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English 4: Unit 1 (The Communication Process)

Lesson 1: Models of Communication

The nature of the communication process
Communication a process by which a
speaker conveys his/her message to a listener
or a group of listeners
- It uses both words and symbols to send
a message to the listener
David Berlos Model of Communication

a. Proficient in the language

b. Enough background knowledge about
the matter
c. Openness to other peoples thoughts
and feelings

anything that obstructs the

understanding of a message; may be external
or internal
External physical in nature; causes distraction
Internal interference caused by the speaker
or the listener; may be physiological,
psychological or cultural
Lesson 2: Oral Communication: Communicatrs
and Context in Focus



- Verbal

- Oral

- Non verbal

- Written

- Graphic

- Graphic

-Ideas, Feelings
- Language
- Organization/
- Information

- Language Proficiency
- Background Knowledge
- Ideas, Feelings

Decoder (Reciever)
- Language Proficiency
-Shared background
-Ideas, feelings

Sender (S) one who conveys a message, oral

or written, stirred by his/her own ideas and
Message (M) the information received by the
listener from the speaker.
- May be verbal, non verbal or graphic

Types of Communication

communication we engage in when we talk to

ourselves; takes place subconsciously
Interpersonal communication most common
type of communication; we want to convey a
message to another person
a. Dyadic exchange two persons
communicate directly with each other
b. Small group communication consists
of three or more persons
Public communication a speaker delivers a
message before an audience
a. Public speaking - formal presentation
by the speaker to an audience;
prepared speech
b. Mass communication type of public
communication to an extremely large
audience mediated by audio and/or
visual means
Formality Levels of Communication

Channel (C) the mediusm by which the

message is communicated
- May be send out orally or in written form
Oral message sent through sound waves
Written message sent through light waves

1. Frozen style highest rank in Joos

o Used in a very formal setting such
as in rituals, church rites,
speeches for state ceremonies
and some other occassions

Receiver (R) one who listens and receives the

conveyed message

2. Formal style used in extended oneway communication

Speeches in formal situations

o Sentence structure are complex
and the words chosen are not
Two features:
1. Modulated intonation
2. Cohesion and organization

3. Consultative style used in semi-formal

communication situations
Two features:
1. One speaker supplies background
information and he/she does not
assume that she/he will be easily
2. The adressee participates continuously;
both parties are active
4. Casual style used among friends and
acquaintances in informal situations
Two features:
1. Ellipsis
2. Slang
5. Intimate style private language used
within the family and with very close
Speech Act Theory
Three (3) things to be considered
1. What is said locutionary force of the
speech act (the words in the message)
2. What we actually do when we say it
illocutionary force
3. What the expected response or reaction
to what was said
Lesson 3: Symbol Systems in Communication:
Focus on the Code
Verbal Symbols the use of spoken or written
Types of Meaning
- Based on the distinctive signals that
indicate how the words used and
sentences formed differ in meaning

form the other words and sentences in

the language
1. Phonological meaning are distinctive
sounds that are put together to form a
meaningful item
2. Semantic Meaning
Homonyms words that have the same
sound, but different spellings
Heteronyms have the same spelling but
are pronounced differently
Morphemes words that can stand by
themselves or affixes that are attached to
words to signal another meaning
3. Syntactic Meaning refers to your
knowledge of grammatical rules;
- the use of correct word order and the
difference in meaning that results from
the change in the structure of a
4. Pragmatic Meaning considers the context
of the situation and the relationship of the
communicators to arrive at the meaning of
the utterance
Non-verbal symbols
1. Chronemics

communication conveys certain messages
2. Proxemics the use of space by
interlocutors in communication situations
3. Tactile/touch, non verbal communication
4. Kinesics these are body movements such
as movements of eyes, head, feet, hands or
5. Artifacts simply objects which people may
use in communication
6. Silence
7. Paralanguage how a person says a
message; how a person delivers a message