
quality of life among rural residents, There are two main types of mental
and rural community’s vitality. The depression: acute depression and
level of depression is increasing bipolar or manic depression.
among farmers, farming families and Major depressive disorder (also
other people in rural areas such as known as clinical depression, major
small business people. Financial depression, unipolar depression, or
hardship and other difficulties can unipolar disorder) is a mental
lead to depression, relationship disorder characterized by an all-
breakdown, farm accidents and in encompassing low mood
some cases, suicide. accompanied by low self-esteem,
Mental depression in rural areas and loss of interest or pleasure in
Everyone feels mentally depressed normally enjoyable activities. The
at some time in their life for any general term depression is often
number of reasons. An event like the used to describe the disorder, but as
end of a relationship gives everyone it can also be used to describe other
feelings of sadness and loss, but types of psychological depression,
these feelings subside over time and more precise terminology is preferred
normalcy prevails again. In the case for the disorder in clinical and
of clinical depression, the feelings are research use. Acute depression is a
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 03
disabling condition which adversely additional risk factors (Heim 2008).
affects a person’s family, work or In adulthood, stressful life events are
regular life, sleeping and eating strongly associated with the onset of
habits and general health. In the major depressive episodes. Life
United States, approximately 3.4% of events connected to social rejection
people with major depression commit appear to be particularly related to
suicide, and upto 60% of people who depression. Consistent with the
commit suicide have depression or hypothesis that people may become
other mood disorder (Nutt DJ 2008). increasingly sensitized to life
Symptoms of depression depression over successive
àLoss of energy and interest. recurrences of depression is
àDecreased sleep or appetite. evidence that a first episode is more
àDifficulty in concentrating. likely to be immediately preceded by
àIndecisiveness. stressful life events than are recurrent
àSlowed or fuzzy thinking. ones (Kessler 1997).
àExaggerated feelings of sadness, The relationship between stressful
hopelessness, or anxiety. life events and social support has
àRecurring thoughts about death been a matter of debate; the lack of
and suicide (Carolyn 2009). social support may increase the
Depression in rural areas likelihood that life stress will lead to
Poverty and social isolation are depression, or the absence of social
associated with increased risk of support may constitute a form of
psychiatric problems in general. Child strain that leads to depression
abuse (physical, emotional, sexual, directly (Monroe 2007). There is
or neglect) is also associated with evidence that neighbourhood social
increased risk of developing disorder, for example, due to crime
depressive disorders later in life. or illicit drugs, is a risk factor, and a
Disturbances in family functioning, high neighbourhood socioeconomic
such as parental (particularly status, with better amenities, is a
maternal) depression, severe marital protective factor. Adverse conditions
conflict or divorce, death of a parent at work, particularly demanding jobs
or other disturbances in parenting are with little scope for decision-making,
04 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
are associated with depression, been adapted and developed for
although diversity and confounding particular use in primary health
factors make it difficult to confirm that centres. The treatment takes a
the relationship is causal (Nutt DJ psychological approach to the
2008). management of psychological
Depression and family members disorders. The theoretical
Family members respond to hard assumptions underpinning problem
times in slightly different ways, solving is that the psychological
depending on their age and role in symptoms of depression and anxiety
the family. The issues may include: are often caused by practical
àYoung children of all ages are problems people face in rural areas
sensitive to family dynamics. Young in their everyday life. Problem
children may have more temper solving treatment is therefore viewed
tantrums, or may experience by the patients as s sensible and
separation anxiety or bedwetting in appropriate intervention. Problem
response to stress and depression. solving treatment is focusing on
à Adults may feel despair and current difficulties and setting future
helplessness that their livelihood or goals. It does not dwell on past
inheritance may be lost. relationships and past mistakes.
àPartners feel guilty attributing their There is good evidence to support
poor management decisions as the the use of problem solving in
cause of their troubles and not the treatment of patients with depression,
failing environmental conditions. emotional disorders, and after
àOlder couples may fear that their episodes of deliberate self-harm.
dreams of a financially independent Problem solving has been developed
retirement will not come true even as a brief, feasible, psychological
after a lifetime of hard work treatment that can be delivered by
(Healthinsite, 2008). non-specialist social workers. It also
Need for problem solving increases patient understanding and
treatment in rural areas ability, teaches patients how to solve
Problem solving treatment is a brief the problem, produces more positive
psychological treatment that has experiences (Laurence 2005).
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 05
Task of social workers problems and face difficulties in
Professional social workers have to accessing mental health
play a major role by organizing professionals. Additional research is
periodic awareness programmes and needed into factors that allow primary
health education programmes. More health centre physicians to initiate
number of social workers with screening for depression.
medical and psychiatric Conclusions
specialization should come forward In light of the greater prevalence of
to work in rural areas. At present, depression among rural populations,
more that 70 percent of the qualified shortages of mental health personnel
social workers are working in urban should be addressed. Mental health
areas. Early intervention by social care through distance education
workers through case work and should be extended. The ability of
group work coupled with proper rural first responders (bare foot
guidance given by them will help the doctors) to recognize mental health
rural people to come out of their problems should be enhanced. Rural
depression. community development
Suggestions for future research programmes and primary health
Additional research is needed to centres should coordinate with the
define how rural minorities community to provide access to
conceptualize mental health mental health services.
References:
Carolyn Dean and Carol Beck (2009): Mental Illness and Problems,The
Environmental illness Resource, England.
Laurence Mynors-Wallis (2005): Problem Solving Treatment for Anxiety and
Depression,A Practical Guide, Oxford University press, New York.
Bonde J P (July 2008): Psychosocial Factors at Work and Risk of Depression: A
Systematic Review of the Epidemiological Evidence, Journal of Occupational
and Environmental Medicine 65 (7)
Heim C, Newport DJ, Mletzko T, Miller AH, Nemeroff CB (July 2008): The Link
between Childhood Trauma and Depression: Insights from HPA Axis Studies in
Humans, Psychoneuroendocrinology 33 (6)
Kessler, RC (1997): The Effects of Stressful Life Events on Depression, Annual
revue of Psychology
06 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
Focus Rural Mental Health – Some Plus Points
Ameer Hamza *
Ubahara Sahayaraj **
Jimmy Sebastine***
*Ameer Hamza, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatric Social Work,
NIMHANS, Bangalore - 29
** Ubahara Sahayaraj, Ph.D Scholar, Department of Psychiatric Social Work,
NIMHANS, Bangalore - 29
*** Jimmy Sebastine, M.Phil student, Department of Psychiatric Social Work,
NIMHANS, Bangalore - 29
Introduction illness is huge in India. The projected
India is a large country, burden of disease percentage
geographically as well as population attributed to mental behaviour
wise. Majority of the population lives disorders of total DALY (Disability
in villages. Most of the rural areas are Adjusted Life Years) lost world wide
not connected by roads or have an in 1990 - 10 percent ; 2002 - 13
access to health services. It is the percent and projected to be in 2020
challenging task before the as 15 percent. National Survey
government to extend services to Sample Organization, (NSSO),2002
remote rural areas. States have reports of 1.8 percent suffer physical
developed Primary Health Centres and mental disabilities. There are
for more than five decades; however approximately 18.5 million disabled
there has been a striking gap persons in India, (Annual Report,
between services and utilization. 2003-2004 , Ministry of Social
There is a continuing need for studies Justice and Empowerment, Govt of
to assess and monitor the availability, India).
accessibility, affordability, quality and Problems involved in treatment
outcomes of mental health services Jorm et al 1997 report knowledge
for individuals in rural and frontier and beliefs about mental health
areas. disorders aid their recognition,
Magnitude of mental health management and prevention, but on
problems in rural India the contrary mental health literacy in
The public health burden of mental rural areas is very low and the
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 07
inability to recognize mental (Parslow and Jorm, 2000).
disorders, failure to seek medical Conclusion
help early and lack of compliance Mental health care in rural areas
with treatment are the main barriers suggests that there is a big scope for
in accessing the mental health care. organizing basic services. People in
According to Judd et al 2002, there rural areas generally show greater
is a potential for rural social networks community acceptance of mentally ill.
to detect mental health problems Family cohesiveness is the cause for
early and direct to appropriate extending the support to mentally ill
treatment. But when we look at the in treatment and care. There are
practical difficulties, rural life is many community resources in terms
fraught with isolation, lack of of community participation,
transport, poor communication, community leadership, folk literatures
limited educational facilities and and cultural heritage. These need to
economic opportunities. be tapped and utilized in an
In some places cultural practice appropriate way. The mental health
provides healing for their illness but programmes need to be tailor-made
in some it prevents the service rather than ready-made so as to cater
delivery and utilizations. Greater to the needs of the rural community.
number of adults/ children Rural family often provides a major
experience mental health problems portion of the care for mentally ill
than receive professional help as patients, hence organizing the family
they don’t have access to the mental self-help group, support groups, skills
health team member to get treatment training and networking needs to be
due to the shortage of mental health started and strengthened that would
professionals; hence they seek disseminate knowledge and thereby
treatment from general practitioner pave way for the attitudinal changes.
References:
Henderson S (2000): Nature and Distribution of Mental Illness in Rural Areas in
Directions in Rural Psychiatry, July.
Parslow and Jorm (2002): Rural and Remote Areas- Less Availability of
Psychiatrists and Psychologists, Australasian Psychiatry 2002, Vol. 10, No. 4 :
pg 427-428
08 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
Focus Mental Health among Rural Children
Lakshmanapathi V*
*Dr Lakshmanpathi V, Assistant Professor, P.G. Department of Social Work,
Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Karaikal - 609605.
Introduction àPhysical factors.
Everyman’s right to health has been àSocial factors.
accepted in all international treaties àSatisfaction of basic needs.
as a social right which implies all School children have to learn to
other rights. There has been a lot of develop new relationships and
improvement in the health scenario attitudes. Often they are not well
of India but girl children, especially prepared for such changes. If the
of rural population of India are doubly teacher is trained he/ she may
disadvantaged with regard to their recognise when the student feels
accessibility to mental health care. unwanted, inferior, lacks a sense of
Culturally they are not predisposed belongingness and develops feelings
towards caring for their own selves of insecurity, the foundation stone of
and socially they are hampered by neurosis and delinquency. Teacher
various taboos and obstacles that should be sensitive to girl students’
prevent them from accessing mental mental health needs and educate
health care. the parents of girl-students too.
According to the world health Student must always be encouraged
organisation (WHO), mental health is to adopt desirable behaviours and
‘a condition which permits optimal orient towards a particular goal.
development - physical, intellectual, Undue comparisons, stressful
and emotional development of the competitions and shameful conduct
individual, so far as this is compatible should be replaced by altruistic model
with that of other individuals.’ of co-operation and recognition. Too
Factors of mental health much of emphasis on efficiency and
Following are some basic factors that speed on academic matters
decide the mental health of produces a lot of tension, and undue
individuals: anxiety in the child. Inferiority
àHeredity. complex of the parents also makes
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 09
the situation worse. It is always an others.
inviolable social norm that a good àBasic harmony.
school provides an atmosphere in à Ability to match desires with
which each pupil is respected as an reality.
individual. There must be co- àAdequate emotional maturity.
curricular activities, such as, dramas, àRational attitude.
athletics, and debates to promote the àIntegration of personality.
physical and emotional development àAdequate social responsibility.
of the pupils. Such a school is a Mental health of disadvantaged
positive factor in the development of The most neglected area concerning
sound mental health. women and girls has been their
Characteristics of mental health mental health. A world wide survey
Good mental health also means shows that one woman out of five
having the skills necessary to cope suffers from some sort of mental
with life’s challenges. If ignored, illness and majority of them are prone
mental health problems can interfere to commit suicide. According to
with children’s learning, Samasa Sonowalla, a consultant
development, relationships, and psychiatrist of Jos Lok hospital,
physical health. School social Mumbai observed that 60% of mental
workers and psychologists are patients are women. In his opinion,
mental health professionals who help genes, hormones, and socio-
children and youth overcome barriers economic conditions are mainly
to success in school, at home, and responsible for the psychological
in life. The following are listed as ailment. There is an intimate link
characteristics of mental health by between social justice and mental
the mental health professionals: health. In addition to that there is
àAdequate understanding of one’s ample evidence that disadvantage
own self. and discrimination play a major part
àFeeling of personal worth. in contributing to greater frequency
àAdequate feeling of security. and higher rates of mental disorder.
àAdequate faith in one’s ability. Where poverty, lack of opportunity
à Adequate understanding of and gender disadvantage go hand in
10 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
hand, the rate of psychiatric disorders àAlcohol and substance abuse.
become even higher. Girl students àFear of violence.
are systematically deprived in terms Effective support systems
of opportunities in areas such as à Love and encouragement of
education, health, food, nutrition and parents and family.
personal safety. Education and àGuidance of teachers and other
quality of nurturance may also have important adults.
a considerable impact on the mental à Consistent expectations and
health. A recent health survey on support.
school children shows that among àAccess to mental health and other
450 mentally disordered children, helping professionals.
60% are girls. All youngsters face à Services that respect and
mental health issues from time to respond to personal and cultural
time. In general it is estimated that differences.
one in five children and adolescents School psychologists support
experience a significant mental parents and teachers in their efforts
health problem during their school to help children to achieve their best.
years. Some problems are more Schools are ideal settings to provide
serious than others, but all children mental health services to children
face challenges that can affect their and youth. Virtually every community
learning and behaviour. These can has a school and most youngsters
include: spend six hours a day there with
àStress and anxiety. trained, caring professionals.
àWorries about being bullied. Effective school environment
àProblems with family or friends. àPromotes learning.
à Loneliness or rejection. àPromotes development.
àDisabilities. àA natural context for prevention
àDepression. and intervention.
àThoughts of suicide or homicide. àLinked to community resources.
àConcerns about sexuality. à Familiar and accessible to
àAcademic difficulties. students and parents.
àDropping out. à Designed to promote
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 11
communication between home and cope and train parents and
school. educators.
Role of school social worker à Screen for mental health and
School social workers should work learning problems.
with parents, educators, and other à Develop suicide prevention
mental health services providers to programmes.
help youngsters develop resilience, à Develop school-wide
competence, and self-esteem. programmes to prevent bullying and
Intervene and treat children and aggression.
youth having mental health problems Challenges in rural areas
in the following ways: The above said recommendations
àHelp families and schools deal arise out of a wider matrix of research
with crisis and loss. on mental health meant for school
àWork directly with children and children. For rural children such
families to address barriers to mental health awareness still
academic and social success. remains remote and inaccessible
àHelp students develop skills to because of socio-cultural traditions
solve conflicts and problems and practices. The misconceptions,
independently. myths, and cultural taboos
àTeach students social skills, self- associated with mental illness may
management, and coping be the most significant barriers that
strategies. keep persons with mental disorders
à Consult with teachers on from seeking and receiving treatment
classroom interventions. in rural areas. Inadequate
à Prevent/ intervene early to knowledge about mental illness,
minimize the occurrence of mental even in the medical profession; fear
health problems. . of and prejudice toward those with
àWork with parents and educators mental illness; and hesitation on the
to create positive school part of people with mental illness to
environments. get treatment create an atmosphere
àIncrease awareness of mental of disgrace and shame in some rural
health stressors and strategies to communities. This stigma combined
12 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
with other challenges can cause the
encouraged.
mental health care seeker to feel
Suggestions for mental hygiene
insecure. àKeep physically fit through rest,
Role of community exercise, diet and cleanliness.
The most significant challenge
àFace troubles, worries, and fears;
regarding mental health care in rural
handle them and turn attention to
India is the lack of health care
more pleasant things.
providers and services. In recent
àHave several absorbing hobbies,
years, health policy experts and
interests, social games, or sports.
health care providers have begun to
àFind desirable ways to express
encourage closer integration of
disturbing impulses and emotions
mental, or rather, behavioural health
rather than suppress them.
and primary care services, for rural
àDevelop a sense of humour and
areas. It is assumed that integration
laugh at yourself.
will increase access to mental health
àHave several major goals and
care services and increase quality of
enjoy working towards them.
care through enhanced coordination
àAcquire real friends.
of services. In rural areas, where
àAvoid strain; develop serenity;
behavioural health workers and
relax all muscles that are not
primary care-givers are in short
necessary for the task at hand.
supply, integration is vitally important.
àBe courageous in crises.
Integration of these services is an
à Grow daily by creating things
effective strategy for maximizing the
yourself rather than being merely a
use of scarce rural health care
spectator, dreamer and non-
resources and improving the quality
productive consumer.
of care for both behavioural health
à Realise that time heals many
and primary care patients. wounds; be patient and hopeful.
The prevalent social stigma that Conclusion
prevents many rural people from
The study of rural mental health is
obtaining needed services of the
not only a new trend of thought but
mental health care centres should be
an essential social paradigm. It has
addressed and mental hygieneto include the entire population of
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 13
girls in all the projects of provision of rescue and upgrade the position of
mental health for rural children to women in our society.

References
Dr Balachandran M (2001): Psychology for Nursing Students, Maanas Publishers,
Thiruvananthapuram.
Page D. James (1987): Abnormal Psychology, A Clinical Approach to
Psychological Deviants, Tata Mc Graw-hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi.
www.narmh.org/publications/rmh.aspx
www.raconline.org/info_guides/mental_health
www.nasponline.org/advocacy/mhbrochure.aspx

Gratitude
We are grateful to Dr Pandi S, Professor and head, Dept. of Social Work,
Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Karaikal, the honorary special editor for
this issue. We thank him for his timely editorial and for co-opting Dr Ilango
P (Prof and head, Dept of Social Work, Bharatidasan University, Trichy)
and Dr Umesh Samuel Jebaseelan (Reader, PG and Research Dept of
Social Work, Bishop Heber College, Trichy) as honorary committee
members for this month. We are grateful to them and Dr Suneetha K for
her consent to be the honorary special editor for the month of March 2010.
The focus is Essentials of Health and Hygiene. Contributors are
requested to send articles before 20th February 2010. ~Ed.
Corrections
JSSW January 2010 issue
Inside wrapper bottom:
Photograph on the left is that of Dr Paranjothi Ramalingam J and the one
on the right is that of Dr Pandi S. It is regretted that the photographs were
accidentally switched. ~Ed
Page For Read
3 Example of visionary Examples of visionary
8 We tahnk We thank
15 The following are The following is
24 Statement made by Statements made by
14 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
Focus Coping Strategies of
Rural Adolescent Girls of Delhi –
An Empirical Study
Sadhna Jain*
* Sadhna Jain, Associate Professor, University of Delhi, Delhi.
Introduction Methodology
Adolescence represents a difficult The study was done on adolescents,
developmental period in one’s life. An studying at Sarvodaya Kanya
adolescent has to attend to multiple Vidyalaya, Bawana, Delhi. They were
demands from different quarters and observed and interviewed to obtain
these demands may become the information on stress causing
potential causes of stress, if not met situations related to home, finance,
in time and effectively. Thus, it is very peer groups, school and their coping
important to get insight into the strategies. Thirty adolescent girls
psychology of adolescents in the studying in XI standard were selected
present times and evolve strategies for the study after administering
for healthy and productive ‘Sinha’s Comprehensive Anxiety
development of future generation. Scale’ Hindi version, developed by
Keeping this in view, the author A.K.P. Sinha (Patna) and L.N.K.
conducted the present study. Sinha (Patna), 1999. Aggregate
Objectives marks of XI class were taken from
The objectives of the study were to: the school records to find out the Karl
1 Identify the common life stressors Pearson coefficient of correlation
faced by the adolescent girls living between anxiety scores and the
in a village situated at the outskirts general scholastic performance of
of Delhi. adolescents under study.
2 Identify the methods/ strategies Findings and discussions
the adolescent girls use to cope with The study revealed the major causes
these stressors. of stress for adolescents at home
3 Identify the relation between were restrictions imposed by their
stress and the general scholastic parents on their dress, outings,
performance of the adolescent girls. viewing television, inviting friends
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 15
and talking to neighbours. They situation, discussing the issue with
perceived their relationship with their parents during peaceful time,
parents as ranging from good to engaging themselves in household
unsatisfactory. The reasons given for work, confiding in sister, start doing
unsatisfactory relationship were school work and pondering over the
narrow-mindedness of the parents, issue. Adolescents often disagreed
parental scolding and dominating with their friends which made them
nature of parents. One of the most stressful. They tried to cope with
stressful issues between adolescents stress by analyzing their own
and their parents (especially thoughts, agreeing with their friend’s
mothers) was allocation and opinions, discussing positive and
performance of household chores. A negative view points, compelling
few adolescents reported that their friends to agree or getting angry with
parents complained of their mistakes them.
to near relatives or neighbours which Stress of studying
caused stress in them. Half the adolescents felt stress
Coping strategies related to studies. Issue related to
Adolescent girls under study studies which made them anxious
employed various coping strategies were non-comprehension of the
which were either emotion-focused subject, getting less marks in
or problem-focused. Some of the examination, difficult chapters
emotion-focused strategies which coming in exams, difficulty in
they used were crying, refusing food, memorizing the text and disturbance
silence, sitting alone, fighting and during examination time. They took
hitting siblings, expressing suicide, various steps like taking private
feeling helpless, yelling, stop tuitions for subjects in which they
studying, answering back and were weak, relearning, devoting
disobeying parents. The problem- more time to difficult subjects, getting
focused strategies used by them irritated and angry with themselves
were trying to improve their due to stress related to studies.
behaviour, controlling themselves, About a third of adolescents reported
start studying, making fun of the unfair behaviour of the teachers,
16 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
scolding and corporal punishment
class). The value for coefficient of
given by the teachers, difficulty in
correlation was -0.19. Low value of
comprehending text as teachers
correlation showed no perceptible
didn’t re-teach, lack of proper
relationship between anxiety and
infrastructure in school as some of
scholastic achievement of
the factors which were stressful to
adolescent girls. (For example, a
them. student with an anxiety score of 66
Financial difficulties
could secure 268 marks and another
Another third of adolescents reported
student with a low anxiety score of 3
stress faced by them due to financial
had secured only 239 marks.) The
difficulty. To overcome this they gave
negative value of coefficient of
private tuitions, borrowed money
correlation showed that anxiety
from friends, compelled parents to
scores and general scholastic
fulfill their demands or accepted
achievement are not directly related
parental decisions. to one another. The reason for
Due to stress, adolescents under
obtaining low value of negative
study also faced sleeping difficulties.
correlation may be that rural
They tried to cope with stress by
adolescent girls as well as their
thinking of good days, diverting
parents did not have high aspirations
attention from the stress causing
related to academics.
stimulus, planning for next day, trying
Many of these responses may seem
to change their mood, walking,
trivial to the adults (parents) but to
turning sides on bed and forcibly
the adolescents these were very
keeping their eyes closed. disturbing issues.
Statistical correlation Recommendations
Karl Pearson’s coefficient of
àParents should create a happy
correlation was calculated to
and expressive atmosphere at
determine the relationship between
home by giving opportunity to
the anxiety scores obtained from
children to express their feelings.
Sinha’s Comprehensive Anxiety Test
àParents should spend quality time
and general scholastic performance
with their children.
(aggregate marks obtained in XI
à They should understand
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 17
individual differences among their à Channelization of stress into
children in their abilities and constructive avenues should be
capabilities and should not compare taught to reduce stress.
them. Conclusions
àYoung adolescent must be given Rural adolescent girls of Delhi got
reasonable freedom with respect to disturbed by issues related to home,
their personal matters. finance, school and friends. They
àAdolescents should be included used various coping strategies. The
in family finance conferences. relation between anxiety scores and
à The assessment of cognitive, scholastic performance was not
social and emotional characteristics significant. Thus, whether we regard
should be done regularly in schools. the education of the adolescent girls
àParent-teacher meetings should from the aspect of traditional goals
be organized regularly in schools. of schooling, the aspect of personal
àThe school should foster all round development or the aspect of
development of the students. furthering mental health in society, we
àStudents should be helped to must take fully into account the girls’
develop effective learning anxieties and the inner role of feeling.
strategies, efficient study and work Here are some guidelines to deal with
habits and help the students to the stress of adolescent girls at home
make realistic carrier choices based and at school level. At each level it is
on their innate potentials and market very important to sensitize persons
realities. in authority about causes and
à Teachers should not be consequences of adolescent stress
prejudiced and partial to students. and the need to prevent or reduce it.
References:
Dusek Jerome B.(1991) Adolescent development and behaviour,II edition, Prentice
Hall:New Jersy.
James H.Hemming(1960) Problems of adolescent girls, Academic Press Great
Britain, London.
Kumari H. and Prakash I.J.(1986) Life stress and mental health:a study of age
and sex differences. Journal of personality and clinical studies, Vol.2(2),pages103-
107.
Mehta M.(2000) : Adolescent Psychology,Pointer publications:Jaipur.
18 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
Focus Rural Mental Health:
Role of the Mental Health Nurse
Sailaxmi Gandhi*
*Dr Sailaxmi Gandhi, Assistant Professor at the Department of Nursing,
NIMHANs, Bangalore
Introduction Sakalwara, in South India show that
India is a country of villages. There about 90% of the persons with
are more than half a million villages schizophrenia and epilepsy were ill
of differing population sizes less than for more than one year at the point
1000 (75%) and about 500 people of contact. Similar findings have
(60%). Considering that a majority been reported from the rural area of
(about 70%) of India’s population Raipur Rani in North Indian State of
hails from a rural background, it is Haryana. On enquiry it was learnt,
vital that extreme importance be almost all the persons have sought
given to the rural sector. help from locally available traditional
Problems of the mentally ill in healers. The mentally ill, in the rural
the rural sector areas ‘suffer in silence’ due to
People with mental disorders are problems of transport, cost of
seen in large numbers both in clinical treatment, lack of awareness of the
settings as well as in the community available help and wrong beliefs in
and are in need of help. At least 30- supernatural causation.
40% of people who seek help from Initiatives by the Government of
primary care doctors may suffer from India
minor mental disorders like Government of India has executed
depression, anxiety, hysteria, or mental health care through National
somatoform disorders. Less than Mental Health Programme (NMHP-
10% of mentally ill get care by 1982), District Mental Health
professionals. The rest are often ill- Programme, District Hospital
treated, mismanaged and finally Psychiatric Units (DHPUs) and
rejected by the community as they General Hospital Psychiatric Units
become chronic disabled individuals. (GHPUs). Some of the initiatives are:
The studies in the villages of à With active involvement of
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 19
department of health and family integrated into the revised syllabi of
welfare Karnataka and District all nursing academic courses.
Administration of Bellary, NIMHANS Opening of ANM, GNM schools and
implemented NMHP in the Bellary scheme for Faculty Development
district, producing a district model of Programme of M.Sc. (Nursing) for
integration of mental health care into high-focussed states has been
the existing health care system initiated (Dileep Kumar, 2010).
during 1984-1991. Role of the mental health nurse
à The National Rural Health The Mental Health Nurse in the rural
Mission (NRHM) under the universal setting needs to be knowledgeable,
health programme was formulated assertive, flexible, and innovative.
to address the needs of India’s rural The mental health nurse has various
population. roles some of which are:
àUnion Health and Family Welfare àClinician role: Delivering direct
Minister, Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad care to the client.
has made the following offer for à Therapeutic role: Employing
medicos: do a one-year rural stint, psychotherapeutic and behavioural
get 10% marks in the national methods of care to the client.
medical entrance exam for post- à Educator: Educates the
graduate courses, do a two-year community, other professionals
stint, get 20% marks and three years about preventive aspects and
gets 30% marks (TOI, 2009). promotion of mental health.
àHe also announced in Nagpur on à Manpower facilitator: Trains
16th Jan, 2010 that a three and a community leaders, school teachers
half year medical education cadre and other care-givers.
will be launched by the central à Administrator: Manages
government to produce doctors who resources and work priorities, plans
will be later posted in rural areas and co-ordinates the development
(TOI, 2010). of future pattern of community care.
Initiatives by the Indian Nursing à Domiciliary care: Visits the
Council homes of clients, provides services
The concept of NRHM has been such as administration of
20 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
medication, assesses the level of helping the individual, the family and
functioning and improvement of the rural community to interact in
clients, monitors side effects of more adaptive ways so that mental
drugs, counsels clients etc. in the health is maintained. All mental
clients home setting. health professionals such as the
àLiaison role: Nurses help bridge psychiatrist, psychiatric social worker,
the gap between the client and psychiatric nurse and clinical
hospital. psychologist need to work in a multi-
àPrevention role: Aims at primary, disciplinary team approach towards
secondary and tertiary prevention. promoting rural mental health
Conclusion through proactive measures and
Rural mental health focuses on team effort!
References:
Chandrashekar C. “Integration of Mental Health in Primary Health”. Health for
the Millions, Vol,20, No.4, 1994, pp.5-10
Dileep Kumar, XXIII SNA Biennial Conference, Kolkota, The Nursing Journal
of India, Vol.CI, No.1, Jan. 2010, pp.3-8
Times of India, Dec.25,2009, pp.12
Times of India, Dec.26, 2009, pp.1
Times of India, Jan. 17, 2010, pp.9

Thanks
We are thankful to all the contributors whose articles had been published
and also those whose articles could not be published owing to space and
time constraints. Kindly send the articles before 20th February 2010 for
consideration.
We are thankful to our subscribers Ms Sudeshna Chakrabarti (6621211),
Dr Lakshmanapathi V (6630112), Shri Kannan G (6531114), Centre for
Studies in Rural development (6640115), Renchy Koshy Verghese
(6650111), Vijayalakshmi N K (6660111) Lalchand College of Arts and
Science (6670311) Shri Krishnan T N (6680112) Dr Janet Vasantha
Kumari (6690112) Indore School of Social Work (6700111) Dr Suneetha
K (6710115), Vidya Vikas First Grade College, Mysore (672011)
and Thanthai Roever College of Nursing, Perambalur (6730811) ~Ed.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 21
Focus Mental Health of Children –
Tsunami Victims
Sivakumar K*
Sivakumar K, Asst. Professor, P.G. Department of Social work, Arignar Anna Govt.
Arts. Colleage, Karaikal – 609 605. e-mail : siva.harshii@gmail.com
Introduction was told that her mother had been
Undersea disturbance of December admitted in hospital. She was in a
26th 2004 is the biggest ever in terms very depressed mood and wanted
of destruction in recent history that her father to show her mother. She
triggered tsunami as well as. did not talk with anyone,demanding
Thousands of citizens of 55 countries her mother back.
were killed by tsunami, the àMalar, 18 year-old girl said that,
destructive waves which rendered she saw her parents being dragged
one million homeless. As the majority away by tsunami waves. Further,
of those killed were women and she said that, “I am unable to sleep
children, a study was conducted or eat after the tragedy. I feel highly
among children in Karaikalmedu depressed.”
village at Karaikal with the following àAnbu, seven year-old boy, lost
objectives. four of the family members in
a)To find out the mental health tsunami. He stayed in an orphan
problem of children due to tsunami. home. He expressed his feelings of
b)To analyze the impact of mental shock. He wants to be alone. He is
health problem on day to day unable to concentrate in his studies.
activities. Findings
c)To suggest suitable remedial The following are the findings of
measures for developing positive mental health problems faced by
mental health. tsunami affected children:
The observation of revealing facts of à Children refused to return to
children are given below: school.
Case studies àExhibited ‘clinging’ behaviour,
à Sivaranjini, four year-old girl, including shadowing mother or
lost her mother in December but she father around the house.
22 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
àCent percent of the children have àThe care takers, counsellors and
persistent fears related to the teachers have to coordinate and
catastrophe. discuss for improving their life style.
àMost of the children (90%) face Proper vocational guidance must be
sleep disturbances such as provided.
nightmares, screaming during sleep àThe Government must provide
and bedwetting, persisting for continuous support for their uplift.
several days after the event. àNon-governmental organizations
àMajority of the children (80%) also have to extend continuous,
misbehave in schools. persistent help towards their
àAll the children are unable to psycho–social development.
concentrate properly. Conclusion
àAll are jumpy and startled easily. In young children, upsetting dreams
àMajority of the children repeatedly of the traumatic event may change
re-experience the traumatic event. into nightmares of monsters due to
Suggestions posttraumatic stress disorder
àCounselling helps children to (PTSD). All citizens are responsible
relieve from distress. for taking care of children ailing from
àThe play-way method of teaching this type of mental health problem.
creates better feeling of zeal and Appointment of social workers in
happiness. schools is very much essential for
à The teachers have to follow promoting better mental health
alternative method of teaching. among students.
References:
Asha Bhat nagar Nirmala Gupta (1999): Guidance and Counselling , Vikas
Publishing house, Delhi.
Digumarti Bhaskara Rao, (2004): Guidance and Counselling, Discovery Publishing
house, New Delhi.
Hindu online edition, January 2005.
Pasricha P (2006): Guidance and Counselling in Indian Education, NCERT,
New Delhi.
Warters J (2007): Techniques of Counselling, Mc. Graw Hill, New Delhi.

Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 23


Focus Promotion of
Mental Health Care in Rural Areas
Arul Kamaraj J M*
Arul Suresh J**
* Dr Arul Kamaraj J M, Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Loyola College,
Chennai - 34
**Arul Suresh J, Lecturer, Department of Commerce, Loyola College, Chennai -
34.
Introduction perceptions and feelings that
This 21st century has seen greater determine a person’s overall level of
gains in health for the people of the personal effectiveness, success,
world than at any other time in history. happiness and excellence of
These gains have been made partly functioning as a person. Bhatia
as a result of improvements in (1982) describes it as the ability to
income and education, with balance desires, feelings, ambitions
accompanying improvements in and ideals in one’s daily living. It may
nutrition, hygiene, housing, water also be understood as the
supply and sanitation. They are also behavioural characteristics of a
the result of new knowledge about person. According to Kumar (1992),
the causes, prevention and treatment mental health is an index which
of disease and the introduction of shows the extent to which the person
policies that have made intervention has been able to meet his
programmes more accessible. environmental demands – social,
Effective health promotion leads to emotional or physical. A mentally
changes in the determinants of healthy person shows a
health. Mental health promotion is homogenous organization of
an integral part of health promotion desirable attributes, healthy values,
theory and practice. a balanced self-concept and a
Mental health scientific perception of the world as
The concept of mental health is as a whole.
old as human beings. Mental health Mental health presents a humanistic
comprises those behaviours, approach towards self and others. It
24 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
is an important factor that influences creative and productive members of
an individual’s various activities, the society.
behaviour, happiness and Mental ill-health
performance. Mental health Mental ill-health is about mental
represents a psychic condition, which disorders, symptoms and problems.
is characterized by mental peace, Mental symptoms and problems can
harmony and content. It is identified also exist without the criteria for
by the absence of disabling and clinical disorders being met. These
debilitating symptoms, both mental subclinical conditions are often a
and somatic in the person. consequence of persistent or
(Schneiders, 1964). temporary distress. They, too, can be
Dimensions of mental health a marked burden to individuals,
Mental health is an indivisible part of families and societies. In theory, the
general health and wellbeing and as aim of mental health promotion is to
a concept reflects the equilibrium increase and enhance positive
between the individual and the mental health and that of mental ill-
environment in a broad sense. health prevention is to protect
Mental health can be described in individuals from mental health
two dimensions: problems. In practice, however, many
Positive mental health activities have both promoting and
Positive mental health considers preventive aspects.
mental health as a resource. It is Rural mental health
essential to subjective wellbeing and India, the second most populated
to our ability to perceive, comprehend country of the world with a population
and interpret our surroundings, to of 1.027 billion, is a country of
adapt to them or to change them if contrasts. The population is
necessary, and to communicate with predominantly rural. There is a
each other and have successful continuous migration of rural people
social interactions. Healthy human into urban slums creating major
abilities and functions enable us to health and economic problems. India
experience life as meaningful; is one of the pioneering countries in
helping us to be, among other things, health services planning with a focus
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 25
on primary health care. Improvement in comparison with formal medical
in the health status of the population facilities. It is possible to train lay
has been one of the major thrust community volunteers to identify
areas for social development various mental disorders and
programmes in the country. However, implement simple psycho-social
only a small percentage of the total rehabilitation strategies. Involving
annual budget is spent on health. and training lay community workers
Mental health is part of the general from the community may facilitate
health services, and carries no easier acceptance by the patients
separate budget. The National and their families. The interventions
Mental Health Programme serves should facilitate community
practically as the mental health integration of the mentally ill.
policy. Recently, there was an eight- Interventions should be individually
fold increase in budget allocation for tailored to the needs of the patients
the National Mental Health and their families. Establishing
Programme for the Tenth Five-Year rapport with the family and the
Plan (2002-2007). community through the involvement
India is a multicultural traditional of local village leaders will ensure the
society where people visit religious acceptance by the population.
and traditional healers for general Promotion of mental health in
and mental health related problems. rural areas
However, wherever modern health Mental health promotion requires
services are available, people do multi-sectoral action, involving a
come forward to utilize them. number of government sectors and
Most of rural India is devoid of formal non-governmental or community-
mental health services. It is evident based organizations. The focus
that communities by and large favouri should be on promoting mental
traditional and religious forms of health throughout the lifespan to
treatment, not only because it suited ensure a healthy start in life for
their explanatory models of mental children and to prevent mental
illnesses, but also because of the disorders in adulthood and old age.
easier availability of these services, The following steps may be taken to
26 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
promote and protect mental health in
community mental health care
rural areas: facilities, backed by psychiatric beds
à Change attitudes and raise
in general hospital and home care
awareness. Ministries of Health,
support.
mental health service user and
àIncrease investment in mental
family groups, health professionals,
health. Governments need to
NGOs, academic institutions,
dedicate more of their health budget
professional organizations and
to mental health. In addition the
other stakeholders should unify their
mental health workforce needs to be
efforts in educating and changing
developed and trained to ensure
public attitudes towards mental
that all people have access to good
illness and in advocating for the
quality mental health services at
rights of people with mental
each level of the health care system.
disorders. àImprove human rights in mental
àEmpower mental health service
health facilities. Mechanisms to
users and families. Governments
monitor human rights should be
should support the creation and/or
established to protect against
strengthening of mental health
inhuman and degrading treatment,
service user and families poor living conditions and
organizations in rural areas. Such
inappropriate and arbitrary
groups are in the best position to
involuntary admission and
highlight problems, specify their
treatment. People should also have
needs, and help find solutions to
access to complaints mechanisms
improving mental health in countries
in cases of human rights violations.
and have a crucial role to play in the
àAdopt policies, laws and services
design and implementation of
that promote human rights.
policies, plans, laws and services
Countries should put in place mental
àReplace psychiatric institutions
health policies, laws and services
with community care. Large that promote the rights of people
institutions, which are so often
with mental disorders, empower
associated with human rights
them to make choices about their
violations, should be replaced by
lives, provide them with legal
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 27
protections, and ensure their full that the public mental health services
integration and participation into the have been slow to address. A number
rural community. of non-governmental organizations
Conclusion have also initiated activities related
The development of rural mental to rehabilitation programmes, human
health services has been linked with rights of mentally ill people, and
general health services and primary school mental health programmes.
health care. Training opportunities for Despite all these efforts and
various kinds of mental health progress, a lot has still to be done
personnel are gradually increasing in towards all aspects of mental health
various academic institutions in the care in India in respect of training,
country and recently, there has been research, and provision of clinical
a spurt in the growth of private services to promote mental health in
psychiatric services to fill a vacuum all sections of society.
References:
Bharadwaj R L(2001): Socio-Economic Status Scale, National Psychological
Corporation, Agra.
Bhatia, B D (1982): Mental Hygiene in Education. In Kuppuswamy, B. (Ed.)
Advance Educational Psychology. Sterling, Delhi.
Davar, Bhargavi (2002): Draft National Health Policy 2001-III, Mental Health :
Serious Misconceptions, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XXXVII, No. 1,
Jan 5-11, pp.20-22.
Kumar P (1992): Mental Health Checklist. National Psychological Corporation,
Agra.
Schneiders, A A (1964): Personal Development and Mental Health. Holt, New
York.
http://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/MH_Promotion_Book.pdf

Future Focus
Mar 2010 Dr Sunitha K (AP) Essentials of Health and Hygiene
Apr 2010 Dr Chindhai Jayaraman Essentials of Self-confidence
May 2010 Dr Visvanathan S (AU) Acceptance of Differences
Articles have to be sent before 20th of the preceding month to facilitate
peer review. Please append references in APA style. ~Ed.
28 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
Focus Mental Health: Some Crucial Factors
Sudeshna Chakrabarti*
Kamlesh Kumar Sahu**
Soma Hazra***
*
Sudeshna Chakrabarti, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Maharaja
Bir Bikram College
P.O. – Agartala College,Tripura (W), Pin – 799004 (India)
**
Kamlesh Kumar Sahu, Programme Coordinator , PARIPURNATA 1912,
Panchasayar Road P.O Panchasayar, Kolkata – 700094 (India)
***
Soma Hazra, Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Bangabasi College, 19,
Rajkumar Chakraborty Sarani. Kolkata – 700009
Introduction isolation, stigma, poor or non-existent
A romanticised ideal of rural life has transport and inaccessibility or
been pervasive among the privileged absence of services are
members of our society for at least characteristics of rural areas
three centuries. This view of our (Bentham and Haynes, 1986) which
society gives rise to assumptions do not fit comfortably with the popular
which continue to influence (and professional) assumptions that
Government policies in a wide variety the rural environment offers
of areas including transport, protection from mental illness. Many
employment, education and health rural communities lack adequate
(Gregoire and Thornicroft, 1998). Yet mental health services. Additionally,
rural areas lack access to and there are specific problems
availability of mental health associated with delivery of services
specialists, such as psychiatrists, to rural citizens (Voss, Steven L.,
psychologists, psychiatric nurses and 1996). The more recent literature
social workers. Poverty, geographic allows us to obtain some of the detail
isolation and cultural differences and extract more meaningful
further hinder the amount and quality conclusions by examining the
of mental health care available to influence of factors such as poverty,
people in rural areas (NIMH, 2000). unemployment, low level of literacy,
Rapidly increasing homelessness, violence in the society, drug abuse
lack of supported housing, social and alcoholism, malnutrition,
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 29
ethnicity and geographic effects. environmental effect. The results
Poverty suggest that the link between poor
An association was found between neighbourhoods and children’s
indicators of poverty and the risk of mental health may be a true
mental disorder. Factors such as environmental effect and can be used
experience of insecurity and to identify modifiable risk factors for
hopelessness, rapid social change promoting child health (Caspi et al,
and the risk of violence and physical 2000).
ill-health may explain the greater Unemployment
vulnerability of the poor to common India, undoubtedly, is grappling with
mental disorder. The direct and the problem of unemployment.
indirect cause of mental ill-health Unemployment is a situation
worsens the economic condition, characterized by the existence of
setting up a vicious cycle of poverty those able bodied persons who are
and mental disorder (Patel and willing to work but have to do without
Kleinman, 2003). Mother’s weak a job that may yield them some
emotional responsiveness and regular income. There is a sharp
frequent use of physical punishment increase in the working population
explain the effect of current poverty engaged in agriculture without a
on mental health (McLeod and corresponding increase in the area of
Shanahan, 1993). cultivation. All seem to be employed
A study has shown that children in but enough work is not available for
deprived neighbourhoods were at all. This is disguised unemployment
increased risk for emotional and (Nishant, 2009).
behavioural problems over and Farmers are an almost exclusively
above any genetic liability. rural occupational group with a
Environmental factors shared by particularly high suicide risk, which
members of a family accounted for ranks fourth in order of risk by
20% of the population variation in occupation and now accounts for the
children’s behaviour problems, and second most common cause of death
neighbourhood deprivation for male farmers under 45 (accidents
accounted for 5% of this family-wide being the first). In terms of absolute
30 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
numbers of suicides, farmers have impact on children’s mental health.
the highest numbers of any Domestic violence predicted
occupation in the UK – recently, India children’s general psychopathology.
is also witnessing larger incidences Finally, there was less sibling and
of suicides among the farmers. parental warmth in families marked
These high rates are related to by aggression, although when it was
depressive illness (Malmberg et al, present, family social support failed
1997). to buffer children (McCloskey et al,
Low level of literacy 1995).
It was found that education Drug abuse and alcoholism
influences mental health. Drug addiction is becoming a major
Stigmatization towards mentally ill health problem in India with some
individuals is also due to low level of estimates indicating that as many as
literacy among the rural masses 15 million people in India could
(Bourget Management Consulting for become addicts by the end of 2004
the Canadian Alliance on Mental (Gupta, 2005). There are a number
Illness and Mental Health, 2004). of contributors to the growing
Social violence prevalence of substance abuse in
The presentation of domestic rural areas. Among these is the lack
violence is often culture specific. of access to treatment programmes
Studies showed that rural women in rural areas combined with the
experienced physical, verbal, reluctance of substance abusers to
emotional, and sexual abuse, seek available treatment.
harassment, stalking, and abuse with Malnutrition
a weapon in their current intimate The prevalence of underweight
relationship (Krishnan et al, 2001). children in India is among the highest
Research describes particular threats in the world, and is nearly double that
to local women including dowry of Sub-Saharan Africa with dire
deaths, honour murder, sati, and consequences for mobility, mortality,
disproportional exposure to HIV/ productivity and economic growth
AIDS. It was also seen that effects (The World Bank, 2009a). Women
of systemic family violence have an tend to be at a higher risk of
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010 31
malnutrition in rural areas limits prevalence of schizophrenia, specific
intellectual development (Carson et areas of very high and very low
al, 2000). prevalence have been described
Ethnicity throughout the world with upto 20-
Growing ethnocentrism is not only fold variations in rates (Torrey, 1987).
violating our unity but destroying the Conclusion
continuum of social harmony. In Educational initiative that provides
recent decades ethnicity is one of the evidence based information has
major causes of violence and unrest reduced stigma to some extent. The
in India including villages which has Ministry of Health and Family Welfare,
evil effect on mental health. Government of India has revitalized
Geographical effects the DMHP based the available
Rural communities are located in the evidence (NIMHANS) and envisages
remote areas. In addition to the extension of District Mental Health
international differences in Programme (DMHP) to all the districts
distribution of psychiatric morbidity in the country as part of the 11th five
across rural and urban areas specific year plan. It’s a new hope for
clusters of high levels of specific escalating mental health obviously for
disorder have been described. The rural community too.
References:
Patel V and Kleinman A (2003): Poverty and Common Mental Disorders in
Developing Countries. Bull World Health Organ, Vol. 81(8): 609-615.
Carson RC, Bucher JN, Mineka S (2000): Abnormal Psychology and Modern
Life. Pearson Education, 523-541.
Caspi A, Taylor A, Moffitt TE, Plomin R (2000): Neighbourhood Deprivation
Affects Children’s Mental Health: Environmental Risks Identified in a Genetic
Design. Psychological Science; Vol. 11(4):338-342.
Krishnan SP, Hilbert JC, VanLeeuwen D (2001): Domestic Violence and Help-
Seeking Behaviours among Rural Women: Results from a Shelter-Based Study.
Family and Community Health; Vol. 24(1):28-38.
Published and owned by P. Jayachandran Naidu. Published from
8, Sridevi Colony, 7th Avenue, Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600083 and
printed by T. Rajaguru at TRK Press, 39, Saidapet Road, Vadapalani,
Chennai 600026. Editor: P. Jayachandran Naidu.
32 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK February 2010