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Focal mechanisms!

Nori Nakata!
Stanford University!

Faulting!

Faulting!
N

Strike

Dip

Faulting!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

Focal mechanism!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

Strike: 0-360
Dip: 0-90
Rake: 0-360

[s, d, r]=[0,90,0]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[0,90,0]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[0,60,0]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[0,60,0]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[0,90-0,0]!
90

60

30

[s, d, r]=[30,90,0]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[30,90,0]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[30,60,0]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[30,60,0]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[0,90,30]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[0,90,30]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[0,90,60]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[0,90,60]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[270,30,0]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[270,30,0]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[30,30,60]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[30,30,60]!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

[s, d, r]=[0,90,0-270]!
0

120

150

270

[s, d, r]=[30,90,0-270]!
0

120

150

270

[s, d, r]=[30,60,0-270]!
0

120

150

270

Are they enough?!


N

Strike

Dip

Rake

Are they enough?!

Moment tensor!

Moment tensor!
[s,d,r]=[0,90,0]

0 1 0
1 @
p
1 0 0 A
2
0 0 0

Moment tensor!
0

0.0566
@
0
0

0
1.7015
0

0
A
0
1.758

Moment tensor!
0

0.0566
@
0
0

0
1.7015
0

0
A
0
1.758

0
0
@ 0 1.7298
0
0

=
0
@

7.4e
0
0

0
A
0
1.7298

+
17

0
7.4e
0

17

0
0
7.4e

17

1
A

0.0566
@
0
0

0
0
A
0.0283
0
0
0.0283

Moment tensor!

Moment magnitude!
0

11/2

1 @X 2 A
Mij
M0 = p
2
ij
2
Mw = (log10 M0
3

9.1)

Faulting!
N

Strike

Dip

Faulting!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

Faulting!
N

Strike

Dip

Rake

Faulting!
N

Strike

Rake = 0 (left)
180 (right)

Dip

Rake

Rake = 270

Rake = 90

Left-lateral strike slip (rake=0)!


Dip
90

60

30

30

Strike
60

90

120

Right-lateral strike slip (rake=180)!


Dip
90

60

30

30

Strike
60

90

120

Normap-dip slip (rake=270)!


Dip
90

60

30

30

Strike
60

90

120

Reverse-dip slip (rake=90)!


Dip
90

60

30

30

Strike
60

90

120

Reverse-dip slip (rake=90)!


Dip
90

60

30

30

Strike
60

90

120

P and T axes!
P: maximum compressive principal stress
T: minimum compressive principal stress

NP2

T
P
NP1

Radiation pattern!

Pujol (2003)

Moment tensor!

Characterize earthquake!
What kind of faulting?
Is the dip shallow or steep?
Is the mechanism deviatoric?

Characterize earthquake!
[s,d,r]=[30,60,180]

What kind of faulting?


Is the dip shallow or steep?
Is the mechanism
deviatoric?
What is the horizontal
direction of faulting?

Characterize earthquake!
[s,d,r]=[30,60,180]

What kind of faulting?


Right lateral strike slip
Is the dip shallow or steep?
Steep
Is the mechanism
deviatoric?
Yes
What is the horizontal
direction of faulting?
30 degrees from North

Characterize earthquake!
[s,d,r]=[30,30,60]

What kind of faulting?


Is the dip shallow or steep?
Is the mechanism
deviatoric?
What is the horizontal
direction of faulting?

Characterize earthquake!
[s,d,r]=[30,30,60]

What kind of faulting?


Mostly reverse-dip slip with
some left-lateral strike slip
Is the dip shallow or steep?
Shallow
Is the mechanism
deviatoric?
Yes
What is the horizontal
direction of faulting?
30 degrees from North

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/
earthquakes/

What kind of faulting?


Is the dip shallow or steep
(closer to 0 or 90 degrees)?
Is the mechanism
deviatoric?
What is meant by
centroid?

What kind of faulting?


What is the strike?
Is the mechanism
deviatoric?

What kind of faulting?


What is the dip?
Is the mechanism
deviatoric?

What kind of faulting?


Which is the fault plane?

Records!
site
source

path

a)
Amplitude (cm/s)
Amplitude ratio

Instrument
response!

10

10

10

KiKnet
derivative of Hinet
responsecorrected Hinet

10

b)
2

10

10

without correction
with correction

Nakata (2013)

Phase difference (deg)

c)

10

without correction
with correction

360
180
0
1

10

10
10
Frequency (Hz)