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# FUEL CONSUMPTION AND EMISSION REDUCTION BY DE-LINKING

ALTERNATOR IN AUTOMOBILES
Anjan N B #1, Abhishek A Patil #2
Department of Mechanical Engineering
The National Institute of Engineering
1
anjan.nagaiah@gmail.com
2
abhi.ap4@gmail.com

crankshaft.

## and emission. This is affected by different types of

through electromagnetism.

part,

Keywords

Threshold

Voltage,

Charging

Battery,

Pneumatic

Alternator,

Circuit,

Air

Alternators

alternators

are

produce

AC

Electricity

relatively

small

power
is

and

## crankshaft turns the drive belt, which in turn spins

the pulley on the rotor shaft. In essence, the
alternator transfers the mechanical energy from
the engine into electrical power for the car's

I.

INTRODUCTION

1

## 1. There is a tendency to grab.

2. There is some reluctance in disengagement.
Strict requirements made to the co-axiality of the
shafts being connected Torque transmitted by the
cone clutch:Let

## Di = Inner diameter of cone

Ri = inner radius of cone
Do = Outer diameter of cone
Rm = mean radius of cone
Dm = mean diameter of cone

## = Semi cone angle or pitch cone angle or face

angle, P = Intensity of normal pressure at contact
II.
Design of Cone Clutch
A simple form of a cone clutch is shown in fig. it

## consists of driver or cup and the follower or cone.

The cup is keyed to the driving shaft by a sunk
key and has an inside conical surface or face
which exactly fits the outside conical surface of
the cone. The slope of the cone face is made small
enough to give a high normal force. The cone is
fitted to the driven shaft by a feather key. The
follower may be shifted along the shaft by a
forked shifting lever in order to engage the clutch
by bringing the two conical surfaces in contact.
1. This clutch is simple in design.
2. Less axial force is required to engage the
clutch.

Fa = Axial force
Fa

T=

2 Fa

3 sin
()

(Ro 2Ri 2)

Ri2 )

T =

p2

component

of

the

above

## 3 (Do3 Di3)/( Do2 Di2) =

Dm --------------------(4)

2 sin
()

2sin
()

Fa

Axial

2 Fa

force

Constant

sin () = 2 pr dr

sin
()

2 pr dr

Fa =

2Pr =

## Frictional force outer ring = P2 sin ()

Fa = 2 c( Ro Ri) or

C=

2 ( Ro Ri)

P2 sin ()r

= P2

sin
()

T=
Total torque =

P2 2 sin ()
T=

2
sin

2 2 =

= (Ro2 Ri2)/2

## Uniform pressure theory: p constant

Substitute for C
Equation (1) becomes
2

Fa = p (Ro -Ri )
P=

(Ro 2Ri 2)

## --------- Equation (3)

sin
()
2 P

2 P

P2 2 sin () ( Ro2

Ri2 ) =

T = sin () =

2 P

( + )
2

2
+
2

## If the clutch is engaged when one member is

stationary and other rotating, then the cone faces
will tend to slide on each other in the direction of

(Ro3 Ri3)
3sin
()

T = sin () = 3

=2

## Where Dm = Mean diameter, Dm =

Equation 2 becomes
T =

T = (Ro2 Ri2)2 ( )

(Ro 2Ri 2)

(Ro3 Ri3)

## an element of the cone. This will resist the

engagement and then force
Axial load Fai = Fa (Sin+ cos )
Force width

b=

Outer diameter
Inner diameter

Do = Dm + b Sin
Di = Dm - b Sin

## Friction material used in the design is woven

asbestos and its co-efficient of friction is in
between 0.1-0.2.
Efficiency of alternator at 6000rpm = 0.453
Power required to drive the alternator =
Power generated by the alternator
efficiency of the alternator

alternator =

1562

## Figure 2 : Assembly of Cone Clutch in Solid

works

0.45

= 3719W
So, clutch is to be designed based on maximum

III.

## Design of Pneumatic Circuit to

Actuate Cone Clutch

## power to drive alternator. The table below gives

the dimensions of the cone clutch.

Design Details

## engine, the process of charging the battery stops.

In order to charge the battery, the isolated system

99.235

90

## has to couple with the engine shaft. This makes

the alternator pulley to rotate, thereby charging the
battery. To accomplish this, a Single acting

15.77

94.6175

degree)

13

## pneumatic cylinder with spring return is used.

This actuates the Cone clutch. The control of the

## actuation is done by the ECU (Electronic Control

Unit) of the automobile. The air source for the
pneumatic actuation is from automobile air

Pressure P ( in N/mm )

0.45

Axial Force Fa ( in N)

474.51

Torque T ( in Nmm)

9979

## braking system. The design of the circuit is based

on the pneumatic pressure available from the Air
Braking System of an Automobile. The available
pneumatic pressure in a typical automobile is
around 80 psi. Hence this is assumed as the source
for designing the entire system.

## Table 1: Design details of Cone Clutch

From Design of the Cone Clutch, the force
required to engage the clutch was found to be Fen
= 776N

## battery. This cycle continues. The circuit is

(30.4795) = 982.642N

## controlled by the signal sent from ECU. The

positive voltage at port S actuates the left mode of
the DCV. This results in the extension of the

## piston, thereby disengaging the clutch. The

Bore area of cylinder should be = Ac = F/P

=

Ac

## generator, which is responsible for the spool

movement in the DCV.

1781.50 = 47.62 mm

Sl.NO

Parameter

Value in mm

47.62

of cylinder
2

Stroke

5-10

## Table 2: Details of Single acting Cylinder

The nearest value which meets the requirement is

## 50mm bore diameter and 10 mm stroke length and

hence it is selected.
IV.
Pneumatic Circuit
The cone clutch is actuated by the pneumatic
circuit. This circuit either engages the clutch with
the engine or disengages with the engine
crankshaft. The circuit is controlled by the ECU.
The clutch remains in engaged position when the

## Results and Discussion

Alternator is a low efficiency machine. Its
efficiency varies between 0.43 to 0.55. Therefore,
it consumes a lot of energy. Once the battery is
charged there is no necessity to run the alternator.
This is evident from the graph shown below4

## battery is to be charged. Once the battery is

charged fully, the circuit disengages the alternator
from the engine.
The isolation of the alternator depends on the
battery voltage. Normally the battery is charged at
constant voltage of 14.2 Volts. Once the battery
attains this voltage, the battery becomes saturated.
At this point the circuit disengages the alternator

## When we disengage the drive of the alternator the

save at full load condition is around 3.5kW and
around 1kW at idling.
Average Specific Fuel Consumption of car
(average rated power 25kW) is around 185g/BHP
= 250g/kW-hr. Quantity of fuel saved under
different hours of disengagement are tabulated
below. (Assuming that alternator consumes
2.5KW in car)

Acknowledgements
The authors thank NIE for the continuous support
and encouragement.
References
Text Books:
1. Kamlesh purohit, C. S. sharma, Design of
Machine Elements, New Delhi: PrenticeHall of India, 2003.
2. Peter Croser, Frank Ebel, Pneumatics,
Edition 2002
Data Hand Books:
1. K. Mahadevan, K. Balaveera Reddy,
Design Data Handbook for Mechanical

## Table 3: Savings of fuel in grams

And for truck of average rated power 60kW,
quantity of fuel saved under different hours of disengagement of the alternator are given as follows
(Assuming alternator consumes 3.5KW in a truck)