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- chp21
- 64_20080428_%5B3b%5D_hasse_aupoix_precis
- Dmitry V. Khotyanovsky et al- Control of Shock Wave Interaction by Impulse Laser Energy Deposition
- Design Consideration of Hypersonic Vehicles
- Me Aero Syllabus
- Solution Manual Gas Dynamics 3rd Edition James E.a. John Theo G. Keith
- 203990781
- RASAero Users Manual
- Aerodynamic Analysis of Body-Strake Configurations
- Anna University [AERO-R2013]
- Manual de Mathcad 14 en Español.pdf
- flutter.pdf
- Different types of aerodynamic profiles used and their application
- 19770026166_1977026166
- M4l22
- B. Vrsnak and S. Lulic- Formation of Coronal MHD Shock Waves I: The Basic Mechanism
- Old Hyperloop Report Doc
- iaec05
- ME2251_uw.pdf
- Gas Dynamics

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AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE

CHAPTER 10

HYPERSONIC AERODYNAMICS

APRIL 1987

EDWARDS AFB CA

19970116 m

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Distribution Unlimited

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OF

NOT

14

HYPERSONIC AERODYNAMICS

Page

14.1

14.2

14.1

14.2

14.2

14.5

14.7

14.11

14.14

14.14

14.16

14.19

14.21

14.22

14.24

14.24

14.25

14.26

14.27

14.27

14.27

14.29

14.30

Introduction

Mach Number Effects

14.2.1 Basic Hypersonic Shock Relations

14.2.2 Mach Number Independence

14.2.3 Hypersonic Similariity

14.2.4 Newtonian Theory

14.3 Viscous Effects

14.3.1 The Boundary Layer . . .

14.3.2 Viscous Interaction

14.3.3 Computational Fluid Dynamics

14.4 High Temperature Effects

14.4.1 Non-Perfect Gas

14.4.2 Temperature Prediction

14.4.2.1 Radiation

14.4.2.2 Catalytic Wall Effects

14.4.2.3 Turbulent Boundary Layer

IT.4.2.4 Shock Interactions

14.4.3 Temperature Control

14.4.3.1 Body Shape

14.4.3.2 Re-entry Profile

Bibliography. .

14.1

INTROPUCflON

Earlier in supersonic aerodynamics, it was stated that a compressible,

nonviscous,

vehicles and hypersonic cruise vehicles.

As Mach changes from 4.99 to 5.01 nothing dramatic changes.

just a convenient rule of thumb.

Mach 5 is

The actual

Mach number where these physical phenomena become significant will vary with

vehicle shape, Reynolds number, etc.

a.

Thin, curved shock layers (i.e. the region between the shock and

body).

b.

c.

(velocity slip).

d.

manner.

flow analysis problem.

pressure pattern around a vehicle in order to get lift, drag and stability

derivatives, a new problem becomes important at hypersonic speeds: predicting

the heat input into the vehicle caused by the high energy in the flow.

This

aspect is not a major concern at low Mach numbers but can be the dominant

concern at hypersonic speeds (shooting stars make this obvious).

Therefore,

this

course

is

broken

into

two

broad

aerothermcdynamics

catagories:

the

Further,

the

aerodynamics of high Mach flows will be subdivided into two sections for

clarity.

First,

effects and then the viscous terms will be included to show their effects at

low Reynolds numbers.

14.1

14.2

As we saw in supersonic aerodynamics, the Mach number has a strong

influence on shock waves and the fluid parameter changes across the shock.

region including Mach numbers up to at least M = 25 (orbital velocity) and the

very existence of these large Mach numbers can have a dominant effect on the

flow.

In this section the purely fluid dynamic effects of Mach number are

effects.

14.2.1

If we ignore viscosity and assume a thermally perfect gas we have the same

relations for fluid parameter changes across a shock that we developed in

Chapter 6, Supersonic Aerodynamics.

For

example,

equation

6.49

from

supersonic

aerodynamics

gives

the!

relationship between density behind an oblique shock and the upstream density:

(Y + 1) MT2 SJJ12B

2+(Y-l)M1*sin2e

p

~

then the Mx2 sin2e terms cancel each other leaving:

Po _ "Y + 1

Pi

7-1

(14.1)

shock wave reduce to

^_ .

2? (T-l)

TrW S ^

Mi2sin2fl

(14.2)

^- Mj2 sin2e

(14.3)

and

Vfi.

14.2

Using the relationship between p* and pi can also give us a very simple

result for the coefficient of pressure, C .

C =

P

E1-ZJ21

qi

Since C

is defined as

_2_

Zl - i

Y*V

PI

4

___

y + 1

. 2,e

sm

2

-77-,

Z

YM!

or with M! 1,

sinZe

7T1

(14 4)

'

In addition, the relationship between the wave angle e and the wedge angle

5 is simplified.

,_

_J_

Mi2 sin26 ~ 1

-j^-I/~~7~^:r7T"Z~

Mi2(Y + cos2e) + 2

is an illustration.

sin e

cos 2e = 1

tan 6=5

cot e =

- .

tan e

-e

gives

_2_

9

Mf' 8* - 1

"Mi1 (Y + U + 2

14.3

Figure 14.1

6

M,2

e2

or

6

>

26

Y+ 1

(14.5)

U = 1.5

Ua

= 10'

Figure 14.1

ignoring viscous and other effects, is much simpler than for supersonic flow

problems.

category of real problems.

14.4

14.2.2

independent of Mach at hypersonic speeds.

across an oblique shock (equation 14.1) and the coefficient of pressure for a

small wedge angle (equation 14.4).

Other relationships continue to depend on Mach number.

ana 14.3 it can be seen that the increase in pressure and temperature across

an oblique shock both tend to asM+.

"5"

_

2

P2

_P_2

" plVl2

l^

T

YM7

7TI V

sin2e

or

T

-Y+l

Sln2e

(14 6)

'

In general, non-dimensional variables become independent of Mach at

hypersonic speeds.

14.4.

Mach.

The obvious utility of this is emphasized in the last example,

14.4.

figure

Prior to the first launch of the space shuttle no wind tunnel data was

not conform to the predictions as well as this example, most were similar.

14.5

-> 1.2 n

Q

/- sphere

^ 1.0 H

0.60.4

o

o

*_*+.

++-

L- 60' cone-c7linder

sphere

0.2-

r

fl

10

MACH

Figure 14.2

(o Charters and Thomas (1945), x Hodges

(1957), + Stevens (1950))

4 ~

(L/D) MAX 3

21 "l

2

1

4

I

6

i

8

i

10

r

12

MACH

Figure 14.3 Wind-Tunnel Results for (1/D)UkX for

an Integral Re-entry Body (Krogemann, 1973)

14.6

.001

0

**

-.001

-.002

-.003

Figure 14.4

14.2.3

Moment due to Sideslip

Hypersonic Similarity

Similarity

in

aerodynamics

refers

to

identifying

parameters

or

different conditions.

tests at one set of conditions and then predict the results at another set of

conditions.

The

criteria

for

hypersonic

similarity

can

be

derived

suffice to justify the use of similarity.

Consider a slender body in a hypersonic flow at a low angle of attack.

These limitations allow use of small perturbation assumptions.

14.7

SHOCK WAVE

Figure 14.5

v', then at some point downstream of the shock,

U = Voo + u'

v = v'

Over a slender body the change in the x component of the velocity is very

small compared to the change in the y direction (0 to v' is a large percentage

increase).

either up or down.

sin

--^---, =

sin 6

00

sin

v'

r:

v

oo

14.8

sin 6

or, if v"

V^

v'

.-.- ~

sins

V oo

or

v'

--~

a

Mm sin 6.

oo

sound is M sink.

Mro sin6

(14.7)

The thickness ratio for slender bodies is of the same order of magnitude as

sin6 and is equally good for stipulating hypersonic similarity.

14.9

Figure 14.6 and 14.7 are examples of data at different conditions that

have the same hypersonic similarity parameter.

Figure 14.6

Hypersonic Similarity (Ref 2:pg 50)

= 3

a = 10'

r.

= 1/3

C^

K =-- 5

a == 6'

r =-

1/5

20 40 60 BO 100

PERCENT LENGTH

Figure 14.7

Shapes with Hypersonic Similarity

14.10

14.2.4

Newtonian Theory

not interact with each other.

flow description, which gave very poor results when Newton tried to predict

17th century ship hull drag.

The basic assumption that Newton used was that as each streamline of

particles approached a body the streamline would be deflected to parallel the

surface.

14. b shows this for a flat plate at some angle of attack.

and V,z

Figure

Here Vz= Vi = V2

= .

^

Figure 14.8

From Newton's second law, the time rate of change of momentum is equal to

the force

* -

TT

The only change in V is the total loss of the normal component of the

Jtiomentum.

14.11

(vnl - 0)

F

-----

=m

__5L

At

v, sina

1

m=P, V

A sina

Therefore

F = (p

Realizing that P/A is just P

sina

~ Pj

F/A = p

A sina) V

- p

=p V 2 sin2a

11

change divided by"the dynamic pressure, we get to Newton's

C = 2 sin2a

P

result:

(14.fa)

From this simple result we can quickly derive relationships for C^, CD#

and L/D:

r = C sin

~D

p

= 2 sin a

and

L/D = CT/Cn =

-^

While all of these answers gave poor results for 17th century sailing

ships,

figures 14.9 and 14.10 show good results when applied to some

hypersonic problems.

14.12

1.00

o EXPERIMENTAL DATA

.75 NEWTONIAN THEORY

P/P9 0 .50

.25 M. = 22

Figure 14.9.

Cylinder

o STS-4, M *= 12.4

USTS-4. X m 7.7

2.0 A

1.6

Newtonian Solution

tor a Flat Plate

S 1.2-4"

0.8 -1

0.4

i

15

Tiiiiiri

20

Figure 14.10

24 28 32 36 40

ANGLE OF ATTACK

44

48

Space Shuttle

14.13

Notice that the non-dimensional L/D ratio, C^, and CD do not change with

Mach, in concert with the previous discussion of Mach number independence.

Newtonian theory's true physical significance can be seen by examining the

exact oblique shock relationship for C

10):

-I-Y + 1

sin26 - --i-l2M

(14.9)

when

14,3

-- 1 and M

->-oo.

VISCOUS hffFLCTS

In

thin boundary larger which nad a relatively minor contribution to changes ii

lift and drag at supersonic Mach numbers.

from this section is that viscous effects cannot be so casually dealt with at

hypersonic speeds.

.14.3.1

Outside of some

simplifies the flow problem without causing serious errors in our results:

viscous effects are negligible.

viscous

Figure 14.11 in an illustration.

14.14

S(x) - BOUNDARY

LAYER

THICKNESS

{BOUNDARY LAYER

"^^US/////////////////////////////////

-TZ77?

THIN FLAT PLATE

Figure 14.11

Boundary Layer

The main assumption that we made in supersonic aerodynamics was that the

boundary layer thickness,

boundary layer varies not only with distance as shown in figure 14.11 but also

with Mach and Reynolds numbers as :

6

x

"R~"

(14.10)

and, especially, high Mach (thickness grows as the square of M*>) can produce

hypersonic boundary layers orders of magnitude thicker than boundary layers at

lower speeds.

There are, broadly speaking,

importance of viscosity:

sections.

14.15

14.3.2

Viscous Interaction

between the growth cf the boundary layer and the outer inviscid flow.

A major

shown in figure 14.12.

P/P~

WITE INTERACTION

1.0

NO INTERACTION

V//SS///SS/////////J>//.AIZU2JUZZZ

Figure 14.12

Pressure Change Due to Viscous Interaction Over a Flat Plate at Zero Angle

of Attack

14.16

wave created by the boundary layer turning and compressing the streamlines.

If the flat plate were at some angle of attack, the effect of the boundary

layer growth would be to increase the compression angle and hence the pressure

increase.

Initially, the growth of the boundary layer, 36 /8x is large and thus the

effect on the pressure change is greatest.

figure 14.13.

Shock Wave

Inviscid flow

strongly

affected

Inviscid flow

weakly affected

I

"^~ Larger

"L

^- ^Smaller

} Outer edge

& \ of b.L

=1

Strong

Interaction

Figure 14.13

WeaJc

Interaction

parameter x

Mo

w w

?J.

14.17

(14.11)

Strong Interaction:

Weak Interaction:

-&-

(14.12)

= .514X- + 0.759

-E-

= 1 + 0.31X

(14.13)

0.005

The

is

due to shock separation at the leading edge of the non-zero thickness "flat

plate" in the wind tunnel.

100

^Strong viscous interaction

10

Weak viscous

interaction

P/Pa

*&&xa&beio

o.i *~

.01

o.i

10

1.0

100

-1

Figure 14.14

Flat Plate at Zero Incidence

is to increase the drag and hence reduce the lift-to-drag ratio.

14.3.3

in the 1950's before the advent of modern computational capability.

They are

14.18

inviscid flow, and then a coupling of these separate calculations to take into

account the interaction between the two.

The

aerodynamicist

to

calculate

viscous

effects

exactly,

simply

by

treating the entire flow field between the body and shock as fully viscous.

No arbitrary division between a viscous boundary layer and an inviscid flow

needs to be made.

(CFD).

All CFD techniques are based on the Navier-Stokes equations.

Navier-Stokes equations are:

- . .

Continuity equation

be

+ V (pV) = 0

dt

x momentum:

Du

en '.v,

dr Br

p = - + - + + Dt

6x

dx

By

dz

y momentum:

Dv

dp BT Br

BT

p = - -i- + 12 + 2 + z.12.

Dt

by

dx

dy

B:

z momentum:

p^=:- +

Dt

bz

^

ax

!lc

By

]

dz

Energy:

D(e + V2/2)

--=fK(*SK(*S)-"''

+

HUTB)

Bx

^ 3(vr)

Bz

a(MT^)

dy

B(wr)

dx

djuTj

dz

B(wr)

By

*-=*-*(M)-''

(Bu

Bw\

T = A(V.V) + 2M|

TJ?-A(V.V)

+ 2M?

uz

14.19

(V7) , djVTj

dx "*" dy

3(WTJ

Bz

The full

aerodynamics.

still beyond our capability.

is

the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory by J.5. Shane and S.J. Schere (ref.

6).

They analyzed the entire flow field around on X-24C-10D wind tunnel model

derivatives with respect to time went to zero and they used averaged Reynolds

numbers.

computer (a CRAY XMP-22) they were only able to get solutions for one steady

state Mach number at one angle of attack.

vast amount of data which correlated very well with the wind tunnel data they

had.

If you don't have the luxury of a CRAY computer and years of time to

obtain data for a single flight condition, CFD is still useful if the

Navier-Stokes

equations

are

simplified

little

further.

(PNS)

One

canton

equations.

The

then dropping the viscous terms that involve derivatives in the streamwise

direction.

differential equations.

starting with an initial data plane and then using a downstream marching

procedure.

Reference 7 gives more insight into the use and utility of PNS

solutions.

Other simplifications are commonly used with CFD and it is important to

know the assumptions made and limitations of a particular CFD solution.

The

simplest codes are capable of very quick results, the major difficulties being

input of the vehicle surface matrix and extraction of data.

Interpreting

roomful

of

computer

printouts

is

difficult

and

flow

visualization with computer generated graphics accessing this vast data base

has received a lot of attention.

14.20

14.4

In

sup-: -r tonic

aercx3ynam3.es

vo

developed

<.

:>

:<]'..,':.r."-.:p

v

totxl

cas.

."*-. V3s:

TT

i + i.r?

(14.K)

the space shut'-le at M = 25, 100,000 ft is 5L>125 F1

F.

Therefore, we

hopefully conclude that equation 14.14 does not hole ar. hypersonic speeds. 1

say hopefully, because no current materials arc capable cf vithstanding such

temperatures.

construction and the maximum temperature they c<=n withstand and still be

usable.

MATERIAL

ALUMINUM

TABLE 1.

TEMP (F)

320

TITANIUM

IN00- 18

900

1300

RENE 41

1600

COLUMBIAN

2500

SHUTTLE TILE

2700

The actual peak temperatures recorded on the space s.huttle were under 2300

F, thus equation 14.14 and the assumption cf a then.ally perfect gas

obviously does not hold true at M - 25.

14.21

The reason that equation 14.14 doesn't hold is that at higher Mach, and

hence higher temperature, the perfect gas assumptions break down.

Tne two

a. vibration, dissociation, and ionization all absorb energy

reducing ? , and.

b.

temperature, approaching 1 in the limit, also reducing TT

For the first effect, as the gas temperature rises the force of impact

between individual molecules of air becomes greater and greater.

At some

great enough to excite internal vibration of modes of the molecules, absorbing

sane of the force (energy) of impact.

temperature,

or velocity,

than others.

velocity map where 10% and 90% of air will be vibrationally excited.

As you

can see, even in an SR-71 flying at Mach 3 and 80,000 ft only about 10% of the

air is even vibrationally excited.

As we increase speed, the rising temperature begins to tear apart the

molecular bonds,

Air is

less than 10% ionized during the normal space shuttle reentry although some

ionization does occur accounting for the communications black out they

experience during reentry.

14.22

IPX

'

&'<.,< 0

' / // /

A?

/

' /

' S

' '//,

//.

.-

.'

//

'//,'-///<.'

//

//

.'.

/.

w/im

\iii*tion

Oxfspn

Dissociation

fit socitiiio:

MACH

Firrvi C

.'.

:.15

Stagnation Point

!C lecules

in the gas.

in equation 14.14.

AIE

1000

2000

TEMPERATRE CK)

figure 14.16.

?0Q<

One Atmosphen

14.23

..)

14.4.2

pin down the temperate - <_.

the non-perfec-ntr.v cf

-v.;- ,

11- -

factors.

14.4.2.1

j^diation

a few complicati.ng

still become very hot.

Fc.

atmosphere after returning fr.cx luj:ar or'uj.t <^M =- 22} h::d peak temperatures as

9

high as 11,60C

Kf

With

the dominant mechanism for heat transfer.

transfer is:

(14.15)

K;T

This doesn't seem too cad until we realize that the emissivity coefficient

e, is generally a function of temperature also.

different types of thermal protection material on the space shuttle, all with

different emissivity coefficients.

your ability to predict the temperature.

large error in

14.24

- HRSI

FRSl

1000

2000

TEMPERATURE (DEG F)

Figure 14.17

14.4.2.2

3000

the surface, recombination of dissociated molecules or ionized atoms can occur

at a higher rate than in the equilibrium flow.

heat may be released by the fluid right next to the surface of our body.

The

difficult to predict as can be seen in Figure 14.18. (ref. 10)

14.25

2500 2000 -

1500-

w ':redicfed

1000

g

500-

STS-i

_]

200

400

600

... .,

Time (S< c)

Figure 14.18

was experienced causing significantly lower teixpe.rat.ureE as can be seen on

Figure 14.18 between about Mach 22 and Mach 8.

14.4.2.3

Once the boundary layer transitions front laminar flew to turbulent the

effect of conductive heating from the gas to the surface will be significantly

enhanced.

is difficult to predict.

step increase about Mach 10 indicating that this in vhere transition occurred

instead of about Mach 15 where it was predicted.

L4.26

14.4.2.4

Shock Interactions

The interactions of shock waves off of various part', c-: the vehicles can

have very significant effects on localized heating valuer..

Two draiBtic examples of this are the X- 15 ir.d the iva.ee. rhiv.- le.

The

X-15 was modified to the 'C' configuration late in the proc; cjn allowing h:'.gher

Msch numbers.

dummy ramjet it melted off because of localized heating cf the support strut

due to shock impingement.

The second example is the loss of several Orbital Mcneufiring System (OMS)

pod tiles on the early flights of the space shuttle

Excessive heating

thicker tile in those areas.

14.4.3

Temperature Control

Although

accurate

prediction

of

surface

temperatures

of

hypersonic

vehicles is very difficult, the designer can control the tp.nperatures to some

extent.

Two ways are by proper choice of the body shape and the choice of

reentry profile.

14.4.3.1

Body Shape

Even though real air is not a perfect gas (fortunately), the vibration,

dissociation,

and

instantaneously.

ionization

that

make

it

non-perfect

do

not

occur

perfect fluid.

decrease.

14.27

In a moving fluid, the time axis in Figure 14.19 can be transposed into a

distance axis.

That is, as the gas flows past the shock wave, seme distance

temperature increase of the instantaneous shock wave.

tv/o bodies in Figure 14.20 will have very different surface temperatures at

the leading edge.

VIBRATION FULL'; ACTIV}

- 0, DISSOCIATION COMPLETt

fc-i

fcl

- Nr DISSOCIATION

COMPLETE

FREESTREAM

TIME OR DISTANCE

Figure 14.19

b. Blunt-nosed

Detached Shock

c. Sharp-nosed

Attached Shock

Figure 14.20

14.28

the tip approaching the perfect gas predictions.

say orbital reentry speed, the tip would soon melt and begin to look like

Figure 14.20b.

The advantage of a blunt-nosed slender body is that the detached Shockwave

allows the air to internally absorb sane of the heat before the air reaches

the surface of the vehicle.

14.4.3.2

For

Reentry Profile

orbital

available.

reentry

vehicles,

several

choices

of

flight

path

are

Figure 14.21 shows the flight corridor bounded by lift and heat

At very high angles of attack, range (or crossrange) is sacrificed to

provide the minimum instantaneous temperature.

a large temperature on only one area (e.g. the underside of the shuttle during

a 40 angle of attack reentry)-

The peak temperature occurs just after landing.

300 O

ZOO \

hi

h loo -

He&tmg Boundary

10

20

30

Figure 14.21

Flight Corridor

14.29

lBLIOGRAFHY

14 1

SighS, ^C-=TR^8Plirir-Eorce Flight Test Center,

June 1985.

14.2

14.3

Press, New York, 1959.

14.4

14 5

Syndics", AIAA-84-1578, .American Institute of Aeronautxcs and

Astronautics, New York, 1984.

14.6

Field Around A complete Aircraft", AIAA Paper No. 85-1509, 19o5.

14 7

SSSy Wer and Parabolized Navier-Stokes Solutions fogentry

Vehicles", -Tnmai of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol 23, No. 1., Jan Feb

1986.

14.8

Perspective, McGraw Hill, 1982.

14.9

arbiter Second Orbital Flight, Descent Phase, AFFTC-TR-82-1, Axr torce

Flight Test Center, Edwards AFB, CA, Feoruary 1982.

14.30

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