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Future Pipe Industries

WAVISTRONG
ENGINEERING GUIDE

WAVISTRONG

FIBERSTRONG

WAVIFLOAT

FIBERMAR

Epoxy Pipe Systems

Title:
Engineering Guide for
Wavistrong filament wound
epoxy pipe systems

Date issued:
01-11-1997
Replaces issue of:
01-04-1995

REP 348/Rev 1/1197

Wavistrong
Engineering Guide
ES/EW/CS System

Reader Service Card


Please find in the back of this brochure a business reply card.
In order to inform you about the different applications and latest developments of Wavistrong glass fibre
reinforced plastic pipe systems, you are kindly requested to complete and return this card.

All information was correct at the time of going to press. However, we reserve the right to alter, amend
and update any products, systems and services described in this brochure. We accept no responsibility
for the interpretation of statements made.
Copyright by Future Pipe Industries B.V. formerly Wavin Repox B.V.
No part of this work may be reproduced in any form, by print, photoprint, microfilm or any other means
without written permission from the publisher.

Table of Contents
Section

Page

I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

II. Wavistrong information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
11
12
18
18
18
23
25
29
33
37
41

II.1.
II.2.
II.3.
II.4.
II.4.1.
II.4.2.
II.5.
II.5.1.
II.5.2.
II.5.3.
II.6.
II.6.1.
II.6.2.
II.7.
II.8.
II.9.
II.10.
II.11.
II.12.

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial identification . . . . . . . .
Winding angle . . . . . . . . . . .
Joining systems . . . . . . . . . .
Tensile resistant joints . . . . .
Non-tensile resistant joints . . .
System data . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combined stresses . . . . . . . .
Head loss in pipes and fittings
Wavistrong pipes . . . . . . . . .
Wavistrong fittings . . . . . . . .
Wavistrong pipe properties . .
Bending radius . . . . . . . . . . .
Fluid (water) hammer . . . . . .
Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buckling pressure . . . . . . . . .
Classification . . . . . . . . . . . .

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III. Wavistrong above ground pipe systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

III.1.
III.2.
III.3.
III.4.
III.4.1.
III.4.2.
III.5.
III.6.
III.7.

Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Support distance . . . . . . .
Single span length . . . . . .
Continuous span length . . .
Corrected support distance
Anchor points . . . . . . . . . .
Anchor loads . . . . . . . . . .

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42
42
42
43
43
45
47
52
52

IV. Wavistrong underground pipe systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

IV.1. Design and joining systems . . . . . . . . . .


IV.2. Anchor points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV.3. Calculation of underground pipe systems
IV.3.1. Pipe deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV.3.2. Deflection lag factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV.3.3. Deflection coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV.3.4. Vertical soil load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV.3.5. Live load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV.3.5.1. Live load coefficient single wheel load .
IV.3.5.2. Live load coefficient two passing trucks
IV.3.6. Pipe stiffness factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV.3.7. Modulus of soil reaction . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV.4. Resulting hoop stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV.5. Allowable combined stress . . . . . . . . . .

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56
56
56
57
58
58
59
59
60
60
61
61
62
64

Appendix I

: List of symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Appendix II

: Conversion tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Appendix III

: Conversion graph psi vs bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Appendix IV

: Conversion graph C vs F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Appendix V

: Examples combined stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

II

I. Introduction
This Wavistrong Engineering Guide provides information for the design, specification and installation
of Wavistrong glass fibre reinforced epoxy pipe systems in the diameter range from 25 mm up to and
including 1200 mm, for above ground and underground applications. For detailed specification, installation
information and standard products reference is made to the Wavistrong System Specifications, the Wavistrong
Installation Manual and the Wavistrong Product List. Beyond others, this information can be obtained
by completion of the reader service card.
All conventional methods of calculating stresses in the pipe wall, resulting from internal and external loads,
are applicable to the Wavistrong pipe system. The occurring stresses in the structural laminate have
to be combined to an equivalent stress and compared with the allowable value of this stress. The allowable
equivalent stress has been determined using the Continuum Theory .
The engineering of piping systems is complicated and can be simplified with the aid of calculation programs.
As a help for the piping engineer, Future Pipe Industries developed computer programs for the calculation
of stresses, strains and deformations for underground and above ground applications.
On request, computer runs can be made for the calculation of stresses and deformations in a specific
underground piping system in accordance with ANSI/AWWA C950-88 (Spangler theories), or ATV A 127-88
(Leonhardt theories).
For rigid above ground applications pipe stress analysis can be made with the aid of a computerized
flexibility programs.
Although our Engineering Department is able to support the pipe system design with individual calculations
as described above, Future Pipe Industries will not act as "designer" as described in ASME B31.3-1990,
chapter 1, paragraph 300 (b) (2).
The design of a pipeline system using Wavistrong products means a construction with pipes as well as
fittings.
All elements of the system are designed such that the performance requirements of the pipeline is valid
for each element of the Wavistrong system.
The choice for one of the possible joining systems will be considered in design stage. Together with our
engineers we can advise an optimal solution.
Because of its benefits, the possibility of using prefabricated pipeline sections (spools), should be considered
in design stage of the piping system.
The advantage of using spools can be found in the reduced amount of joints to be made in the field,
the shorter assembly dimensions, the narrow tolerances and the shortest installation time.
With the knowledge of the system requirements for a pipeline system several questions have to be answered
to come to a successful operating pipeline.
Besides technical discussions these questions are answered in our technical literature. The different subjects
for discussion referring to the relevant information are given in the following diagram (fig. I.1., page 2).
If product information is not covered by this guide, our engineers will be pleased to assist and inform
you about typical design possibilities and latest improvements of Wavistrong.

"Zur Beanspruchung und Verformung von GfK Mehrschichten Verbunden", A. Puck, Kunststoffe-57, Teil 1-II, 1967. Heft
4-7-12.

Fig. I.1. Product information

II. Wavistrong information


II.1. General

Wavistrong piping systems are manufactured from glass fibres, impregnated with an aromatic- or cyclo
aliphatic amine cured epoxy resin.
This thermosetting resin system possesses superior corrosion resistance, together with excellent mechanical,
physical and thermal properties.
The glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin piping system resists the corrosive effects of mixtures of low
concentrations of acids, neutral or near-neutral salts, solvents and caustics, both under internal and external
loads at temperatures up to 110C.
The helically wound continuous glass fibres of the reinforced (structural) wall of the pipes and the fittings
are protected on the inner side by the resin-rich reinforced liner and on the outer side by the resin topcoat.

II.2. Serial identification

The serial identification consists of two parts, namely:

A. Type identification
The type of product is identified by three alphabetic characters
1. Type of matrix:

E stands for epoxy resin


C stands for electrical conductive epoxy resin

2. Type of application: S stands for standard


W stands for potable water
3. Type of joint:

T stands for tensile resistant


N stands for non-tensile resistant

B. Pressure class
This figure indicates the maximum allowable internal pressure (bar) that the product can resist for
a life time of 50 years, with a service (design) factor (Sf) of 0.5, which implies a safety factor of 2.
Example: Serie EST 20 means:

Note:

E poxy resin
S tandard application
T ensile resistant joining system
Nominal pressure 20 bar.

The data in this Engineering Guide for series EST are also valid for series EWT and CST.
The data in this Engineering Guide for series ESN are also valid for series EWN and CSN.

For the design of the pipe it has been assumed that for the tensile resistant types of joints (identification
T) the ratio R =

= 0.5, and for non-tensile resistant types of joints (identification N) the

ratio R = 0.25.

II.3. Winding angle

Depending on the loading of the system and the pressure class, the continuous glass fibre reinforcement
is helically wound under a predetermined angle with the axis of the pipe. For the different systems the
winding angle ( ) is given in table II-a.
Table II-a. Winding angle (degrees)
Pressure class (bar)
Series
EST

10

63

ESN

12.5

16

20

25

32

55

55

55

55

55

63

63

63

63

73

For some applications it can be of advantage to use a different winding angle ( ) in order to obtain
specific product characteristics.

II.4. Joining systems

The Wavistrong joining systems can be divided into two major groups:
A.

Tensile resistant type of joints.


These joints can take the full axial load due to internal pressure.

B.

Non-tensile resistant type of joints.


The axial forces in the system have to be taken by external provisions on the pipeline.

II.4.1. Tensile resistant joints

A. Adhesive bonded joint (CJ)


The Wavistrong adhesive bonded joint is a rigid type
of joining. The adhesive is a two component epoxy resin
system, packed in separate containers. The joint consists
of a slightly conical socket end and a cylindrical spigot
end.

Fig. II.1. CJ

B. Rubber seal lock joint (RSLJ)


This type of joint consists of an integral filament wound
socket end and a machined spigot end. The O-ring seal
is positioned on the spigot end. The locking device is
inserted through an opening in the socket end. It fits in
a circumferential groove on the inner side of the socket
end and rests against a shoulder on the spigot end. The
Wavistrong rubber seal lock joint allows for some axial
movement as well as a certain angular deflection (table
III-g., page 55).

Fig. II.2. RSLJ

C. Laminated joint (LJ)


Generally these joints will only be used for diameters
over 400 mm. The preparation of this rigid joint requires
good craftsmanship; it is recommended that Future Pipe
Industries provides assistance during installation.

D. Flanged joint (FJ)

Fig. II.3. LJ

To enable connections with steel piping and to allow for


easy assembling and disassembling of process lines,
Wavistrong pipes and fittings can be supplied with
flanges, drilled in accordance with ANSI, DIN or other
specifications. Special requirements can be met upon
request.
Glass fibre reinforced epoxy flanges are always flat faced
and in view of this, matching flanges should also be flat
faced. The flanged joint is completed by using a gasket.
Fig. II.4. FJ
II.4.2. Non-tensile resistant joints

A. Rubber seal joint (RSJ)


The socket end of this joint is an integral filament wound
part of the pipe. The spigot end is a machined part on
which the O-ring seal is positioned. This flexible joint
allows for axial movement of the spigot in the socket
and some angular deflection (table III-g., page 55).
Fig. II.5. RSJ

B. Mechanical coupler (MC)

The mechanical coupler normally consists of a metal casing and a rubber seal. These couplers are available
in different types and are mostly non-thrust resistant. In those joints the sealing is obtained on the (machined)
surface of plain-ended pipes. The maximum allowable pressure depends on the type of coupler.

II.5. System data


II.5.1. Pipes

In sections III. and IV. tables for the mechanical behaviour of the standard pipe series are listed. For
the determination of this behaviour, or in case these data cannot be used and separate calculations are
required, the pipe data from table II-b. through II-d. (page 9 and 10) and fig. II.6. through II.8. (page 13
through 17) provide the necessary information. Table II-b. through II-d. give the following pipe data for
the series EST and ESN:

A. Minimum reinforced wall thickness (T E)


The minimum reinforced wall thickness is calculated with the ISO-formula:

(Eq. II.1.)

Where:
TE = minimum reinforced wall thickness
ID = inner diameter
SH = allowable hoop stress (HDS)(table II-h., page 23)
PN = nominal pressure
Note: TW

(mm)
(mm)
(N/mm)
(Mpa)

= total wall thickness (mm)

TW

= TE + TL + TC
Where:
TL = liner thickness = 0.5 mm
TC = topcoat thickness = 0.3 mm
For production technical reasons the real wall thickness may be greater than the theoretically calculated minimum
value.

B. Mass of the pipe (G B)


The mass of the pipe is calculated as follows:

(Eq. II.2.)

Where:
GB = linear mass of the pipe
OD = outer diameter
ID = inner diameter
SL = specific gravity of the laminate (table II-l., page 24)
Note: OD

(kg/m)
(mm)
(mm)
(kg/m3)

= ID + 2 * TW

C. Structural wall area (A)


The structural wall area is calculated from:

(Eq. II.3.)

Where:
A
= structural wall area
DO = structural outer diameter
DI = structural inner diameter
Note: DO
DI

(mm2)
(mm)
(mm)

= ID + 2 * (TL + TE)
= ID + 2 * TL

D. Linear moment of inertia (IZ)


The linear moment of inertia is obtained from the following formula:

(Eq. II.4.)

Where:
IZ
= linear moment of inertia
DO = structural outer diameter
DI = structural inner diameter

(mm4)
(mm)
(mm)

E. Radius of inertia (IR)


The radius of inertia is calculated from the following equation:

(Eq. II.5.)

Where:
IR = radius of inertia
IZ
= linear moment of inertia (Eq. II.4.)
A
= structural wall area (Eq. II.3.)

(mm)
(mm4)
(mm2)

F. Bore area (A B)
The bore area of the pipe is:

(Eq. II.6.)

Where:
AB = bore area
ID = inner diameter

(mm2)
(mm)

G. Moment of resistance to bending (W B)


For the calculation of the moment of resistance to bending the following formula is used:

(Eq. II.7.)

Where:
W B = moment of resistance to bending
DO = structural outer diameter
DI = structural inner diameter

(mm3)
(mm)
(mm)

Note:

Where:
3
WW = moment of resistance to torsion (mm )

H. Mass of the pipe content (G V)


The values in table II-d. (page 10) have been calculated with the following equation:

(Eq. II.8.)

Where:
GV = linear mass of the pipe content
ID = inner diameter
SV = specific gravity of the fluid

(kg/m)
(mm)
(kg/m3)

Table II-b. Pipe data for series EST


Series

Inner
diameter
ID

EST 8

EST 12.5

EST 16

EST 20

EST 25

EST 32

(mm)
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
25
40
50
80
100
150
200
250
300

Reinforced
wall
thickness
TE
(mm)
2.8
3.2
3.6
4.0
4.8
5.6
6.0
6.5
7.3
8.1
9.7
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.1
6.1
7.1
7.6
8.1
9.1
10.1
2.5
3.2
3.8
4.4
5.1
5.7
6.3
7.6
8.9
9.5
10.1
2.4
3.3
4.1
4.9
5.7
6.5
7.3
8.1
9.8
2.4
3.1
4.1
5.1
6.1
7.1
8.2
9.2
10.2
12.2
1.8
1.8
1.8
2.4
2.6
3.8
5.1
6.4
7.7

Linear
mass of
the pipe

Structural wall
Linear moarea
ment of inertia

GB
(kg/m)
7.4
9.4
11.6
14.1
19.7
26.3
29.9
34.3
42.8
52.2
73.9
4.9
6.7
8.9
11.3
14.0
17.3
24.3
32.5
37.0
41.8
52.4
64.0
3.9
5.9
8.1
10.7
13.9
17.2
20.9
29.7
40.0
45.5
51.4
2.8
4.9
7.3
10.1
13.5
17.3
21.6
26.3
37.6
1.9
3.5
5.8
8.8
12.3
16.4
21.4
26.7
32.7
46.3
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.5
2.0
4.1
7.1
10.8
15.2

A
2

IZ
2

*10 (mm )
31.1
40.6
51.4
63.5
91.4
124.3
142.7
164.9
208.3
256.8
368.9
19.9
28.7
39.0
50.9
64.4
81.1
116.3
157.9
181.1
205.9
260.2
320.8
16.0
25.6
36.4
49.1
65.1
81.8
100.4
145.3
198.5
227.0
257.4
11.6
21.2
32.9
47.1
63.9
83.2
105.1
129.6
188.1
7.8
15.0
26.4
41.0
58.9
79.9
105.4
133.0
163.8
235.0
1.6
2.4
3.0
6.3
8.5
18.5
33.0
51.8
74.7

*10 (mm )
4869.9
8299.0
13282.4
20231.2
41909.9
77588.3
102217.7
134409.2
214831.9
326870.3
676034.9
1599.5
3310.1
6123.8
10435.8
16702.4
25964.7
53606.1
99002.4
130303.3
168498.1
269409.0
410021.8
827.5
2064.5
4226.3
7757.7
13415.2
21325.3
32304.4
67287.9
125057.5
164115.2
211676.1
340.3
1105.3
2673.5
5509.4
10161.4
17276.9
27602.1
41982.1
87719.2
104.2
445.7
1389.7
3365.4
6940.7
12808.6
22072.7
35225.8
53531.0
110509.1
1.5
5.6
10.4
54.7
113.6
553.9
1754.4
4288.8
8900.8

Radius of
inertia

Bore area

IR

AB

*10 (mm)
12.5
14.3
16.1
17.9
21.4
25.0
26.8
28.6
32.1
35.7
42.8
9.0
10.7
12.5
14.3
16.1
17.9
21.5
25.0
26.8
28.6
32.2
35.7
7.2
9.0
10.8
12.6
14.4
16.1
17.9
21.5
25.1
26.9
28.7
5.4
7.2
9.0
10.8
12.6
14.4
16.2
18.0
21.6
3.7
5.4
7.3
9.1
10.9
12.7
14.5
16.3
18.1
21.7
1.0
1.5
1.9
2.9
3.7
5.5
7.3
9.1
10.9

*10 (mm )
962.1
1256.6
1590.4
1963.5
2827.4
3848.5
4417.9
5026.5
6361.7
7854.0
11309.7
490.9
706.9
962.1
1256.6
1590.4
1963.5
2827.4
3848.5
4417.9
5026.5
6361.7
7854.0
314.2
490.9
706.9
962.1
1256.6
1590.4
1963.5
2827.4
3848.5
4417.9
5026.5
176.7
314.2
490.9
706.9
962.1
1256.6
1590.4
1963.5
2827.4
78.5
176.7
314.2
490.9
706.9
962.1
1256.6
1590.4
1963.5
2827.4
4.9
12.6
19.6
50.3
78.5
176.7
314.2
490.9
706.9

Moment of
resistance to
bending
WB

*10 (mm )
273.1
407.4
579.8
794.9
1372.7
2178.8
2679.4
3302.4
4692.7
6426.9
11078.9
125.0
215.6
342.1
510.3
726.2
1015.8
1748.4
2768.5
3401.3
4123.8
5861.8
8030.2
80.3
160.4
273.9
431.2
652.5
922.4
1258.0
2184.0
3479.6
4262.7
5155.3
43.7
106.5
206.3
354.5
560.8
834.6
1185.7
1623.4
2826.9
19.7
56.7
132.9
257.7
443.2
701.5
1057.6
1500.9
2053.4
3534.0
1.0
2.5
3.8
12.8
21.4
69.8
166.1
325.2
562.6

Table II-c. Pipe data for series ESN


Series

Inner
diameter
ID

ESN 10

ESN 16

ESN 20

ESN 25

ESN 32

(mm)
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
80
100
150
200
250
300

Reinforced
wall
thickness
TE
(mm)
3.3
3.6
4.3
5.1
5.4
5.8
6.5
7.2
8.6
2.8
3.2
3.6
4.0
4.8
5.6
6.0
6.5
2.4
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.1
6.1
2.5
3.2
3.8
4.4
5.1
5.7
6.3
7.6
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.3
4.1
4.9

Linear mass
of the pipe

Structural wall
area

GB
(kg/m)
10.8
12.9
17.9
24.2
27.2
30.9
38.5
46.9
66.1
7.4
9.4
11.6
14.1
19.7
26.3
29.9
34.3
3.8
4.9
6.7
8.9
11.3
14.0
17.3
24.3
3.9
5.9
8.1
10.7
13.9
17.2
20.9
29.7
1.5
1.9
2.8
4.9
7.3
10.1

Linear
moment of
inertia

A
2

Radius of
inertia

IZ
2

*10 (mm )
47.1
57.1
81.8
113.1
128.3
147.0
185.3
228.0
326.8
31.1
40.6
51.4
63.5
91.4
124.3
142.7
164.9
15.3
19.9
28.7
39.0
50.9
64.4
81.1
116.3
16.0
25.6
36.4
49.1
65.1
81.8
100.4
145.3
6.3
7.8
11.6
21.2
32.9
47.1

*10 (mm )
12151.4
18164.6
37450.9
70510.1
91776.3
119621.2
190781.1
289770.8
597730.8
4869.9
8299.0
13282.4
20231.2
41909.9
77588.3
102217.7
134409.2
793.2
1599.5
3310.1
6123.8
10435.8
16702.4
25964.7
53606.1
827.5
2064.5
4226.3
7757.7
13415.2
21325.3
32304.4
67287.9
54.7
104.2
340.3
1105.3
2673.5
5509.4

Bore area

IR

AB

*10 (mm)
16.1
17.8
21.4
25.0
26.7
28.5
32.1
35.6
42.8
12.5
14.3
16.1
17.9
21.4
25.0
26.8
28.6
7.2
9.0
10.7
12.5
14.3
16.1
17.9
21.5
7.2
9.0
10.8
12.6
14.4
16.1
17.9
21.5
2.9
3.7
5.4
7.2
9.0
10.8

*10 (mm )
1590.4
1963.5
2827.4
3848.5
4417.9
5026.5
6361.7
7854.0
11309.7
962.1
1256.6
1590.4
1963.5
2827.4
3848.5
4417.9
5026.5
314.2
490.9
706.9
962.1
1256.6
1590.4
1963.5
2827.4
314.2
490.9
706.9
962.1
1256.6
1590.4
1963.5
2827.4
50.3
78.5
176.7
314.2
490.9
706.9

WB
2

Table II-d. Linear mass of the pipe content G V (kg/m)


3

ID
25
40
50
80
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200

Specific gravity of the fluid SV (kg/m )


800
0.4
1.0
1.6
4.0
6.3
14.1
25.1
39.3
56.5
77.0
100.5
127.2
157.1
226.2
307.9
353.4
402.1
508.9
628.3
904.8

1000
0.5
1.3
2.0
5.0
7.9
17.7
31.4
49.1
70.7
96.2
125.7
159.0
196.3
282.7
384.8
441.8
502.7
636.2
785.4
1131.0

1200
0.6
1.5
2.4
6.0
9.4
21.2
37.7
58.9
84.8
115.5
150.8
190.9
235.6
339.3
461.8
530.1
603.2
763.4
942.5
1357.2

1400
0.7
1.8
2.7
7.0
11.0
24.7
44.0
68.7
99.0
134.7
175.9
222.7
274.9
395.8
538.8
618.5
703.7
890.6
1099.6
1583.4

10

1600
0.8
2.0
3.1
8.0
12.6
28.3
50.3
78.5
113.1
153.9
201.1
254.5
314.2
452.4
615.8
706.9
804.2
1017.9
1256.6
1809.6

1800
0.9
2.3
3.5
9.0
14.1
31.8
56.5
88.4
127.2
173.2
226.2
286.3
353.4
508.9
692.7
795.2
904.8
1145.1
1413.7
2035.8

Moment of
resistance to
bending

2000
1.0
2.5
3.9
10.1
15.7
35.3
62.8
98.2
141.4
192.4
251.3
318.1
392.7
565.5
769.7
883.6
1005.3
1272.3
1570.8
2261.9

*10 (mm )
531.1
714.9
1228.7
1982.8
2409.5
2944.2
4174.6
5707.5
9813.3
273.1
407.4
579.8
794.9
1372.7
2178.8
2679.4
3302.4
77.1
125.0
215.6
342.1
510.3
726.2
1015.8
1748.4
80.3
160.4
273.9
431.2
652.5
922.4
1258.0
2184.0
12.8
19.7
43.7
106.5
206.3
354.5

II.5.2. Fittings

The minimum reinforced wall thickness (TE) of fittings is related to the minimum reinforced wall thickness
(TE) of pipes by the ratio allowable hoop stress (SH) of pipes divided by the allowable hoop stress (SH)
of fittings.
The allowable hoop stress (SH) for pipes is given in table II-h.(page 23), being the Hydrostatic Design
Stress (HDS). For fittings the allowable hoop stress is as follows:
- tee/lateral/reducer:
- elbow/double socket:
Note:

SH = 32 N/mm
S H = 40 N/mm

Fittings are only available in the series EST, EWT and CST. A non-tensile resistant pipe system is a combination of non-tensile
resistant pipes with tensile resistant fittings.

Table II-e. Available standard Wavistrong systems.


Pressure
class
(bar)

Inner diameter (mm)


25-50

80

100

150

200

250-300

350-400
1
2

8
10
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

12.5
16

20
1
2
3
1
2
3

25
1

1
2
3

32

Note:

1
2
3
4
5

=
=
=
=
=

CJ
RSLJ
RSJ
LJ
FJ

=
=
=
=
=

1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

1
2
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

Adhesive bonded Joint


Rubber Seal Lock Joint
Rubber Seal Joint
Laminated Joint
Flanged Joint

Mechanical couplers on request.


= See higher pressure class
Other systems are available on request.

Available for all diameter/pressure class combinations marked with 1, 2 or 3.

11

450-600

700-800

900-1000

1200

2
2
3

2
2
3

2
2
3

2
3

2
3

2
3
2
3

II.5.3. Combined stresses

Fig. II.6. through II.8. (page 13 through 17) give the allowable axial (longitudinal) and hoop (circumferential)
stress for pipes and fittings.
Fig. II.6-a. through II.6-c. give the allowable axial stress and hoop stress for pipes, wound under winding
angles of 55, 63 or 73, in combination with shear stress ().
The equivalent stress (Seq), calculated with the use of the continuum theory and related to the Hydrostatic
Design Stress (HDS), for the different pipes = 19.3 N/mm. For this case the service (design) factor referred
to in ASTM D 2992, (Sf) = 0.5.
The maximum equivalent stress (S eq(max)) for combined stresses in the pipe wall, due to the hydrostatic
load plus external mechanical loads = 24.5 N/mm. For combined stress situations the maximum service
(design) factor (Sf) = 0.67.
In fig. II.7. and II.8. (page 16 and 17) the allowable axial stress and hoop stress for elbows and tees is
given. For elbows the equivalent stress (Seq), related to the hydrostatic design stress (HDS), will be 12.3
N/mm. For tees this value will be 9.8 N/mm. The service (design) factor as mentioned in ASTM D 2992
will be (Sf) = 0.5.
For combined stresses in the fittings the maximum equivalent stress (S eq(max)) will be 15.3 N/mm and
12.3 N/mm for respectively elbows and tees. The service (design) factor in combined stress situations
will be (Sf) = 0.67.
For examples of the use of fig. II.6. through II.8., see Appendix V.

"Zur Beanspruchung und Verformung von GfK Mehrschichten Verbunden", A. Puck, Kunststoffe-57, Teil 1-II, 1967. Heft
4-7-12.

12

Fig. II.6-a. Pipes, winding angle = 55

13

Fig. II.6-b. Pipes, winding angle = 63

14

Fig. II.6-c. Pipes, winding angle = 73

15

Fig. II.7. Elbows

16

Fig. II.8. Tees

17

II.6. Head loss in pipes and fittings

II.6.1. Wavistrong pipes

Wavistrong pipe systems have a relatively low head loss due to their smooth inner surface. The head
losses have been determined by using the Darcy Weisbach formula.
The friction coefficients for the pipeline system are determined by the Colebrook-White method with a
wall roughness k = 0.05 mm, including head loss over the joints.
This approximates a Hazen-Williams coefficient of 150. For the pipes and fittings as such the wall roughness
k = 0.01 to 0.02 mm.
Head loss flow charts for pipes are shown in fig. II.9. and II.10. (page 21 and 22). These figures give
the head loss for the pipeline system in metre water column per metre pipe length for water at 10C.
At higher operating temperatures the kinematic viscosity of water decreases, resulting in lower head losses.

II.6.2. Wavistrong fittings

The head loss in fittings can be calculated from the following formula:

(Eq. II.9.)

Where:
Hfitting

SV
v

=
=
=
=

head loss in the fitting


friction coefficient
specific gravity of the fluid
flow velocity

(N/m)
(-)
(kg/m3)
(m/s)

The friction coefficient ( ) for elbows and tees is given in table II-f. and II-g. (page 18 and 20). The head
loss in fittings can be expressed in an equivalent pipe length (LEQ) when using the head loss of pipes
from fig. II.9. and II.10. (page 21 and 22).

(Eq. II.10.)

Where:
LEQ
Hfitting
Hpipe
g

=
=
=
=

equivalent pipe length


head loss in the fitting
head loss in the pipe (fig. II.9. and II.10., page 21 and 22)
acceleration due to gravity

18

(m)
(N/m)
(m.w.c./m)
(m/s)

Table II-f. Friction coefficient (-) for elbows

2230'
45
90
Note:

0.07
0.24

0.11
0.16

Elbows ID 450 mm are mitered.


For all standard elbows the radius R = 1.5 * ID

19

0.30

Table II-g. Friction coefficient (-) for tees and laterals


Flow separation

Flow combination

Flow
combination

Flow separation

1
0.58
0.35

0.04
0.25
0

0.95
1.30
1

0.04
0.20
0

-1.20
-0.70
-1.00

0.04
0
0

0.90
1.00
2.00

0.04
0
0

-0.92
-1.00
-1.00

0.2

1
0.58
0.35

-0.08
-0.20
0

0.88
1.55
3.00

0.17
0.45
0

-0.40
0.20
2.00

-0.06
-0.15
-0.10

0.68
0.45
2.00

0.17
0.10
0

-0.38
-0.10
2.00

0.4

1
0.58
0.35

-0.05
-0.10
0

0.89
2.40
9.00

0.30
0.75
0

0.08
1.30
12.00

-0.04
0
0

0.50
0.60
6.00

0.19
-0.15
-1.10

0
0.75
9.00

0.6

1
0.58
0.35

0.07
0
0

0.95
4.25
19.00

0.41
1.00
0

0.47
2.80
29.00

0.07
0.15
0.10

0.38
1.30
14.00

0.09
-0.60
-2.90

0.22
2.15
20.00

0.8

1
0.58
0.35

0.21
0.25
0

1.10
7.10
33.00

0.51
1.25
0

0.72
4.80

0.20
0.25
0.20

0.35
2.80
27.00

-0.17
-1.50
-5.70

0.37
3.75
35.00

1
0.58
0.35

0.35
0.30
0

1.28

0.60
1.50
0

0.91
7.25

0.33
0.35
0.40

0.48
4.90
44.00

-0.54
-2.90
-9.60

0.37
5.40
54.00

d (flow separation)

= friction coefficient for pressure loss of

relative to

= friction coefficient for pressure loss of

d (flow combination)

= friction coefficient for pressure loss of

= flow in the run

= flow in the branch

20

relative to

relative to

Fig. II.9. Head loss flow chart ID 25 mm through 300 mm

21

Fig. II.10. Head loss flow chart ID 300 mm through 1200 mm

22

II.7. Wavistrong pipe properties

Tables II-h. through II-l. (page 23 and 24) detail the minimum properties, obtained when testing Wavistrong
in accordance with the indicated test methods.
Unless otherwise stated, all properties refer to the reinforced wall and are valid for temperatures at 20C.
For higher temperatures the correction factors for the E-moduli of table II-k. (page 24) should be applied.

Table II-h. Hydrostatic properties


Winding angle ( )
Property

Test method

55

63

73

650

500

N/mm

Bi-axial: (R = 0.5)
Ultimate hoop stress
(rupture)
Ultimate hoop stress
(weeping)

ASTM D 1599

250

200

N/mm

Ultimate Elastic Wall Stress


(UEWS)

Future Pipe Industries

160

140

N/mm

Hydrostatic Design Basis


HDB (50 years)

ASTM D 2992 B

125

100

N/mm

Hydrostatic Design Stress


HDS (50 years)

ASTM D 2992 B

63

50

N/mm

1000

800

N/mm

450

370

N/mm

200

160

N/mm

100

80

N/mm

Uni-axial: (R = 0.25)
Ultimate hoop stress
(rupture)

Ultimate hoop stress


(weeping)

ASTM D 1599

Hydrostatic Design Basis


HDB (50 years)

ASTM D 2992 B

Hydrostatic Design Stress


HDS (50 years)

ASTM D 2992 B

Minimum service (design) factor Sf = 0.5.

23

Table II-j. Mechanical properties


Winding angle ( )
Property

Test method

Axial tensile stress


Axial tensile modulus

EX

Hoop tensile stress


Hoop tensile modulus

55

63

73

ASTM D 2105
ASTM D 2105

75
12000

55
11500

40
11500

N/mm
N/mm

ASTM D 2290
ASTM D 2290

210
20500

260
27500

400
37000

N/mm
N/mm

11500

9500

7000

N/mm

Shear modulus

ES

Axial bending stress


Axial bending modulus

EX

ASTM D 2925

80
12000

65
11500

50
11500

N/mm
N/mm

Hoop bending stress


Hoop bending modulus

EH

ASTM D 2412
ASTM D 2412

90
20500

120
27500

160
37000

N/mm
N/mm

Poisson ratio axial/hoop


Poisson ratio hoop/axial

NXY
NYX

0.65
0.38

0.62
0.26

0.47
0.15

Table II-k. Temperature correction factor R E (-) for moduli of elasticity


Correction factor
RE (-)
RE-Axial

Winding
Angle

Temperature
(C)

RE-Hoop

( )

20

40

60

80

100

110

RE4
RE5
RE6

55
63
73
55
63
73

1
1
1
1
1
1

0.92
0.92
0.92
0.95
0.97
0.99

0.82
0.82
0.82
0.90
0.94
0.98

0.72
0.72
0.72
0.83
0.90
0.97

0.60
0.60
0.60
0.75
0.85
0.95

0.53
0.53
0.53
0.70
0.82
0.94

RE1
RE2
RE3

Table II-l. Physical properties


Property
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion
Thermal conductivity
Specific heat
Glass content (by mass)
Glass content (by volume)
Specific gravity of the laminate
Barcol hardness
Surface resistance (Series C..)

Test method
L

ASTM D 696

ASTM D 2584
ASTM D 2584
SL
ASTM D 2583
ASTM D 257

-5

2 * 10
0.29
921
70 5
52 7
1850
35
6
< 10 * 10

The first index gives the direction of the contraction, the second index gives the load direction.

24

mm/mm.C
W/m.K
J/kg.K
%
%
3
kg/m
/m

II.8. Bending radius

The minimum allowable bending radius (Rb) for a pipe, installed at 20C, is given in table II-n. and II-o.
(page 27 and 28).
The allowable radius depends on the operating temperature (T) and -pressure (P). For elevated operating
temperatures, the indicated values of table II-n. and II-o. have to be corrected with the temperature correction
factor (RE) from the table II-k. (page 24).
The minimum allowable bending radius (Rb) has been calculated with the following formula:

(Eq. II.11.)

Where:
Rb = bending radius
RE = temperature correction factor (table II-k., page 24)
EX = axial bending modulus (table II-j., page 24)
DI = structural inner diameter
SA = remaining axial stress

(m)
(-)
(N/mm)
(mm)
(N/mm)

The value of SA is defined as follows:


(Eq. II.12.)
Where:
SA = remaining axial stress
SXT = allowable axial stress
SX = actual axial stress due to internal pressure

(N/mm)
(N/mm)
(N/mm)

For bi-axial loaded systems:

(Eq. II.13.)

For uni-axial loaded systems:

(Eq. II.14.)

Where:
SX = actual axial stress due to internal pressure
P
= operating pressure
ID = inner diameter
TE = minimum reinforced wall thickness
(table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)

25

(N/mm)
(Mpa)
(mm)
(mm)

The allowable axial stress (SXT) depends on the type of loading (R) and the winding angle ( ) and is given
in table II-m.

Table II-m. Allowable axial stress S XT (N/mm)


Winding angle ( )
R
(-)

55

63

73

0.25
0.50

40

32
32

25
-

The values of table II-n. and II-o. (page 27 and 28) are only valid for the pipes of the indicated
series.
For available standard pipe systems, see table II-e., page 11.

26

Table II-n. Bending radius R b (m) at 20C for series EST


ID
Series

(mm)

EST 8

350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
25
40
50
80
100
150
200
250
300

EST 12.5

EST 16

EST 20

EST 25

EST 32

Operating pressure (P)


1 * PN
297
339
381
424
508
593
635
641
725
810
978
178
214
250
285
321
332
403
474
509
545
616
687
159
180
225
271
292
337
383
450
517
562
607
110
131
167
203
239
276
312
348
406
45
99
136
172
209
246
271
307
344
417
6
11
18
39
72
119
154
189
225

0.8 * PN

0.6 * PN

170
195
219
243
292
340
365
379
428
476
573
102
122
143
163
183
197
238
279
299
319
360
400
86
103
125
148
165
188
210
250
290
313
335
62
79
99
120
140
161
181
202
239
32
59
80
100
121
142
159
180
201
242
5
10
14
27
41
64
85
105
125

120
137
154
171
205
239
256
269
303
337
405
72
86
100
114
128
140
169
197
211
226
254
283
59
72
87
102
115
130
145
173
201
217
232
43
56
70
85
99
113
128
142
169
25
42
57
71
85
100
113
127
142
170
5
9
12
21
29
44
58
73
87

27

0.4 * PN
92
105
118
131
158
184
197
209
235
261
314
55
66
77
88
99
109
131
153
164
175
196
218
45
55
66
78
88
99
111
133
154
166
177
33
44
55
66
77
88
99
109
131
21
33
44
55
66
77
87
98
109
131
4
8
10
17
22
33
44
55
66

0.2 * PN
75
86
96
107
128
150
160
170
192
213
256
45
54
63
71
80
89
107
125
133
142
160
178
36
45
54
63
72
81
90
107
125
134
143
27
36
45
53
62
71
80
89
107
17
27
36
45
54
62
71
80
89
107
4
7
9
14
18
27
36
45
54

0 * PN
63
72
81
90
108
126
135
144
162
180
216
38
45
53
60
68
75
90
105
113
120
135
150
30
38
45
53
60
68
75
90
105
113
120
23
30
38
45
53
60
68
75
90
15
23
30
38
45
53
60
68
75
90
4
6
8
12
15
23
30
38
45

Table II-o. Bending radius R b (m) at 20C for series ESN


ID
Series

(mm)

ESN 10

450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
80
100
150
200
250
300

ESN 16

ESN 20

ESN 25

ESN 32

Operating pressure (P)


1 * PN
331
383
465
522
575
603
685
766
929
297
339
381
424
508
593
635
641
106
214
256
299
342
384
398
483
173
198
247
296
321
370
418
493
25
39
132
157
200
243

0.8 * PN

0.6 * PN

230
262
316
361
392
415
469
523
631
170
195
219
243
292
340
365
379
76
122
147
171
195
220
236
285
98
118
144
170
190
216
242
288
22
32
74
94
119
143

176
199
239
275
298
316
356
397
478
120
137
154
171
205
239
256
269
60
86
103
120
137
154
168
202
69
84
102
119
135
152
170
203
20
27
52
67
84
101

28

0.4 * PN
143
160
192
223
240
255
287
320
384
92
105
118
131
158
184
197
209
49
66
79
92
105
118
130
157
53
65
79
92
104
118
131
157
18
23
40
52
65
79

0.2 * PN
120
134
161
187
201
214
241
268
321
75
86
96
107
128
150
160
170
42
54
64
75
86
96
107
128
43
53
64
75
85
96
107
128
16
20
32
43
53
64

0 * PN
104
115
138
161
173
184
207
230
276
63
72
81
90
108
126
135
144
36
45
54
63
72
81
90
108
36
45
54
63
72
81
90
108
15
18
27
36
45
54

II.9. Fluid (water) hammer

Fluid (water) hammer can be defined as the occurrence of pressure changes in closed piping systems,
caused by changes in the flow velocity.
Therefore, fluid (water) hammer can occur in all kinds of piping systems for the transportation of liquids.
The greater and faster the velocity changes are, the greater the pressure changes will be. The relation
between change of velocity and pressure can be derived from the formula of Joukowsky :

(Eq. II.15.)

Where:
P = pressure change
c
= wave velocity
g
= acceleration due to gravity
v
= change in flow velocity

(m.w.c)
(m/s)
(m/s2)
(m/s)

In accordance with ANSI/AWWA C950-88 a transient pressure increase of 1.4 times the design pressure
is allowable, which is also valid for the Wavistrong piping system.
The wave velocity (c) depends on the type of fluid, pipe dimensions and the E-modulus. The wave velocity
can be calculated with the aid of the Talbot equation:

(Eq. II.16.)

Where:
c
= wave velocity
SV
= specific gravity of the fluid
KV
= compression modulus of the fluid
ID
= inner diameter
TE
= minimum reinforced wall thickness (table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)
EV
= volumetric E-modulus
f
= constant

(m/s)
(kg/m3)
(N/mm2)
(mm)
(mm)
(N/mm2)
(-)

This calculation method is only valid for straight pipeline sections with different types of joints. On request, system calculations
can be made by a third party.

29

For isotropic materials, the volumetric E-modulus is equal to the E-modulus.


For an-isotropic materials, where the material characteristics are dependent on the winding angle ( ),
the volumetric E-modulus (EV) is calculated from the following equation:

(Eq. II.17.)

Where:
EV
= volumetric E-modulus
EX
= axial bending modulus
EH
= hoop bending modulus
NXY = Poisson ratio axial/hoop
NYX = Poisson ratio hoop/axial

"

(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
(-)
(-)

(table II-j., page 24)


"
"
"
"
"

For the three winding angles ( ) of the Wavistrong pipes the volumetric E-modulus (EV) is given in table
II-p.

Table II-p. Volumetric E-modulus E V (N/mm)


Winding angle ( )

55

63

73

EV

22775

24515

26965

The constant (f) in the Talbot equation depends on the type of anchoring of the system:
A. The pipeline may be anchored up-stream; in this case the system is loaded bi-axially. This can be
achieved in a tensile resistant piping system.

(Eq. II.18.)

B. The pipeline may be anchored completely to prevent axial displacements. This may occur in tensile
resistant and non-tensile resistant piping systems.
(Eq. II.19.)
C. The pipeline may be installed with expansion joints so that there will be no axial stresses. This will
happen in case of non-tensile resistant pipelines.
(Eq. II.20.)

30

The constant (f) is given in table II-q. for the three winding angles ( ).

Table II-q. Constant f (-)


Winding angle ( )
Constant
f1
f2
f3

55
1.1265
0.753
0.81

63

73

1.1694
0.8388
0.87

1.2148
0.9295
0.925

The values of the wave velocity (c) (c1 through c3) are related to the type of anchoring of the
pipeline system (constant f1 through f3). For the two systems EST and ESN these values are listed
in table II-r. (page 32).

31

Table II-r. Wave velocity c1, c2 and c3 (m/s) for series EST and ESN
Series
EST 8

EST 12.5

EST 16

EST 20

EST 25

EST 32

Note:

ID
(mm)
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
25
40
50
80
100
150
200
250
300

c1
394
394
394
394
394
394
394
397
396
396
396
429
429
429
429
429
433
432
432
432
431
431
431
474
479
477
476
479
477
476
477
478
477
476
529
536
534
533
533
532
532
531
533
626
589
587
586
585
585
587
586
586
585
923
794
733
684
647
640
642
643
643

c2

Series

458
458
458
458
458
458
458
461
461
461
460
513
513
513
513
513
518
517
517
516
516
516
516
565
571
568
566
570
568
567
568
569
568
567
626
634
632
631
630
630
629
629
631
732
692
690
689
688
687
690
689
689
688
1028
904
843
793
754
747
749
750
750

ESN 10

ESN 16

ESN 20

ESN 25

ESN 32

values of table II-r. are valid for the following conditions:


KV = 2050 N/mm
SV = 1000 kg/m

32

ID
(mm)
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
350
400
500
600
700
750
800
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
80
100
150
200
250
300

c2
388
385
434
438
435
437
436
435
434
458
458
458
458
458
458
461
547
506
506
506
506
506
510
509
557
562
560
558
562
560
559
560
784
723
617
625
623
622

c3
439
435
435
439
436
438
437
436
435
451
451
451
451
451
451
454
539
498
498
498
498
498
502
501
548
554
551
550
553
551
550
551
774
713
608
616
614
613

II.10. Stiffness

An investigation of standards concerning the stiffness of flexible pipes shows that there are different
opinions on the interpretation of pipe stiffness. The following identifications illustrate this point.

A. Specific Tangential Initial Stiffness (STIS)


The STIS is described in NEN 7037 and is calculated with the following formula:

(Eq. II.21.)
Where:
STIS
EH
TE
ID

=
=
=
=

Specific Tangential Initial Stiffness


(N/m2)
hoop bending modulus (table II-j., page 24)
(N/m2)
minimum reinforced wall thickness (table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10) (mm)
inner diameter
(mm)

B. Specific Tangential End Stiffness (STES)


The STES will be derived from the STIS and gives information on the regression of the stiffness in
relation to the life time (50 years). The determination of the STES is described in NEN 7037.
(Eq. II.22.)
Where:
STES

STIS

=
=
=
=

Specific Tangential End Stiffness


creep factor
ageing factor
Specific Tangential Initial Stiffness (Eq. II.21.)

For the glass fibre reinforced epoxy Wavistrong pipes * = 0.9.

33

(N/m2)
(-)
(-)
(N/m2)

C. Stiffness Factor (SF)


Another identification of the stiffness is described in ASTM D 2412 and is called the Stiffness Factor
(SF):

(Eq. II.23.)

Where:
SF = Stiffness Factor
EH = hoop bending modulus (table II-j., page 24)
TE = minimum reinforced wall thickness (table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)

(in2.lb/in)
(psi)
(in)

The Stiffness Factor (SF) can also be calculated from the STIS-value by using the following formula:
(Eq. II.24.)
Where:
SF
STIS
ID
TE

=
=
=
=

Stiffness Factor
(in2.lb/in)
Specific Tangential Initial Stiffness (Eq. II.21.)
(N/m2)
inner diameter
(m)
minimum reinforced wall thickness (table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)
(m)

There is also a relation between the Stiffness Factor (SF) and the Pipe Stiffness (PS):
(Eq. II.25.)
Where:
SF = Stiffness Factor
rm = mean pipe radius
PS = Pipe Stiffness (Eq. II.26.)

(in2.lb/in)
(in)
(psi)

34

D. Pipe Stiffness (PS)


The Pipe Stiffness (PS) is described in ASTM D 2412 and can be calculated as follows:

(Eq. II.26.)

Where:
PS
EH
TE
ID

=
=
=
=

Pipe Stiffness
hoop bending modulus (table II-j., page 24)
minimum reinforced wall thickness (table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)
inner diameter

(psi)
(psi)
(in)
(in)

The Pipe Stiffness (PS) can also be calculated from the STIS-value by the following formula:
(Eq. II.27.)
Where:
PS
= Pipe Stiffness
STIS = Specific Tangential Initial Stiffness (Eq. II.21.)

(psi)
(N/m2)

In table II-s. (page 36) the different stiffness values at a temperature of 20C are listed. At temperatures
in excess of 20C the reduction factors (RE) for the moduli of elasticity should be applied (table II-k., page
24).

35

Table II-s. Stiffness for series EST and ESN at 20C.

Series
EST 8

EST 12.5

EST 16

EST 20

EST 25

EST 32

ID
(mm)
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
25
40
50
80
100
150
200
250
300

Series EST
STIS
SF
(N/m)
(inlb/in)
1150
450
1150
660
1150
950
1150
1300
1150
2240
1150
3560
1150
4380
1200
5570
1190
7890
1190
10780
1180
18510
1660
240
1660
410
1660
650
1660
970
1660
1380
1760
2010
1740
3430
1730
5410
1720
6640
1720
8030
1710
11390
1710
15570
3210
240
3450
500
3340
830
3270
1290
3410
2010
3340
2800
3290
3780
3340
6640
3380
10660
3340
12960
3310
15570
6670
210
7310
540
7180
1040
7090
1780
7030
2800
6980
4150
6950
5880
6920
8030
7090
14230
21990
210
14180
450
13850
1040
13650
2010
13520
3430
13430
5410
13850
8330
13740
11770
13650
16040
13520
27450
517590
90
136410
90
71680
90
42210
210
27800
270
25770
830
26270
2010
26570
3960
26770
6900

PS
(psi)

Series

9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
13
13
13
13
13
25
27
26
25
27
26
26
26
26
26
26
52
57
56
55
55
54
54
54
55
171
110
108
106
105
105
108
107
106
105
4029
1062
558
329
216
201
204
207
208

ESN 10

ESN 16

ESN 20

ESN 25

ESN 32

36

ID
(mm)
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
350
400
500
600
700
750
800
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
80
100
150
200
250
300

Series ESN
STIS
SF
(N/m)
(inlb/in)
1190
980
1130
1270
1110
2170
1170
3620
1130
4300
1150
5320
1140
7490
1130
10180
1110
17350
1150
450
1150
660
1150
1300
1150
2240
1150
3560
1150
4380
1200
5570
3820
280
2220
320
2220
550
2220
870
2220
1300
2220
1850
2360
2690
2340
4600
4310
320
4630
660
4480
1110
4390
1730
4570
2690
4480
3760
4420
5070
4480
8900
56620
280
29500
280
8950
280
9800
730
9630
1400
9510
2390

PS
(psi)
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
30
17
17
17
17
17
18
18
34
36
35
34
36
35
34
35
441
230
70
76
75
74

II.11. Buckling pressure

For the calculation of the allowable buckling pressure (PB) for the Wavistrong series, the formula for
thin wall pipes (mean radius/wall thickness > 10) has to be used. Besides, the allowable buckling
pressure (PB) depends on the diameter/pipe length ratio.
In case of integral joints, the pipe ends are much stiffer than the pipe-body itself. The pipe length (L)
is the measurement between the stiff ends.
The allowable buckling pressure (P B) is determined by the stability of the product. The transition from
a stable into an unstable condition will take place very abruptly, so an extra safety in the form of a
service factor (SF) is applied.
Due to the unstable situation the allowable buckling pressure (PB) has also been made dependent on
the type of loading, which can be static or cyclic.
In some cases the allowable buckling pressure (P B) depends on the length between the stiff ends.
Some extra external pressure allowance can be created by the application of stiffening rings. For the
standard lengths of 6 and 10 metres two or one, respectively three, two or one stiffening rings can
be used.
The allowable external pressures for pipes are listed in table II-t. and II-u. (page 39 and 40). The
tabled values are valid for an operating temperature (T) of 20C. For higher temperatures the
correction factors (RE) from table II-k. (page 24) should be applied.
The listed values have been calculated for a static buckling pressure. The length, mentioned in the
table depends on the standard length of the pipe and the application of a number of stiffening rings.
Standard pipe lengths are mentioned in the Wavistrong Product List.

The values in table II-t. and II-u. (page 39 and 40) for pipes with stiff ends, are calculated using the
following equations :

Buckling pressure (PB) = external pressure (PE) - internal pressure (PI)


Full vacuum means: PE - PI = 1 bar.
Roark/Young, Formulas for stress and strain, McGraw-Hill, fifth edition.

37

If:

(Eq. II.28.)

Then:

(Eq. II.29.)

Else:

(Eq. II.30.)
Where:
TE = minimum reinforced wall thickness
(table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)
ID = inner diameter
L
= length between stiff pipe ends
NXY = Poisson ratio axial/hoop (table II-j., page 24)
NYX = Poisson ratio hoop/axial (table II-j., page 24)
rm = mean pipe radius
EH = hoop bending modulus (table II-j., page 24)
SF = service factor (SF = 0.75)
Sb = load-dependent safety factor
static loading: Sb = 1
cyclic loading: Sb = 2
PB = buckling pressure

(mm)
(mm)
(mm)
(-)
(-)
(mm)
(N/mm2)
(-)
(-)

(bar)

At temperatures above 20C the value (R E) of table II-k. (page 24) should be applied as follows:
PBT = PB * RE4 (RE5 or RE6)

(Eq. II.31.)

Where:
PBT = buckling pressure at elevated temperature
PB = buckling pressure (table II-t. and II-u., page 39 and 40)
RE4, RE5, RE6 = temperature correction factors for E-modulus for winding angles of
respectively 55, 63 or 73 (table II-k., page 24)

For plain end pipes without stiff ends, use equation II.29. only!

38

(bar)
(bar)
(-)

Table II-t. Allowable static buckling pressure P B (bar) at 20C, series EST
Series
EST 8

EST 12.5

EST 16

EST 20

EST 25

EST 32

ID
(mm)
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
25
40
50
80
100
150
200
250
300

1
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.8
3.1
3.7
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.2
2.7
3.1
3.3
3.5
4.0
4.4
1.5
2.0
2.3
2.6
3.1
3.5
3.8
4.6
5.4
5.8
6.1
2.0
2.9
3.6
4.3
5.0
5.7
6.4
7.1
8.6
5.1
3.8
5.0
6.2
7.4
8.6
10.1
11.3
12.5
14.9
110.8
30.4
16.2
9.7
6.5
6.3
8.6
10.9
13.2

2
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.1
1.1
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.9
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.8
2.0
2.2
0.8
1.0
1.1
1.3
1.6
1.7
1.9
2.3
2.7
2.9
3.0
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.2
2.5
2.8
3.2
3.5
4.3
5.1
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.7
4.3
5.0
5.6
6.2
7.4
110.8
30.4
16.2
9.7
6.5
6.0
6.2
6.3
6.3

Pipe length L (m) between stiff ends


2.5
3
3.3
5
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.5
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.5
1.1
0.9
0.9
0.6
1.3
1.0
0.9
0.6
1.5
1.2
1.1
0.7
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.9
0.7
0.7
0.4
1.1
0.9
0.8
0.5
1.2
1.0
0.9
0.6
1.3
1.1
1.0
0.7
1.4
1.2
1.1
0.7
1.6
1.3
1.2
0.8
1.8
1.5
1.3
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.1
0.9
0.8
0.8
1.2
1.0
0.9
0.8
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.8
1.8
1.5
1.4
0.9
2.2
1.8
1.6
1.1
2.3
1.9
1.7
1.2
2.4
2.0
1.8
1.2
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
2.0
1.7
1.7
1.7
2.3
1.9
1.7
1.7
2.5
2.1
1.9
1.7
2.8
2.4
2.1
1.6
3.5
2.9
2.6
1.7
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.4
3.2
3.2
3.2
4.0
3.3
3.3
3.3
4.5
3.8
3.4
3.3
5.0
4.2
3.8
3.2
5.9
5.0
4.5
3.2
110.8
110.8
-.-.30.4
30.4
-.-.16.2
16.2
-.-.9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3

For plain end pipes without stiff ends, use equation II.29. only!

39

6
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.7
5.1
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.2
-.-.-.9.7
6.5
6.0
6.2
6.3
6.3

10
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
-.1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.7
-.-.3.3
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.2
-.-.-.-.-.-.6.2
6.3
6.3

Table II-u. Allowable static buckling pressure P B (bar) at 20C, series ESN
Series
ESN 10

ESN 16

ESN 20

ESN 25

ESN 32

ID
(mm)
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
80
100
150
200
250
300

1
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.1
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.9
3.4
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.3
2.5
1.7
1.3
1.6
1.8
2.1
2.4
2.8
3.3
1.8
2.4
2.8
3.3
3.9
4.3
4.7
5.7
11.7
6.1
2.5
3.6
4.5
5.3

2
0.7
0.7
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.7
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.1
1.1
1.3
0.8
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.6
0.9
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.9
2.1
2.3
2.8
11.7
6.1
1.9
2.1
2.2
2.7

Pipe length L (m) between stiff ends


2.5
3
3.3
5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.9
0.7
0.7
0.4
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.5
1.1
0.9
0.8
0.5
1.2
1.0
0.9
0.6
1.4
1.1
1.0
0.7
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.5
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.5
1.1
0.9
0.8
0.6
1.3
1.1
1.0
0.7
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.1
1.0
0.9
1.5
1.3
1.2
1.0
1.7
1.4
1.3
1.0
1.9
1.6
1.4
0.9
2.3
1.9
1.7
1.1
11.7
11.7
11.7
11.7
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.0
2.0
2.0

For plain end pipes without stiff ends, use equation II.29. only!

40

6
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.9
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.0
11.7
6.1
1.9
2.1
2.0
2.0

10
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.9
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.0
-.-.-.2.1
2.0
2.0

II.12. Classification

The Wavistrong pipes can be classified in accordance with ASTM D 2310, indicating type, grade and
Hydrostatic Design Basis (HDB).
The classification for all pipes in the series EST 12.5 through EST 32 in accordance with this specification
is 11FW1. The classification for all pipes in the series EST 8 is 11FU1.
For the non-tensile resistant pipes in the series ESN 16 through ESN 32 the classification code in accordance
with ASTM D 2310 is 11FY2.
For pipes in the series ESN 10 the classification will be 11FX2.
The complete pipe designation code in accordance with ASTM D 2996, also identifying the cell classification
designations of short term rupture strength, longitudinal tensile strength, longitudinal tensile modulus (EX)
and apparent Stiffness Factor (SF) is presented in table II-v.

Table II-v. Designation code


Series
EST

ESN

PN (bar)

10

Code

11FU1-

11FX2-

EST

EST

12.5

ESN

EST

11FY2-

11FW1-

16

11FW1- 11FW1-

ESN

EST

11FY2-

11FW1-

20

ESN

EST

25

ESN
32

11FY2-

11FW1- 11FY2-

ID
25
40

2111
2111

50
80
100

2111
2112
2114

5112
5116

5112

2115
2116

5116
5116

2112

150
200

2112

2112

2112
2112

5112

2112
2113

250

2112

2112

300

2112

2112

2113

5112

2115

5112

2116

5116

2114

5112

2116

5113

2116

2112
2112

2113
2115

5116

5112
5112

2116
2116

5112
5113

2116
2116

5114
5116

2116
2116
2116

5114
5116
5116

2116
2116
2116

5116
5116
5116

350
400

2112
2112

450
500
600

2112
2113
2115

4012
4013
4015

2113
2116
2116

2116
2116
2116

5112
5113
5115

700
750
800

2116
2116
2116

4016
4016
4016

2116
2116
2116

2116
2116
2116

5116
5116
5116

900
1000
1200

2116
2116
2116

4016
4016
4016

2116
2116

41

III. Wavistrong above ground pipe systems


III.1. Design

In nearly all above ground applications thrust resistant types of joints are used (adhesive bonded
joint, rubber seal lock joint, laminated joint or flanged joint).
In case of well supported and anchored pipelines non-thrust resistant systems can be used (rubber
seal joint or mechanically joined systems).
In II.4. (page 4) a brief review of the various types of joints is given.

III.2. Supports

Above ground pipeline systems are installed on supports.


At least one support per standard pipe length should be used if the joining is a flanged joint or
rubber seal (lock) joint system (fig. III.1.). In case mechanical couplers are used, Future Pipe
Industries engineers are pleased to inform you about the supporting.
If one of the other tensile resistant joints is used, the support distance may never exceed the values
listed in table III-c. through III-e. (page 49 through 51), taking into account Eq.III.11., page 47.
Whether the support system is new or old, take care that the couplers do not interfere with the
supports; the support should not be located at the pipe joint (fig. III.1.).

Fig. III.1.
III.3. Clamps

For the supporting of Wavistrong pipe systems several types of clamps can be used. Point- and line loading
must be avoided and therefore flat strips should be used (fig. III.2. a and b, page 43).
The width of the clamps should be in accordance with applicable standards. The inside of the clamp must
be provided with a protective rubber or thermoplastic layer.
Guides enabling the pipe system to move freely in longitudinal direction should have a low friction inner
surface to allow for this movement. In this case a protective layer of PTFE, PE or equivalent is required.

42

For the design of clamps, detailed drawings are available on request.

Fig. III.2.a Single clamp

Fig. III.2.b Double clamp

III.4. Support distance

Table III-c. through III-e. (page 49 through 51) show the maximum support distance (L') for the different
pipe series (pipe series number = nominal pressure PN), at various operating pressures (P) and temperatures
(T). The calculations have been made for water filled pipes where the specific gravity SV = 1000 kg/m3.
These tables enable the selection of a pipe system for a given support distance or the determination of
the maximum allowable distance between the supports for a given pipe system (mind the remarks in III.2.,
page 42).
The support distance depends on one of the following two criteria:
A. The axial stress,
B. The allowable sag, which has been set on 5 of the span length.
If A. is the determining factor, the support distance will change with an increasing pressure.
If B. is the determining factor, the support distance will change with an increasing temperature.

The span length can be divided in:


- Single span length (LS) as described in III.4.1.,
- Continuous span length (LC) as described in III.4.2., page 45.

III.4.1. Single span length

The single span length (LS) is the length between two


supports of one single pipe or a string of flexible jointed
pipes (fig. III.3.). The single span length (LS) should be
used in each of the following situations (fig. III.5., page
47):

43

Fig. III.3.

For pipe systems where the joint is not designed to transmit bending forces; this is the case for mechanical couplers, flanged joints and the rubber seal (lock) joint,
Twice on each side of any change of direction,
Twice on both sides of an anchored valve or pump,
Twice on both sides of an expansion joint or expansion loop.

The single span length (LS) is calculated from the following formulas:
A. Based on the axial stress:

(Eq. III.1.)

Where:
LS1 = single span length based on axial stress
W B = moment of resistance to bending (table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)
SA = remaining axial stress
QP = linear weight of the filled pipe (Eq. III.5.)

(mm)
(mm3)
(N/mm2)
(N/mm)

The value of SA depends on the actual stress due to internal pressure:


(Eq. III.2.)
Where:
SA = remaining axial stress
SXT = allowable axial stress (table II-m., page 26)
SX = actual axial stress due to internal pressure

(N/mm2)
(N/mm 2)
(N/mm2)

For bi-axial loaded systems:

(Eq. III.3.)

For uni-axial loaded systems:

(Eq. III.4.)

Where:
SX = actual axial stress due to internal pressure
P
= operating pressure
ID = inner diameter
TE = minimum reinforced wall thickness (table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)

44

(N/mm2)
(Mpa)
(mm)
(mm)

The value of QP depends on the type of fluid that is transported:

(Eq. III.5.)

Where:
QP = linear weight of the filled pipe
GB = linear mass of the pipe (table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)
GV = linear mass of the pipe content (table II-d., page 10)
g
= acceleration due to gravity

(N/mm)
(kg/m)
(kg/m)
(m/s2)

B. Based on the allowable sag:

(Eq. III.6.)

Where:
LS2 = single span length based on the allowable sag
EXT = axial bending modulus at elevated temperature
IZ
= linear moment of inertia (table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)
QP = linear weight of the filled pipe (Eq. III.5.)

(mm)
(N/mm2)
(mm 4)
(N/mm)

At temperatures in excess of 20C the correction factors for the E-moduli (RE) of table II-k. (page 24)
should be applied as follows:
(Eq. III.7.)
Where:
EXT = axial bending modulus at elevated temperature
EX = axial bending modulus (table II-j., page 24)
RE1, RE2 or RE3 = temperature correction factors for winding angles of
respectively 55, 63 or 73. (table II-k., page 24)

The single span length (LS) will be the lowest value of LS1 and LS2.

III.4.2. Continuous span length

The continuous span length (LC) is the length


between two supports of a string of rigid jointed
pipes (fig. III.4.).

Fig. III.4.

45

(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
(-)

The continuous span length (LC) may be used for pipe systems where the joint is rigid and capable to
transmit bending forces. This continuous span length (LC) can be used for adhesive bonded and laminated
pipe systems.
The continuous span length (LC) is calculated from the following formulas:

A. Based on the axial stress:

(Eq. III.8.)

Where:
LC1 = continuous span length based on axial stress
W B = moment of resistance to bending (table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)
SA = remaining axial stress (Eq. III.2.)
QP = linear weight of the filled pipe (Eq. III.5.)

(mm)
(mm3)
(N/mm2)
(N/mm)

From above it can be found that: LC1 = 1.225 * LS1

B. Based on the allowable sag:

(Eq. III.9.)

Where:
LC2 = continuous span length based on the allowable sag
EXT = axial bending modulus at elevated temperature
IZ
= linear moment of inertia (table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)
QP = linear weight of the filled pipe (Eq. III.5.)

(mm)
(N/mm2)
(mm 4)
(N/mm)

From above it can be found that: LC2 = 1.71 * LS2


At temperatures in excess of 20C the correction factors for the E-moduli (RE) of table II-k. (page 24)
should be applied as follows:
(Eq. III.10.)
Where:
EXT = axial bending modulus at elevated temperature
EX = axial bending modulus (table II-j., page 24)
RE1, RE2 or RE3 = temperature correction factors
for winding angles of respectively 55, 63 or 73.
(table II-k., page 24)

46

(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)

(-)

The continuous span length (LC) will be the lowest value of LC1 and LC2.

Fig. III.5. Example of single span length (LS) and continuous span length (LC)
(III.4.1. and III.4.2., page 43 through 47).

III.5. Corrected support distance

Depending on the application, the values of table III-c. through III-e. (page 49 through 51) have to be
multiplied with one or more of the following correction factors:

A. Specific gravity correction factor (R S)


Above ground pipelines used for the transportation of fluids with a specific gravity (SV) other than
1000 kg/m3 should be supported at a span length adapted with the correction factor (RS) as listed
in table III-a. (page 48)

B. Temperature change correction factor (R T)


When temperature changes occur in a straight pipeline between fixed points, a correction factor (RT)
as shown in table III-b. (page 48) must be applied.
The final support distance (LF) can be derived from the following equation:
(Eq. III.11.)
Where:
LF = final support distance
L' = support distance at operating temperature (T) and -pressure (P)
(table III-c. through III-e. (page 49 through 51))
RS = specific gravity correction factor (table III-a., page 48)
RT = temperature change correction factor (table III-b., page 48)

47

(m)
(m)
(-)
(-)

Table III-a. Specific gravity correction factor R S (-)


3

Specific gravity of the fluid SV (kg/m )


RS

600

800

900

1000

1100

1250

1.55

1.25

1.07

1.03

1.0

0.95

0.90

Table III-b. Temperature change correction factor R T (-)


Temperature change T (C)
ID
(mm)
25
40

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0.73
0.81

0.58
0.69

0.49
0.60

0.44
0.54

0.39
0.49

0.36
0.45

0.34
0.42

0.32
0.40

0.30
0.38

0.28
0.36

50
80
100

0.85
0.90
0.92

0.73
0.81
0.85

0.65
0.74
0.79

0.59
0.69
0.74

0.54
0.64
0.69

0.50
0.60
0.66

0.47
0.57
0.62

0.44
0.54
0.59

0.42
0.51
0.57

0.40
0.49
0.54

150
200

0.92
0.94

0.85
0.89

0.80
0.84

0.75
0.81

0.72
0.77

0.68
0.75

0.66
0.72

0.63
0.70

0.61
0.68

0.59
0.66

250

0.95

0.91

0.87

0.84

0.81

0.79

0.76

0.74

0.72

0.70

300
350
400

0.96
0.96
0.97

0.92
0.93
0.94

0.89
0.91
0.92

0.87
0.88
0.89

0.84
0.86
0.87

0.82
0.84
0.85

0.80
0.82
0.83

0.78
0.80
0.82

0.76
0.79
0.80

0.74
0.77
0.79

450
500
600

0.97
0.97
0.98

0.95
0.95
0.96

0.92
0.93
0.94

0.90
0.91
0.93

0.88
0.90
0.91

0.87
0.88
0.90

0.85
0.86
0.88

0.83
0.85
0.87

0.82
0.83
0.86

0.80
0.82
0.85

700
750
800

0.99
0.99
0.99

0.98
0.98
0.98

0.97
0.97
0.97

0.96
0.96
0.96

0.95
0.95
0.95

0.94
0.94
0.95

0.93
0.94
0.94

0.92
0.93
0.93

0.91
0.92
0.93

0.91
0.91
0.92

900
1000

0.99
0.99

0.98
0.98

0.98
0.98

0.97
0.97

0.96
0.97

0.96
0.96

0.95
0.96

0.94
0.95

0.94
0.94

0.93
0.94

1200

0.99

0.99

0.98

0.98

0.97

0.97

0.96

0.96

0.95

0.95

48

Table III-c. Support distance L' (m) for series EST, P = 1 * P N (bar).
Series

EST 8

EST 12.5

EST 16

EST 20

EST 25

EST 32

ID

T = 20 C

(mm)

LS

350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
25
40
50
80
100
150
200
250
300

4.0
4.2
4.5
4.7
5.2
5.6
5.8
6.2
6.6
6.9
7.5
4.0
4.4
4.7
5.1
5.4
5.9
6.4
6.9
7.2
7.4
7.8
8.2
3.8
4.5
4.8
5.1
5.6
5.9
6.1
6.8
7.4
7.6
7.8
3.8
4.7
5.2
5.6
6.1
6.5
6.8
7.2
8.0
3.7
4.5
5.1
5.6
6.1
6.6
7.2
7.6
8.0
8.7
2.0
2.4
2.6
3.4
3.8
4.5
5.3
5.9
6.6

LC
4.9
5.2
5.5
5.8
6.4
6.9
7.1
7.6
8.0
8.5
9.2
4.9
5.4
5.8
6.2
6.6
7.3
7.9
8.5
8.8
9.0
9.6
10.1
4.6
5.5
5.8
6.2
6.9
7.2
7.5
8.3
9.0
9.3
9.5
4.6
5.7
6.4
6.9
7.4
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.8
5.7
5.5
6.2
6.9
7.5
8.1
8.8
9.3
9.8
10.7
3.4
4.1
4.5
5.5
4.7
6.4
6.4
7.3
8.0

T = 40 C

T = 60 C

T = 80 C

T = 100 C

T = 110 C

LS

LC

LS

LC

LS

LC

LS

LC

LS

LC

4.0
4.2
4.5
4.7
5.2
5.6
5.8
6.2
6.6
6.9
7.5
4.0
4.4
4.7
5.1
5.4
5.9
6.4
6.9
7.2
7.4
7.8
8.2
3.8
4.5
4.8
5.1
5.6
5.9
6.1
6.8
7.4
7.6
7.8
3.8
4.7
5.2
5.6
6.1
6.5
6.8
7.2
8.0
3.6
4.5
5.1
5.6
6.1
6.6
7.2
7.6
8.0
8.7
1.9
2.3
2.5
3.3
3.7
5.3
5.3
5.9
6.6

4.9
5.2
5.5
5.8
6.4
6.9
7.1
7.6
8.0
8.5
9.2
4.9
5.4
5.8
6.2
6.6
7.3
7.9
8.5
8.8
9.0
9.6
10.1
4.6
5.5
5.8
6.2
6.9
7.2
7.5
8.3
9.0
9.3
9.5
4.6
5.7
6.4
6.9
7.4
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.8
5.7
5.5
6.2
6.9
7.5
8.1
8.8
9.3
9.8
10.7
3.3
4.0
4.3
5.5
4.7
6.4
6.4
7.3
8.0

4.0
4.2
4.5
4.7
5.2
5.6
5.8
6.2
6.6
6.9
7.5
4.0
4.4
4.7
5.1
5.4
5.9
6.4
6.9
7.2
7.4
7.8
8.2
3.8
4.5
4.8
5.1
5.6
5.9
6.1
6.8
7.4
7.6
7.8
3.8
4.7
5.2
5.6
6.1
6.5
6.8
7.2
8.0
3.5
4.3
5.1
5.6
6.1
6.6
7.2
7.6
8.0
8.7
1.9
2.2
2.4
3.2
3.5
5.3
5.3
5.9
6.6

4.9
5.2
5.5
5.8
6.4
6.9
7.1
7.6
8.0
8.5
9.2
4.9
5.4
5.8
6.2
6.6
7.3
7.9
8.5
8.8
9.0
9.6
10.1
4.6
5.5
5.8
6.2
6.9
7.2
7.5
8.3
9.0
9.3
9.5
4.6
5.7
6.4
6.9
7.4
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.8
5.7
5.5
6.2
6.9
7.5
8.1
8.8
9.3
9.8
10.7
3.2
3.8
4.2
5.4
4.7
6.4
6.4
7.3
8.0

4.0
4.2
4.5
4.7
5.2
5.6
5.8
6.2
6.6
6.9
7.5
4.0
4.4
4.7
5.1
5.4
5.9
6.4
6.9
7.2
7.4
7.8
8.2
3.8
4.5
4.8
5.1
5.6
5.9
6.1
6.8
7.4
7.6
7.8
3.8
4.7
5.2
5.6
6.1
6.5
6.8
7.2
8.0
3.3
4.1
5.0
5.6
6.1
6.6
7.2
7.6
8.0
8.7
1.8
2.1
2.3
3.0
3.4
5.3
5.3
5.9
6.6

4.9
5.2
5.5
5.8
6.4
6.9
7.1
7.6
8.0
8.5
9.2
4.9
5.4
5.8
6.2
6.6
7.3
7.9
8.5
8.8
9.0
9.6
10.1
4.6
5.5
5.8
6.2
6.9
7.2
7.5
8.3
9.0
9.3
9.5
4.6
5.7
6.4
6.9
7.4
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.8
5.7
5.5
6.2
6.9
7.5
8.1
8.8
9.3
9.8
10.7
3.1
3.7
4.0
5.2
4.7
6.4
6.4
7.3
8.0

4.0
4.2
4.5
4.7
5.2
5.6
5.8
6.2
6.6
6.9
7.5
4.0
4.4
4.7
5.1
5.4
5.9
6.4
6.9
7.2
7.4
7.8
8.2
3.8
4.5
4.8
5.1
5.6
5.9
6.1
6.8
7.4
7.6
7.8
3.6
4.4
5.1
5.6
6.1
6.5
6.8
7.2
8.0
3.1
3.9
4.7
5.5
6.1
6.6
7.2
7.6
8.0
8.7
1.7
2.0
2.2
2.9
3.2
5.0
5.0
5.9
6.6

4.9
5.2
5.5
5.8
6.4
6.9
7.1
7.6
8.0
8.5
9.2
4.9
5.4
5.8
6.2
6.6
7.3
7.9
8.5
8.8
9.0
9.6
10.1
4.6
5.5
5.8
6.2
6.9
7.2
7.5
8.3
9.0
9.3
9.5
4.6
5.7
6.4
6.9
7.4
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.8
5.3
5.5
6.2
6.9
7.5
8.1
8.8
9.3
9.8
10.7
2.9
3.5
3.8
4.9
4.7
6.4
6.4
7.3
8.0

4.0
4.2
4.5
4.7
5.2
5.6
5.8
6.2
6.6
6.9
7.5
4.0
4.4
4.7
5.1
5.4
5.9
6.4
6.9
7.2
7.4
7.8
8.2
3.8
4.5
4.8
5.1
5.6
5.9
6.1
6.8
7.4
7.6
7.8
3.5
4.2
4.9
5.5
6.1
6.5
6.8
7.2
8.0
3.0
3.7
4.5
5.3
5.9
6.6
7.2
7.6
8.0
8.7
1.6
1.9
2.1
2.7
3.1
4.8
4.8
5.6
6.4

4.9
5.2
5.5
5.8
6.4
6.9
7.1
7.6
8.0
8.5
9.2
4.9
5.4
5.8
6.2
6.6
7.3
7.9
8.5
8.8
9.0
9.6
10.1
4.6
5.5
5.8
6.2
6.9
7.2
7.5
8.3
9.0
9.3
9.5
4.6
5.7
6.4
6.9
7.4
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.8
5.1
5.5
6.2
6.9
7.5
8.1
8.8
9.3
9.8
10.7
2.8
3.3
3.6
4.7
4.7
6.4
6.4
7.3
8.0

L S = Single span length


L C = Continuous span length

49

Table III-d. Support distance L' (m) for series EST, P = 0.75 * P N (bar).
Series

EST 8

EST 12.5

EST 16

EST 20

EST 25

EST 32

ID

T = 20 C

T = 40 C

T = 60 C

T = 80 C

T = 100 C

T = 110 C

(mm)

LS

LC

LS

LC

LS

LC

LS

LC

LS

LC

LS

LC

350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
25
40
50
80
100
150
200
250
300

5.4
5.8
6.1
6.5
7.1
7.7
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.3
10.2
5.2
5.9
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.1
8.8
9.5
9.8
10.1
10.7
11.3
4.8
5.6
6.3
7.0
7.7
8.3
8.7
9.6
10.4
10.7
11.0
4.3
5.2
6.1
6.8
7.6
8.3
9.0
9.6
10.9
3.7
4.6
5.6
6.5
7.3
8.1
8.9
9.6
10.3
11.6
2.0
2.4
2.6
3.4
3.8
4.9
6.0
7.0
7.9

6.6
7.1
7.5
7.9
8.7
9.4
9.7
10.2
10.8
11.4
12.5
6.8
7.5
8.1
8.6
9.2
9.9
10.8
11.6
12.0
12.4
13.1
13.8
6.6
7.6
8.3
8.8
9.6
10.1
10.6
11.7
12.7
13.1
13.5
6.5
7.8
8.7
9.5
10.2
10.9
11.5
12.1
13.4
6.3
7.4
8.5
9.5
10.4
11.2
12.1
12.8
13.5
14.7
3.4
4.1
4.5
5.8
6.5
7.9
9.2
10.3
11.3

5.4
5.8
6.1
6.5
7.1
7.7
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.3
10.2
5.0
5.7
6.3
6.9
7.5
8.1
8.8
9.5
9.8
10.1
10.7
11.3
4.7
5.5
6.1
6.8
7.5
8.1
8.6
9.6
10.4
10.7
11.0
4.2
5.1
5.9
6.7
7.4
8.1
8.7
9.3
10.6
3.6
4.5
5.4
6.3
7.1
7.9
8.7
9.4
10.0
11.3
1.9
2.3
2.5
3.3
3.7
4.8
5.8
6.8
7.7

6.6
7.1
7.5
7.9
8.7
9.4
9.7
10.2
10.8
11.4
12.5
6.8
7.5
8.1
8.6
9.2
9.9
10.8
11.6
12.0
12.4
13.1
13.8
6.6
7.6
8.3
8.8
9.6
10.1
10.6
11.7
12.7
13.1
13.5
6.5
7.8
8.7
9.5
10.2
10.9
11.5
12.1
13.4
6.1
7.4
8.5
9.5
10.4
11.2
12.1
12.8
13.5
14.7
3.3
4.0
4.3
5.6
6.3
7.9
9.2
10.3
11.3

5.4
5.8
6.1
6.5
7.1
7.7
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.3
10.2
4.9
5.5
6.1
6.6
7.2
7.8
8.8
9.5
9.8
10.1
10.7
11.3
4.5
5.3
5.9
6.5
7.2
7.8
8.3
9.4
10.4
10.7
11.0
4.0
4.9
5.7
6.4
7.1
7.8
8.4
9.0
10.2
3.5
4.3
5.2
6.1
6.9
7.6
8.3
9.0
9.7
10.9
1.9
2.2
2.4
3.2
3.5
4.6
5.6
6.5
7.4

6.6
7.1
7.5
7.9
8.7
9.4
9.7
10.2
10.8
11.4
12.5
6.8
7.5
8.1
8.6
9.2
9.9
10.8
11.6
12.0
12.4
13.1
13.8
6.6
7.6
8.3
8.8
9.6
10.1
10.6
11.7
12.7
13.1
13.5
6.5
7.8
8.7
9.5
10.2
10.9
11.5
12.1
13.4
5.9
7.4
8.5
9.5
10.4
11.2
12.1
12.8
13.5
14.7
3.2
3.8
4.2
5.4
6.0
7.9
9.2
10.3
11.3

5.3
5.8
6.1
6.5
7.1
7.7
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.3
10.2
4.6
5.3
5.8
6.4
6.9
7.4
8.4
9.3
9.7
10.1
10.7
11.3
4.3
5.0
5.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
8.0
9.0
10.0
10.4
10.9
3.8
4.7
5.4
6.1
6.8
7.4
8.0
8.6
9.7
3.3
4.1
5.0
5.8
6.6
7.3
8.0
8.6
9.2
10.4
1.8
2.1
2.3
3.0
3.4
4.4
5.4
6.2
7.1

6.6
7.1
7.5
7.9
8.7
9.4
9.7
10.2
10.8
11.4
12.5
6.8
7.5
8.1
8.6
9.2
9.9
10.8
11.6
12.0
12.4
13.1
13.8
6.6
7.6
8.3
8.8
9.6
10.1
10.6
11.7
12.7
13.1
13.5
6.5
7.8
8.7
9.5
10.2
10.9
11.5
12.1
13.4
5.7
7.1
8.5
9.5
10.4
11.2
12.1
12.8
13.5
14.7
3.1
3.7
4.0
5.2
5.8
7.5
9.2
10.3
11.3

5.0
5.5
5.9
6.4
7.1
7.7
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.3
10.2
4.4
4.9
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.9
8.7
9.2
9.6
10.3
11.1
4.0
4.7
5.3
5.9
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.5
9.4
9.8
10.3
3.6
4.4
5.1
5.8
6.4
7.0
7.6
8.1
9.2
3.1
3.9
4.7
5.5
6.2
6.8
7.5
8.1
8.7
9.8
1.7
2.0
2.2
2.9
3.2
4.2
5.0
5.9
6.6

6.6
7.1
7.5
7.9
8.7
9.4
9.7
10.2
10.8
11.4
12.5
6.8
7.5
8.1
8.6
9.2
9.9
10.8
11.6
12.0
12.4
13.1
13.8
6.6
7.6
8.3
8.8
9.6
10.1
10.6
11.7
12.7
13.1
13.5
6.2
7.5
8.7
9.5
10.2
10.9
11.5
12.1
13.4
5.3
6.7
8.1
9.4
10.4
11.2
12.1
12.8
13.5
14.7
2.9
3.5
3.8
4.9
5.5
7.1
8.6
10.0
11.3

4.8
5.3
5.7
6.1
6.9
7.7
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.3
10.2
4.2
4.7
5.3
5.7
6.2
6.7
7.6
8.4
8.8
9.2
9.9
10.6
3.9
4.5
5.1
5.7
6.2
6.7
7.2
8.1
9.0
9.4
9.8
3.5
4.2
4.9
5.5
6.1
6.7
7.2
7.8
8.8
3.0
3.7
4.5
5.3
5.9
6.6
7.2
7.8
8.4
9.4
1.6
1.9
2.1
2.7
3.1
4.0
4.8
5.6
6.4

6.6
7.1
7.5
7.9
8.7
9.4
9.7
10.2
10.8
11.4
12.5
6.8
7.5
8.1
8.6
9.2
9.9
10.8
11.6
12.0
12.4
13.1
13.8
6.6
7.6
8.3
8.8
9.6
10.1
10.6
11.7
12.7
13.1
13.5
5.9
7.2
8.4
9.5
10.2
10.9
11.5
12.1
13.4
5.1
6.4
7.7
9.0
10.1
11.2
12.1
12.8
13.5
14.7
2.8
3.3
3.6
4.7
5.2
6.8
8.3
9.6
10.9

L S = Single span length


L C = Continuous span length

50

Table III-e. Support distance L' (m) for series EST, P = 0.5 * P N (bar).
Series

EST 8

EST 12.5

EST 16

EST 20

EST 25

EST 32

ID

T = 20 C

(mm)

LS

350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
25
40
50
80
100
150
200
250
300

6.0
6.5
7.1
7.6
8.5
9.3
9.6
10.0
10.6
11.2
12.3
5.2
5.9
6.5
7.1
7.7
8.3
9.4
10.4
10.9
11.3
12.3
13.1
4.8
5.6
6.3
7.0
7.7
8.3
8.9
10.0
11.1
11.7
12.2
4.3
5.2
6.1
6.8
7.6
8.3
9.0
9.6
10.9
3.7
4.6
5.6
6.5
7.3
8.1
8.9
9.6
10.3
11.6
2.0
2.4
2.6
3.4
3.8
4.9
6.0
7.0
7.9

T = 40 C

T = 60 C

T = 80 C

T = 100 C

T = 110 C

LC

LS

LC

LS

LC

LS

LC

LS

LC

LS

LC

8.0
8.6
9.1
9.6
10.5
11.4
11.8
12.3
13.0
13.7
15.0
8.3
9.1
9.8
10.5
11.2
11.9
13.1
14.1
14.6
15.0
15.9
16.8
8.1
9.3
10.1
10.9
11.7
12.4
13.0
14.3
15.5
16.0
16.5
7.3
8.9
10.4
11.5
12.4
13.2
14.0
14.7
16.3
6.3
7.9
9.6
11.1
12.5
13.6
14.7
15.5
16.4
17.9
3.4
4.1
4.5
5.8
6.5
8.4
10.2
11.9
13.5

5.8
6.3
6.9
7.4
8.3
9.2
9.6
10.0
10.6
11.2
12.3
5.0
5.7
6.3
6.9
7.5
8.1
9.1
10.1
10.6
11.0
11.9
12.8
4.7
5.5
6.1
6.8
7.5
8.1
8.6
9.8
10.8
11.3
11.8
4.2
5.1
5.9
6.7
7.4
8.1
8.7
9.3
10.6
3.6
4.5
5.4
6.3
7.1
7.9
8.7
9.4
10.0
11.3
1.9
2.3
2.5
3.3
3.7
4.8
5.8
6.8
7.7

8.0
8.6
9.1
9.6
10.5
11.4
11.8
12.3
13.0
13.7
15.0
8.3
9.1
9.8
10.5
11.2
11.9
13.1
14.1
14.6
15.0
15.9
16.8
8.0
9.3
10.1
10.9
11.7
12.4
13.0
14.3
15.5
16.0
16.5
7.1
8.7
10.1
11.4
12.4
13.2
14.0
14.7
16.3
6.1
7.7
9.3
10.8
12.2
13.5
14.7
15.5
16.4
17.9
3.3
4.0
4.3
5.6
6.3
8.2
10.0
11.6
13.1

5.6
6.1
6.6
7.1
8.0
8.9
9.3
9.7
10.5
11.2
12.3
4.9
5.5
6.1
6.6
7.2
7.8
8.8
9.7
10.2
10.6
11.5
12.3
4.5
5.3
5.9
6.5
7.2
7.8
8.3
9.4
10.4
10.9
11.4
4.0
4.9
5.7
6.4
7.1
7.8
8.4
9.0
10.2
3.5
4.3
5.2
6.1
6.9
7.6
8.3
9.0
9.7
10.9
1.9
2.2
2.4
3.2
3.5
4.6
5.6
6.5
7.4

8.0
8.6
9.1
9.6
10.5
11.4
11.8
12.3
13.0
13.7
15.0
8.3
9.1
9.8
10.5
11.2
11.9
13.1
14.1
14.6
15.0
15.9
16.8
7.7
9.0
10.1
10.9
11.7
12.4
13.0
14.3
15.5
16.0
16.5
6.8
8.4
9.7
11.0
12.1
13.2
14.0
14.7
16.3
5.9
7.4
9.0
10.4
11.7
13.0
14.3
15.4
16.4
17.9
3.2
3.8
4.2
5.4
6.0
7.9
9.6
11.1
12.6

5.3
5.8
6.3
6.8
7.7
8.5
8.9
9.3
10.1
10.8
12.2
4.6
5.3
5.8
6.4
6.9
7.4
8.4
9.3
9.7
10.2
11.0
11.8
4.3
5.0
5.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
8.0
9.0
10.0
10.4
10.9
3.8
4.7
5.4
6.1
6.8
7.4
8.0
8.6
9.7
3.3
4.1
5.0
5.8
6.6
7.3
8.0
8.6
9.2
10.4
1.8
2.1
2.3
3.0
3.4
4.4
5.4
6.2
7.1

8.0
8.6
9.1
9.6
10.5
11.4
11.8
12.3
13.0
13.7
15.0
7.9
9.0
9.8
10.5
11.2
11.9
13.1
14.1
14.6
15.0
15.9
16.8
7.3
8.6
9.7
10.7
11.7
12.4
13.0
14.3
15.5
16.0
16.5
6.5
8.0
9.3
10.5
11.6
12.7
13.7
14.7
16.3
5.7
7.1
8.6
9.9
11.2
12.4
13.6
14.8
15.8
17.8
3.1
3.7
4.0
5.2
5.8
7.5
9.2
10.7
12.1

5.0
5.5
5.9
6.4
7.2
8.0
8.4
8.8
9.5
10.2
11.5
4.4
4.9
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.9
8.7
9.2
9.6
10.3
11.1
4.0
4.7
5.3
5.9
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.5
9.4
9.8
10.3
3.6
4.4
5.1
5.8
6.4
7.0
7.6
8.1
9.2
3.1
3.9
4.7
5.5
6.2
6.8
7.5
8.1
8.7
9.8
1.7
2.0
2.2
2.9
3.2
4.2
5.0
5.9
6.6

8.0
8.6
9.1
9.6
10.5
11.4
11.8
12.3
13.0
13.7
15.0
7.5
8.4
9.4
10.2
11.1
11.9
13.1
14.1
14.6
15.0
15.9
16.8
6.9
8.1
9.1
10.1
11.1
11.9
12.8
14.3
15.5
16.0
16.5
6.2
7.5
8.7
9.9
10.9
11.9
12.9
13.9
15.7
5.3
6.7
8.1
9.4
10.6
11.7
12.8
13.9
14.9
16.8
2.9
3.5
3.8
4.9
5.5
7.1
8.6
10.0
11.3

4.8
5.3
5.7
6.1
6.9
7.7
8.0
8.4
9.1
9.8
11.0
4.2
4.7
5.3
5.7
6.2
6.7
7.6
8.4
8.8
9.2
9.9
10.6
3.9
4.5
5.1
5.7
6.2
6.7
7.2
8.1
9.0
9.4
9.8
3.5
4.2
4.9
5.5
6.1
6.7
7.2
7.8
8.8
3.0
3.7
4.5
5.3
5.9
6.6
7.2
7.8
8.4
9.4
1.6
1.9
2.1
2.7
3.1
4.0
4.8
5.6
6.4

8.0
8.6
9.1
9.6
10.5
11.4
11.8
12.3
13.0
13.7
15.0
7.2
8.1
9.0
9.8
10.6
11.5
13.0
14.1
14.6
15.0
15.9
16.8
6.6
7.8
8.7
9.7
10.6
11.5
12.3
13.9
15.4
16.0
16.5
5.9
7.2
8.4
9.5
10.5
11.5
12.4
13.3
15.1
5.1
6.4
7.7
9.0
10.1
11.2
12.3
13.3
14.3
16.1
2.8
3.3
3.6
4.7
5.2
6.8
8.3
9.6
10.9

L S = Single span length


L C = Continuous span length

51

III.6. Anchor points

Anchor points are used to fix a certain point of the pipeline system. The expansion of the pipeline system
is directed from a fixed point towards the supports next to the anchor point. The pipe should be able to
move within these pipe supports.
Anchor points can be created as follows:

A. Adhesive bonded saddle


Adhesive bonded saddles can be fixed on the bottom of the pipe on each side of a pipe clamp.

Fig. III.6.
B. Laminate build-ups
On each side of a pipe clamp a laminate can be wrapped.

Fig III.7.
III.7. Anchor loads

Although Wavistrong pipes have a higher coefficient of linear thermal expansion (L) than steel pipes,
their far lower axial E-modulus results in comparatively low expansion forces at the anchor points when
the pipeline is subjected to temperature changes (T).

52

In table III-f. (page 54) the anchor loads (PA) for series EST at a temperature change T = 10C are listed.
The E-modulus of 20C has been used in the following formula for the determination of this load:

(Eq. III.12.)

Where:
PA = anchor load
OD = outer diameter
ID = inner diameter
EX = axial tensile modulus (table II-j., page 24)
L
= coefficient of linear thermal expansion (table II-l., page 24)
T = temperature change

(N)
(mm)
(mm)
(N/mm2)
(mm/mm.C)
(C)

Where temperature differences (T) are greater than 10C, the anchor load (PA) shown in table III-f. (page
54) should be multiplied by a factor indicating the difference between the highest actual temperature and
20C, resulting in the following equation. Also, the temperature correction factor (R E) from table II-k. (page
24), corresponding to the highest actual temperature, must be applied:

(Eq. III.13.)

Where:
PAT = anchor load at elevated temperature
PA = anchor load (Eq. III.12.)
T = temperature change
RE = temperature correction factor (table II-k., page 24)

(N)
(N)
(C)
(-)

As a rule no expansion loops or compensators are required. The distance between the supports should
be reduced when there is a risk of axial buckling due to increasing axial stresses (III.5., page 47).
However, when the expansion forces on the anchor points are considered to be excessively high,
compensation of the load can be found by using compensators or expansion loops; the Future Pipe Industries
engineers can advise you.

53

Table III-f. Anchor load P A (N) for series EST at 20C and T = 10C

Series EST
ID
(mm)

16

20

25

32

25
40

541
835

50
80
100
150
200
250

Note:

12.5

2490

1031
2007
2651

6302

5058
7660

3696
6309
9417

4525
7570
11384

5362
9159
13963
19771

300
350

9198

8704
11487

10564
13926

13138
17472

15966
21318

400

11677

14650

18056

22418

27754

450
500
600

14447
17508
24505

18194
22505
31574

22373
27146
38533

27977
34149
48800

34683
42381
60085

700
750
800

32667
37185
42583

42166
48033
54281

51905
59045
66643

900

53149

67919

1000
1200

64881
91840

83080

The rubber seal (lock) joint can accommodate expansion due to a free end play. This end play ability can be used to advantage,
provided that during installation of the joint, allowance is made for possible expansion.
In table III-g. (page 55) the available end play in the joint (at an angular deflection = 0) is given.
The rubber seal (lock) joints have an angular deflection capability, dependent on the diameter. This angular deflection is
also listed in table III-g.

54

Table III-g. End play and angular deflection of the RSLJ and RSJ

End play (mm)

Note:

Angular deflection

ID
(mm)

RSLJ

RSJ

RSLJ

RSJ

80
100

2.5
3

32.5
33

130'
130'

3
3

150

36

130'

200
250

8
9

38 (58)
39 (59)

130'
130'

3
3

300
350
400

10
11
13

40 (60)
61
63

130'
130'
130'

3
3
3

450
500
600

14
16
19

64
66
69

130'
130'
130'

3
3
2

700
750
800

16
17
19

66
67
69

1
1
1

2
2
2

900
1000
1200

21
23
27

71
73
77

1
1
1

2
2
1

The end play is required to accommodate soil settlement, Poisson contraction and temperature changes and can therefore
not be used for installation adjustments.

Values between brackets are valid for pipes with standard length L O = 10 m.

55

IV. Wavistrong underground pipe systems


IV.1. Design and joining systems

When using the Wavistrong pipe systems for underground applications, several types of joints can be
used (II.4., page 4). In contrast to above ground pipelines, these joints can be unrestrained (ratio axial
stress/hoop stress (R) = 0.25). Only at directional changes and depending on the pressure, diameter
and soil conditions, some lengths of pipe should be installed with tensile resistant couplers. Alternatively
an external axial restraint, e.g. a concrete anchor block can be used.

IV.2. Anchor points

Buried Wavistrong non-tensile resistant pipe systems can be anchored at turns and branches by means
of thrust blocks. This not only alleviates the need for expansion details, it also eliminates underground
movement of the pipe system. However, in most circumstances the use of restrained couplers (e.g. rubber
seal lock joint or adhesive bonded joint) over a certain distance, starting from the fitting, may offer a better
solution.
For this purpose, the fictive anchor length (L A) must be determined. The fictive anchor length (LA) can
be calculated from the following formula:

(Eq. IV.1.)
Where:
LA = fictive anchor length
P
= operating pressure
ID = inner diameter
FW = frictional force between soil and pipe
OD = outer diameter (II.5.1.B, page ?)

(m)
(Mpa)
(mm)
(N/mm 2)
(mm)

The value of FW can be obtained from the soil mechanics report. If not, the following values may provide
a rough indication:
- soft clay and peaty soils
- sandy clay and sand

:
:

0.001 FW 0.003 (N/mm2)


0.003 FW 0.010 (N/mm2)

IV.3. Calculation of underground pipe systems

Calculations, as described in this paragraph are in line with ANSI/AWWA C950-88. Based on specific
material data (and many years of experience) a number of deviations are stated in the text. As in ANSI/AWWA
C950-88, Anglo-Saxon units are used.
The stresses in the wall of a flexible buried pipe not only depend on the internal pressure, but are also
a result of the deflection due to external loads. The stress resulting from the deflection depends on the
interaction between the soil and the pipe, which is among others determined by the installation method.

56

IV.3.1. Pipe deflection

The vertical deflection of an underground pipe is a function of the installation parameters, the vertical
load on the pipe, the pipe stiffness and the soil characteristics.
When installed underground, a flexible pipe deflects, which means a decrease of the vertical diameter.
Many theories are used to predict this deflection; however, in actual field conditions, pipe deflections may
vary from the calculated values because theories cannot anticipate all the parameters associated with
a given installation. These variations include the inherent variability of native ground conditions and variations
in methods, materials, and equipment used to install a buried pipe.
A prediction is made using the following formula:

(Eq IV.2.)

Where:
y = predicted vertical pipe deflection
Dl = deflection lag factor
W c = vertical soil load
W L = live load
Kx = deflection coefficient (table IV-b., page 58)
rm = mean pipe radius
EI = stiffness factor
E' = modulus of soil reaction (table IV-d., page 61)

(in)
(-)
(lb/in)
(lb/in)
(-)
(in)
(in2.lb/in)
(psi)

Two procedures are available to obtain an estimated average deflection, in order to obtain a 95% probability
that the actual deflection will be less than the calculated value.

Procedure A:

This procedure is used if the burial depth (H) is less than or equal to 16 ft ( 4.9 m).
Procedure A uses a modulus of soil reaction (E') equal to 0.75 times the value obtained from table IV-d.
(page 61).

Procedure B:

This procedure is used if the burial depth (H) is greater than 16 ft ( 4.9 m).
Procedure B uses a modulus of soil reaction (E') equal to the value obtained from table IV-d. (page 61),
and adds the percentage deflection, given in table IV-a. (page 58) to the value obtained from Eq. IV.2.

57

Table IV-a. Additional deflection dependent on the degree of compaction

Note:

Degree of compaction

Additional deflection
(%)

Dumped
Slight
Moderate
High

+2
+2
+1
+ 0.5

The actual deflection measured at a particular point along a single pipeline may vary 2% from the average deflection
for the entire pipeline due to variations from specific conditions in the soil and in the compaction procedures used.

IV.3.2. Deflection lag factor

After the soil has been initially loaded, it continues to deform (consolidate) with time. The deflection lag
factor (Dl) converts the immediate deflection of the pipe to the deflection of the pipe after many years.
For plastic pipes a value of Dl = 1.5 to 2 is recommended by ANSI/AWWA C950-88.

IV.3.3. Deflection coefficient

The deflection coefficient (Kx) reflects the degree of support provided by the soil at the bottom of the pipe.
Table IV-b. gives the recommended values for different types of installation.

Table IV-b. Deflection coefficient (K X) as function of type of installation

Type of installation
Shaped bottom with tampered backfill material placed at the sides of the pipe;
95 % Proctor density
Compacted coarse-grained, shaped bedding with backfill material placed at the sides of the
pipe; 70 - 100 % relative density

Shaped bottom, moderately compacted, with backfill material placed at the sides of the pipe; 85
- 95 % Proctor density
Coarse grained, shaped bedding, with slightly compacted backfill material placed at the sides of
the pipe; 40 - 70 % relative density
Flat bottom with loose backfill material placed at the sides of the pipe (not recommended);
< 35% Proctor density; < 40% relative density

At least one lift of backfill material should be placed and compacted at the sides of the pipe.

58

Equivalent
bedding
angle
(degrees)

Deflection
coefficient
Kx
(-)

180

0.083

120

0.090

90

0.096

60

0.103

30

0.108

0.110

IV.3.4. Vertical soil load

The vertical soil load (Wc) on the pipe may be considered as the mass of the rectangular prism of
soil directly above the pipe, according to the following equation:

(Eq. IV.3.)

Where:
W c = vertical soil load
s
= specific mass of the soil
H = burial depth to top of the pipe
OD = outer diameter (II.5.1.B, page ?)

(lb/in)
(lb/ft3)
(ft)
(in)

Considerations should be given to pipe installed under unusual conditions, such as in unstable soils or
soils with high groundwater tables.

IV.3.5. Live load

The live load (WL) will be calculated according to the following equation:

or

(Eq. IV.4.)

Where:
WL
= live load
CL
= live load coefficient (single wheel load)
CL(T) = live load coefficient (two passing trucks)
PW
= wheel load (table IV-c.)
If
= impact factor

(lb/in)
(-)
(-)
(lb)
(-)
(Eq. IV.5.)

Where:
H
= burial depth to top of pipe (0 If 0.50)

In abscence of specific soil information, the unit weight for soil may be assumed to be
3
3
120 lb/ft (= 2000 kg/m )

59

(ft)

Table IV-c. Wheel load (P W )


Wheel load
Indication

(tons)

(lb)

VOSB 30
VOSB 45
VOSB 60

5
7.5
10

11,000
16,500
22,000

H20-S16

7.2

16,000

LKW 12
SKW 30
SKW 60

4
5
10

9,000
11,000
22,000

IV.3.5.1. Live load coefficient single wheel load

The live load coefficient (CL) for a single wheel load will be determined with the following equation :

(Eq. IV.6.)

Where:
CL
= live load coefficient (single wheel load)
H
= burial depth to top of pipe
ro
= outer pipe radius

(-)
(ft)
(ft)

ARCSIN must be in radians.

IV.3.5.2. Live load coefficient two passing trucks

The live load coefficient (CL(T)) for two passing trucks will be determined with the following equation:

(Eq. IV.7.)

Where:
CL(T) = live load coefficient (two passing trucks)
D
= mean pipe diameter
H
= burial depth to top of pipe

(-)
(ft)
(ft)

COS and TAN must be in radians

This equation (Eq. IV.6.) is based on the Boussinesq formula for a point load at the surface of a semi-infinite elastic soil.

60

IV.3.6. Stiffness factor

The stiffness factor (EI) is the product of the hoop bending modulus (EH) of the pipewall and the moment
of inertia of the pipewall per unit length of pipe.

(Eq. IV.8.)

Where:
EH = hoop bending modulus (table II-j., page 24)
TT = nett total wall thickness

(psi)
(in)

(II.5.1.A, page 6)

IV.3.7. Modulus of soil reaction

The modulus of the soil reaction (E') depends on the type of backfilling. Recommended values of E' for
various soil and compaction conditions are shown in the table IV-d. The listed values are derived from
ASTM D 2487.
Table IV-d. Modulus of soil reaction (E')
E' for degree of compaction of bedding
psi (N/mm)
Dumped
Slight
Moderate
High

Soil types backfill material


Fine-grained soils LL < 50.
Soils with medium to no plasticity CL, ML, ML-CL, CL-CH, ML-MH,
with less than 25% coarse-grained particles.
Fine-grained soils LL < 50.
Soils with medium to no plasticity CL, ML, ML-CL, CL-CH, ML-MH,
with more than 25% coarse-grained particles.
Coarse-grained soils with fines GM, GC, SM, SC
, containing more
than 12% fines.
Coarse-grained soils with little or no fines. GW, GP, SW, SP
, containing less than 12% fines.
Crushed rock

50
(0.34)

200
(1.4)

400
(2.8)

1000
(6.9)

100
(0.69)

400
(2.8)

1000
(6.9)

2000
(13.8)

200
(1.4)
1000
(6.9)

1000
(6.9)

2000
(13.8)
3000
(20.7)

3000
(20.7)

Classification of soils for engineering purposes according to ASTM D 2487 (table IV-e., page 62).
Slight
= < 85 % Proctor / < 40 % relative density
Moderate
= 85-95 % Proctor / 40-70 % relative density
High
= > 95 % Proctor / > 70 % relative density
LL = Liquid Limit
Or any borderline soil beginning with one of these symbols (i.e. GM-GC, GC-SC).

61

Table IV-e. Soil classification


Group
Symbol

Group name

GW

Well graded gravels, gravel-sand mixtures, little or no fines

GP

Poorly graded gravels, gravel-sand mixtures, little or no fines

GM

Silty gravels, poorly graded gravel-sand-silt mixtures

GC

Clayey gravels, poorly graded gravel-sand-clay mixtures

SW

Well graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines

SP

Poorly graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines

SM

Silty sands, poorly graded sand-silt mixtures

SC

Clayey sands, poorly graded sand-clay mixtures

ML

Inorganic silts and very fine sand, silty or clayey fine sands

CL

Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity

MH

Inorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous fine sandy or silty soils, elastic silts

CH

Inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays

IV.4. Resulting hoop stress

The maximum hoop stress resulting from the combined effects of internal pressure and deflection shall
meet the following equation:

(Eq. IV.9.)

Where:
c
= resulting hoop stress
HDB
= Hydrostatic Design Basis (table II-h., page 23)
FS
= design factor (1.5)

According to ASTM D 2487

62

(psi)
(psi)
(-)

c is calculated as follows:

(Eq. IV.10.)

Where:
c = resulting hoop stress
P
= operating pressure
D = mean pipe diameter
TE = minimum reinforced wall thickness
(table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)
Df = shape factor (table IV-f.)
EH = hoop bending modulus (table II-j., page 24)
RC = rerounding coefficient
y = predicted vertical pipe deflection
TT = nett total wall thickness

(psi)
(psi)
(in)
(in)
(-)
(psi)
(-)
(in)
(in)

(II.5.1.A., page 6)
If:

Then:

Else:

(Eq. IV.11.)

Where:
P = operating pressure

(psi)

Table IV-f. Shape factor


Pipe-zone backfill material and compaction
Gravel

Sand

Pipe Stiffness (psi)

dumped to slight

moderate to high

dumped to slight

moderate to high

9
18
36
72

5.5
4.5
3.8
3.3

7.0
5.5
4.5
3.8

6.0
5.0
4.0
3.5

8.0
6.5
5.5
4.5

63

IV.5. Allowable combined stress

The combination of the axial stress due to internal pressure (SX) and the circumferential stresses due
to internal pressure (Sy) and vertical deflection of the pipe ( C), should not exceed the acceptable
stress levels as shown in the fig. II-6. (page 13 through 15). The occurring axial stress has a great
influence on the allowable hoop stress. Non-tensile resistant pipes (series ESN) allow for high hoop
stress. It is beneficial to use this type of pipe for underground applications.
The occurring axial stress for tensile resistant and the non-tensile resistant pipes is calculated as
follows:

A. Tensile resistant system (series EST):

(Eq. IV.12.)

Where:
Sx = actual axial stress due to internal pressure
Sy = actual hoop stress due to internal pressure

(ISO formula)

(N/mm2)
(N/mm 2)

(Eq. IV.13.)

Where:
P
= operating pressure
ID = inner diameter
TE = minimum reinforced wall thickness
(table II-b. and II-c., page 9 and 10)

(Mpa)
(mm)
(mm)

B. Non-tensile resistant system (series ESN):

(Eq. IV.14.)
Where:
Sx = actual axial stress due to internal pressure
Nyx = Poisson ratio hoop/axial (table II-j., page 24)
Sy = actual hoop stress due to internal pressure (Eq. IV.13.)

(N/mm)
(-)
(N/mm)

From the calculated values (table IV-j. through IV-m., page 66 through 69) one may conclude that the
deflection of the pipe decreases with increasing care of installation and modulus of soil reaction (E'). Stresses
and deflections of the pipe system at burial depths varying from 1 to 5 metres are acceptable.
If the pipe system is installed with a depth of cover over 2.5 metres, the deflection is mainly caused by
the soil loads; at shallow depths (< 1 m) wheel loads (PW) have a predominant influence on the deformation
of the pipe.
The table IV-j. through IV-m. (page 66 through 69) show that in some cases, the required pressure class
can be reduced when using series ESN instead of EST. This is the result of the design of series ESN,
where a steeper winding angle is used compared with series EST. This steeper winding angle results
in a higher pipe stiffness (PS) as well as a higher allowable circumferential stress (S H).

64

In the following table IV-j. through IV-m. (page 66 through 69) the results of calculations for the standard
Wavistrong product range are shown. These calculations at nominal pressure (PN) for the series EST
and ESN give the deflection (y) for various burial depths (H) and different wheel loads (PW).
The values in table IV-j through IV-m. are determined for two different soil conditions:
Table IV-g. Input conditions for table IV-j. and IV-k. (page 66 and 67).

coarse grained soils with fines

2000 (125)
moderate

(-)

E'

6.9 (1000)

N/mm (psi)

degree of compaction
modulus of soil reaction

kg/m (pcf)

bedding angle

90

deflection coefficient

KX

0.096

(-)

deflection lag factor

Dl

1.5

(-)

Table IV-h. Input conditions for table IV-l. and IV-m. (page 68 and 69)

fine grained soil with medium or no


plasticity

degree of compaction
modulus of soil reaction

E'

1600 (100)

kg/m (pcf)

moderate

(-)

4.8 (700)

N/mm (psi)

bedding angle

120

deflection coefficient

KX

0.090

(-)

deflection lag factor

Dl

1.5

(-)

Criteria for rejection ("--") in the table IV-j. through IV-m. are:
-

resulting hoop stress ( C)

> maximum hoop stress (HDB/FS) (Eq.IV.9.)

predicted vertical pipe deflection (y)

> 5%

In case the conditions in the field differ from those used for the following listed calculations, separate
calculations can be made on request.

65

Table IV-j. Vertical deflection y (%) at P N for buried series EST at 20C
Calculations in line with ANSI/AWWA C950-88.
Burial conditions:
Wheel load (tons)
Burial
(m)
depth
EST 8
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
EST 12.5
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
EST 16
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
EST 20
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
EST 25
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
EST 32
25
40
50
80
100
150
200
250
300

Specific mass soil:


:
E' (ground)

2000kg/m3
6.9 N/mm

125 pcf
1000 psi

Bedding angle:
Defl.lag factor:

90
1.5(-)

7.5

10

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6

2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.5
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
0.2
0.6
0.9
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.4

4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.0
3.5
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
1.4
2.1
2.6
3.0
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4

2.8
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.0
1.9
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.2
2.1
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.0
0.3
0.8
1.2
1.6
1.9
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.8

1.7
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
0.2
0.4
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
1.6
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
0.2
0.6
1.0
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
3.5
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
1.4
2.1
2.6
3.1
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4

4.0
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.6
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.0
2.8
2.6
4.1
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.3
3.2
3.2
3.0
2.8
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.9
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.4
3.2
3.1
3.0
3.8
3.7
3.7
3.6
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.0
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.2
3.1
3.0
2.9
2.8
0.4
1.1
1.8
2.3
2.7
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.6

2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.4
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
0.2
0.6
0.8
1.1
1.3
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3

2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
0.2
0.6
1.0
1.3
1.5
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.5

4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.3
4.3
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
3.5
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
1.4
2.1
2.6
3.1
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4

-.-.5.0
4.9
4.6
4.4
4.2
4.1
3.9
3.7
3.3
-.-.-.-.4.9
4.8
4.6
4.3
4.2
4.1
3.8
3.6
-.-.-.5.0
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.4
4.2
4.0
3.9
5.0
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.1
3.9
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.6
0.5
1.5
2.3
3.0
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.5
3.4

2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
0.2
0.7
1.0
1.3
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6

2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
0.2
0.7
1.0
1.3
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6

4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
3.5
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
1.4
2.1
2.6
3.1
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4

For different soil conditions, separate calculations can be made on request.

66

Table IV-k. Vertical deflection y (%) at P N for buried series ESN at 20C
Calculations in line with ANSI/AWWA C950-88.
Burial conditions:
Wheel load (tons)
Burial
(m)
depth
ESN 10
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
ESN 16
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
ESN 20
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
ESN 25
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
ESN 32
80
100
150
200
250
300

Specific mass soil:


:
E' (ground)

2000 kg/m3
6.9 N/mm

125 pcf
1000 psi

Bedding angle:
Defl.lag factor:

90
1.5(-)

7.5

10

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.0
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4

0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.5
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.4
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.4
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.0
0.6
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9

2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
1.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
0.9
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
1.0
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
0.1
1.4
1.9
2.1
2.0
2.0
2.2

4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
3.0
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
2.6
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
2.7
4.3
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.3
1.1
3.3
4.0
4.2
4.1
4.1
4.3

2.7
2.6
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.1
1.9
1.5
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.4
2.3
2.3
1.2
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
1.3
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.5
0.1
1.9
2.6
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5

1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.5
0.9
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
0.7
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
0.7
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
0.1
1.0
1.4
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.6

2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
1.2
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
0.9
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
1.0
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
0.1
1.5
2.0
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.3

4.3
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.0
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
2.6
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
2.7
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.2
4.3
1.1
3.3
4.0
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.3

3.9
3.6
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.0
2.9
2.6
2.1
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.6
3.4
3.3
3.2
1.7
4.1
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.7
3.6
1.9
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.5
0.1
2.7
3.7
4.0
3.9
3.7
3.6

2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.1
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.9
0.8
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
0.9
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
0.1
1.3
1.8
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.0

2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
1.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
1.0
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.4
1.1
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
0.1
1.5
2.0
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.4

4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.0
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
2.6
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
2.7
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.3
1.1
3.3
4.0
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.4

5.0
4.7
4.4
4.3
4.1
3.9
3.7
3.3
2.7
-.5.0
4.9
4.7
4.4
4.3
4.1
2.2
-.-.-.-.5.0
4.8
4.6
2.4
-.-.5.0
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.5
0.2
3.5
4.8
-.5.0
4.9
4.6

2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.2
1.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
1.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
1.1
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
0.1
1.5
2.1
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.4

2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
1.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
1.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
1.1
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
0.1
1.5
2.1
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.4

4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.0
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
2.6
4.3
4.4
4.4
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.4
2.7
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
1.1
3.3
4.0
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.4

For different soil conditions, separate calculations can be made on request.

67

Table IV-l. Vertical deflection y (%) at P N for buried series EST at 20C
Calculations in line with ANSI/AWWA C 950-88.
Burial conditions:
Wheel load (tons)
Burial
(m)
depth
EST 8
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
EST 12.5
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
EST 16
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
EST 20
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
EST 25
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
EST 32
25
40
50
80
100
150
200
250
300

Specific mass soil:


:
E' (ground)

1600 kg/m3
4.8 N/mm

100 pcf
700 psi

Bedding angle:
Defl.lag factor:

120
1.5(-)

7.5

10

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.4
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
0.2
0.5
0.8
1.1
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3

4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.2
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
3.4
3.7
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.8
3.8
3.8
1.3
1.9
2.4
2.9
3.2
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.2

3.6
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.2
3.1
3.0
2.9
2.7
2.6
2.3
3.7
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.5
3.6
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
3.3
3.2
3.2
3.1
3.1
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.7
2.4
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
0.3
0.8
1.3
1.7
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.1

2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.2
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
0.1
0.4
0.6
0.9
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
1.5
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
0.2
0.5
0.8
1.1
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4

4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.2
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.1
3.4
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
1.3
1.9
2.4
2.9
3.2
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3

-.-.5.0
4.9
4.6
4.4
4.2
4.1
3.9
3.7
3.3
-.-.-.5.0
4.9
4.8
4.5
4.3
4.2
4.0
3.8
3.6
-.-.5.0
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.3
4.1
4.0
3.8
4.8
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.2
4.1
3.9
3.4
4.0
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.3
0.4
1.1
1.8
2.5
3.1
3.2
3.1
3.0
3.0

2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.0
1.5
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.7
0.2
0.5
0.8
1.1
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4

2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
1.6
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.9
0.2
0.5
0.8
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.4

4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.2
4.1
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
3.4
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
1.3
1.9
2.4
2.9
3.2
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3

-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.5.0
4.7
4.2
-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.4.9
4.6
-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.5.0
-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.4.5
-.-.-.5.0
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.3
0.5
1.5
2.4
3.3
4.0
4.1
4.0
4.0
3.9

3.0
3.0
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.6
3.0
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.4
1.9
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
0.2
0.6
1.0
1.4
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7

2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
1.6
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
0.2
0.5
0.9
1.2
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
3.5
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
1.3
1.9
2.4
2.9
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3

For different soil conditions, separate calculations can be made on request.

68

Table IV-m. Vertical deflection y (%) at P N for buried series ESN at 20C
Calculations in line with ANSI/AWWA C950-88.
Burial conditions:
Wheel load (tons)
Burial
(m)
depth
ESN 10
450
500
600
700
750
800
900
1000
1200
ESN 16
350
400
450
500
600
700
750
800
ESN 20
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
ESN 25
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
ESN 32
80
100
150
200
250
300

Specific mass soil:


:
E' (ground)

1600 kg/m3
4.8 N/mm

100 pcf
700 psi

Bedding angle:
Defl.lag factor:

120
1.5(-)

7.5

10

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.2
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.0
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5

0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.4
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.3
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.3
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.0
0.5
0.8
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.9

2.3
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
1.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
0.8
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
0.8
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
0.1
1.3
1.9
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.3

4.5
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.5
4.6
4.6
4.6
2.8
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.5
2.4
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
2.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
1.1
3.2
4.0
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.5

3.5
3.3
3.1
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.6
2.4
1.6
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.1
3.0
2.9
1.2
3.7
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.4
3.2
1.4
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.1
0.1
2.1
3.1
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2

1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
0.9
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
0.6
1.9
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
0.7
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
0.0
1.1
1.6
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.9

2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
1.1
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
0.8
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.5
0.9
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.4
0.1
1.3
2.0
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.5

4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
2.8
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
2.4
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
2.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.5
1.1
3.2
4.0
4.4
4.3
4.2
4.6

5.0
4.7
4.4
4.3
4.1
3.9
3.7
3.3
2.3
-.-.4.9
4.7
4.4
4.3
4.1
1.7
-.-.-.-.4.9
4.8
4.6
2.0
-.-.5.0
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.4
0.1
3.0
4.5
-.4.8
4.7
4.6

2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
1.1
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
0.8
2.4
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
0.9
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
0.1
1.3
2.0
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.4

2.5
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
1.1
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
0.8
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
0.9
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
0.1
1.4
2.1
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.5

4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
2.8
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
2.4
4.5
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.6
2.5
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.5
1.1
3.2
4.0
4.4
4.3
4.3
4.6

-.-.-.-.-.-.4.8
4.3
3.0
-.-.-.-.-.-.-.2.3
-.-.-.-.-.-.-.2.6
-.-.-.-.-.-.-.0.2
3.9
-.-.-.-.-.-

2.9
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.6
1.3
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.8
1.0
2.9
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
1.1
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8
0.1
1.6
2.4
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.9

2.6
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
1.2
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
0.8
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
1.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
0.1
1.4
2.1
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.6

4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
2.8
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
2.4
4.5
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
2.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.5
1.1
3.2
4.1
4.4
4.3
4.3
4.6

For different soil conditions, separate calculations can be made on request.

69

Appendix I : List of symbols


(mm2)
(mm2)

A
AB

= structural wall area


= bore area

c
CL
CL(T)

= wave velocity
= live-load coefficient (single wheel load)
= live-load coefficient (two passing trucks)

D
Df
DI
Dl
DO

=
=
=
=
=

mean pipe diameter


shape factor
structural inner diameter
deflection lag factor
structural outer diameter

E'
EH
EI
ES
EV
EX
EXT

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

modulus of soil reaction


hoop bending modulus
stiffness factor
shear modulus
volumetric E-modulus
axial bending (tensile) modulus
axial bending (tensile) modulus at elevated temperature

f
FS
FW

= constant
= design factor
= frictional force between soil and pipe

g
GB
GV

= acceleration due to gravity


= linear mass of the pipe
= lenear mass of the pipe content

H
HDB
HDS

= burial depth to top of the pipe


= Hydrostatic Design Basis
= Hydrostatic Design Stress

(ft)
(N/mm2), (psi)
(N/mm2), (psi)

ID
If
IR
IZ

=
=
=
=

(mm), (m), (in)


(-)
(mm)
(mm4)

k
KV
KX

= wall roughness
= compression modulus of the fluid
= deflection coefficient

L
L'
LA
LC
LC1
LC2
LEQ
LF
LO

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

(m/s)
(-)
(-)
(m), (in), (ft)
(-)
(mm), (in)
(-)
(mm), (in)
(psi)
(N/mm2), (N/m2), (psi)
(in2.lb/in)
(N/mm)
(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
(N/mm 2)
(-)
(-)
(N/mm 2)
(m/s2)
(kg/m)
(kg/m)

inner diameter
impact factor
radius of inertia
linear moment of inertia

(mm)
(N/mm2)
(-)

length between stiff pipe ends


support distance at operating temperature and -pressure
fictive anchor length
continuous span length
continuous span length based on axial stress
continuous span length based on the allowable sag
equivalent pipe length
final support distance
standard length

70

(mm)
(m)
(m)
(mm), (m)
(mm)
(mm)
(m)
(m)
(m)

LS
LS1
LS2

= single span length


= single span length based on axial stress
= single span length based on allowable sag

(mm), (m)
(mm)
(mm)

NXY
NYX

= Poisson ratio axial/hoop


= Poisson ratio hoop/axial

OD

= outer diameter

P
PA
PAT
PB
PBT
PN
PS
PW

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

QP

= linear weight of the filled pipe

R
Rb
Rc
RE
rm
ro
RS
RT

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

ratio axial stress/hoop stress, elbow radius


bending radius
rerounding coefficient
temperature correction factor
mean pipe radius
outer pipe radius
specific gravity correction factor
temperature change correction factor

(-), (mm)
(m), (in)
(-)
(-)
(mm), (in)
(ft)
(-)
(-)

SA
Sb
Seq
Seq(max)
SF
SF
Sf
SH
SL
STES
STIS
SV
SX
SXT
SY

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

remaining axial stress


load-dependent safety factor
equivalent stress
maximum equivalent stress
Stiffness Factor
service factor
service (design) factor
allowable hoop stress
specific gravity of the laminate
Specific Tangential End Stiffness
Specific Tangential Initial Stiffness
specific gravity of the fluid
actual axial stress due to internal pressure
allowable axial stress
actual hoop stress due to internal pressure

(N/mm2)
(-)
(N/mm2)
(N/mm)
(in2.lb/in)
(-)
(-)
(N/mm 2)
(kg/m3)
(N/m2)
(N/m2)
(kg/m3)
(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)

T
TC
TE
TL
TT
TW

=
=
=
=
=
=

operating temperature
topcoat thickness
minimum reinforced wall thickness
liner thickness
nett total wall thickness
total wall thickness

UEWS

= Ultimate Elastic Wall Stress

= flow velocity

(-)
(-)
(mm), (in)

operating pressure
anchor load
anchor load at elevated temperature
buckling pressure
buckling pressure at elevated temperature
nominal pressure
Pipe Stiffness
wheel load

(Mpa), (psi)
(N)
(N)
(bar)
(bar)
(bar), (Mpa)
(psi)
(lb)
(N/mm)

(C)
(mm)
(mm), (m), (in)
(mm)
(in)
(mm), (in)
(N/mm2)
(m/s)

71

(mm3)
(lb/in)
(lb/in)
(mm3)

WB
WC
WL
WW

=
=
=
=

moment of resistance to bending


vertical soil load
live load
moment of resistance to torsion

= creep factor
= bedding angle

(-)
()

= ageing factor

(-)

= specific mass of soil

Hfitting
Hpipe
P
T
y
v

=
=
=
=
=
=

= friction coefficient

= resulting hoop stress

= shear stress

= winding angle

= coefficient of linear thermal expansion

(kg/m3), (lb/ft3)
(N/m2)
(m.w.c./m.)
(N/m2), (m.w.c.)
(C)
(in)
(m/s)

head loss in the fitting


head loss in the pipe
pressure change
temperature change
predicted vertical pipe deflection
change in flow velocity

(-)
(psi)
(N/mm2)
()

72

(mm/mmC)

Appendix II: Conversion tables


feet per second squared

= 0.3048

m/s2

Flow rate
1 cubic feet per hour
1 gallon per minute

= 0.02679
= 227.1

m 3/h
dm 3/h

Mass base
Pounds per hour
MT/D

= 0.01088 tons per day


= 0.4536
kg/h

Force (SI = N)
pounds force

= 4.4482

Heat
Btu per pound
Btu per hour
Btu / hr.ft2F
Btu / lb.F2
Btu / hr.ft 2
Btu.ft
/ hr.ft .F
ft2.hr.F/Btu

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

kJ/kg
W 2
W/m .C
KJ/kg.C
W/m 2
W/m.C
m2.C/W

Moment
of inertia
inch 4

= 4.162 * 10 -6

m4

Moment of bending (SI = Nm)


1 inch pound
1 foot pound

= 0.1130
= 1.356

Nm
Nm

Velocity (SI = m/s)


1 ft/second
1 ft/minute
1 mile/hr

= 0.3048
= 0.00508
= 0.44704

m/s
m/s
m/s

Conversion figures for anglo-saxon units into metric units


Length (SI = m)
1 inch
1 foot = 12 inch
1 yard = 3 feet
1 mile = 1760 yards
1 seamile
Area (SI = m 2 )
1 square inch
1 square foot = 144 square inch
1 square yard = 9 square feet
1 acre = 4840 square yards
1 square mile = 640 acres
1 circular inch= square inch
4
Volume (SI = m 3 )
1 cubic inch
1 cubic foot= 1728 cubic inch
1 cubic yard= 27 cubic feet
1 imperial gallon
1 US gallon
1 US barrel (petrol)
1 barrel (imperial)

=
=
=
=
=

0.02540
0.30480
0.91440 3
1.609 * 10
1.852 * 10 3

m
m
m
m
m

=
=
=
=
=

6.4516*10 -4
9.2903*10 -2
0.8361
4,046.85
2.58998*10 6

m 22
m
m2
m
m2

= 5.0671*10 -4

m2

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

16.387*10 -6
28.317*10 -3
0.76455 -3
4.5461*10
3.7854*10 -3
0.158762
0.163656

m 33
m
m 33
m3
m3
m3
m

Mass (SI = kg)


1 grain
1 ounce = 437.5 grains
1 pound = 16 ounces
1 US long ton= 2240 pound
1 US short ton= 2000 pound
1 hundred weight (imp.)
1 hundred weight (US)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.0648*10 -3
0.0283495
0.4535924
1,016.05
907.185
50.80235
45.3592

kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg

Mass per length (SI = kg/m)


1 pound per inch
1 pound per foot
1 pound per yard

= 17.858
= 1.488
= 0.4961

kg/m
kg/m
kg/m

Mass per area (SI = kg/m 2 )


1 pound per square inch
1 pound per square foot
1 pound per square yard

= 0.0703*10 4
= 4.8825
= 0.5425

kg/m 22
kg/m 2
kg/m

2.288*10 -3
16.0256
1.711
119.8

kg/m 33
kg/m 3
kg/m
kg/m 3

Conversion figures for metric into anglo-saxon units


Length
1 metre

1 kilometre
Area
1 square millimetre
1 square metre

Density (SI = kg/m )


1 grain per cubic foot
1 pound per cubic foot
1 grain per gallon (US)
1 pound per gallon (US)

=
=
=
=
2

1 square kilometre
Volume
1 cubic metre

-5

Pressure (SI = Pa = 1 N/m = 10 bar)


1 pound per square inch
= 6.8948*10 3
1 pound per square foot
= 47.876
1 pound per square yard
= 5.3201
1 long ton per sq. inch (imp)
= 1.0725*10 5
1 long ton per sq. foot (imp)
= 1.5444*10 77
1 short ton per sq. inch (US)
= 1.3789*10 2
1 grain per square inch
= 0.9850*10 2
1 ounce per square inch
= 4.3092*10
1 ounce per square foot
= 2.9925
1 ounce per square yard
= 0.3313
1 inch head of water
= 249.089
1 inch head of mercury
= 3.3864*10 32
1 foot head of water
= 2.9879*10

N/m 2
N/m 2
N/m
N/m 22
N/m 2
N/m 2
N/m 2
N/m 2
N/m 2
N/m 2
N/m
N/m 22
N/m

Mass
1 kilogram

1 metric ton
Mass per length
1 kilogram per metre

Power (SI = W)
1 foot pounds per second
1 foot pounds per minute
1 British thermal unit per sec.
1 centigrade thermal unit p. sec.
1 horsepower (Hp)

=
=
=
=
=

1.35582 -2
2.25 * 10
1.0549*10 -3
1.8987*10-4-3
7.457 *10

W
W
W
W
W

Work (SI = Nm = J)
1 foot pound
1 yard pound
1 foot ton (US)
1 foot ton (imp.)
1 HPh
1 Btu
1 Ctu

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1.3558
4.0675
2.7164*10 3
3.0371*10 36
2.6815*10 3
1.0555*10 3
1.8991*10

J
J
J
J
J
J
J

2.326
0.2931
5.678
4.187
3.155
1.731
0.1761

=
=
=
=
=

1.094
3.281
39.37
0.621
0.540

yards
feet
inches
statute mile
nautical mile

=
=
=
=
=

15.51 square inch


1.196 square yards
10.76 square feet
0.3861 square mile
0.02471 acres

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

61.024 cubic inch


35.31 cubic feet
1.308 cubic yards
220 imperial gallon
264.2 US gallon
6.290 US barrel
6.286 imperial barrel

=
=
=
=
=

15430 grains
35.27 ounces
2.205 pounds
1.102 US short tons
0.984 long ton

= 0.056 pounds per inch


= 0.672 pounds per foot
= 2.016 pounds per yard

Mass per area (specific pressure)


1 kilogram per sq. metre
= 0.0014
= 0.2048
= 1.8433
Density
1 kilogram per cubic metre

Acceleration (SI = m/s 2 )

73

psi
psf
lb/sq. yard

= 0.0624
pcf
= 437 grain pr cubic foot
= 58.4 grain per gallon

Moment of4 inertia


millimetres
Moment of bending
Nm

= 8.850 inch pounds


= 0.07375 foot pounds

Pressure
1 N/m 2

1 MN/m

Length (SI = m)
1 km
1 cm
1 mm
1 micron = 10 -6

= 2.40269 * 10 -6 in 4

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Power
1 kilowatt

Work
1 Joule

Heat
1 Kj/kg
1W 2
1 W/m 2.C
1 W/m
1 W/m.C
1 m 2.C/W
1 Kj/kg.C
Velocity
1 m/s

738 foot pounds/sec.


4.428*10 4 ft lb/min.
0.94799 Btu/sec.
0.526676 Ctu/sec.
1.340536 Horse Power

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.73756 foot pound


0.24585 yard pound
0.3681*10-3-3 ft.tons(US)
0.3293*10 -6 ft.tons(Eng)
0.3250*10 Hph
0.9474*10 -3
Btu
0.5266*10 -3 Ctu

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.42992 Btu/pound
0.341180 Btu/hour
0.17612 Btu/hr.ft22.F
0.31696 Btu/hr.ft 2
0.5777 Btu.ft/hr.ft
.F
5.6786 ft2.hr.F/Btu
0.23883 Btu/lb.F

= 91.91176 pounds/hour
= 2.20459 pounds/hour

Force
1 N (Newton)

= 0.22481 pounds force

Volume
(SI = m )
1 dm23 = 1 litre
= 10 -3
1 cm 3
= 10 -6
1 mm
= 10 -9

m 33
m3
m

Mass (SI = kg)


1 gram
1 metric ton
1 milligram

kg
kg
kg

= 10 -3
= 10 3-6
= 10

Mass per length (SI = kg/m)-6


1 den
= (1/9)*10 kg/m
kg/m
1 tex
= 10 -6
Mass per area
1 gram/mm 2
Density 3
1 gram/dm

= 10 -3
= 10 3

2
kg/mm
kg/m 2

=1
= 10 -3
=1

gram/ltr
3
kg/dm
kg/m 3

Pressure 5
1 bar = 10
Pa
= 10 5
N/m 2
1 kgf/cm 2
= 98066 Pa3
1 atm.
= 101.325*10 Pa
1 at
= 98066.5 Pa
1 Torr
= 133.322 Pa
1 metre water column = 9.80665 * 10 3 Pa
1 metre mercury column = 133.322 * 10 2 Pa
Power
1 kgf.m/s
= 9.80665 W
1 metric horsepower = 735.499 W
1 kcal/h
= 1.163
W
Work
1 Nm
=1
J
1 kgf.m
= 9.80665
J
6
1 kWh
= 3.6*10 J
1 kcal
= 4186.8 J
1 metric horse power.hour
= 2.64780 * 10 6 J
J
1 erg = 1 dyn.cm = 10 -7

= 37.32736 feet3/hour
= 0.00440 gallons/minute

Mass base
MT/D
kg/h

m 22
m
m2

= 3.28084 ft/sec

Flow3 rate
1 m /hr

= 10 6-4
= 10 -6
= 10

= 3.28084 ft/sec
= 196.8504 ft/min.
= 2.236936 mile/hr.

Acceleration
1 m/s 2

m
m
m

Area 2(SI = m )
1 km 2
1 cm 2
1 mm

0.0001450 psi
0.0208873 psf
0.18797lb/sq. yard
0.0102 grains/sq. inch
3.0184 ounces/sq. yard
0.0023 ounces/sq. inch
9.324long tons/ft(eng)
0.648long tons/in(eng)
0.725short tons/in(US)

=
=
=
=
=

= 10 3-2
= 10
= 10 -3
m

Acceleration
g = gravitation

= 9.8067

m/s2

Velocity
1 km/h
= 0.2778
1 m/min. = 0.0167
1 knot
= 0.5144

m/s
m/s
m/s

Flow rate
1 litre/h
1 m 3/h

= 10 -3
= 0.2778

m 33/h
m /h

Mass base
1 kg/h

= 24.0

MT/D

Prefixes
Prefix

Factor

giga
mega
kilo
milli
micro

10 9
10 63
10 -3
10
10 -6

Symbol

G
M
k
m

Force
1 kgf
= 9.80665 N
N
1 dyn = 1 g.cm/s 2 = 10 -5
Heat
1 kcal/hr = 1.163
1 kcal
1 kcal(h.m)2
1 kcal(h.m )
1 cal(s.cm)

Conversion figures for metric units into SI-units

74

W
= 4186.8
= 1.163
= 1.163
= 418.68

J
W/m 2
W/m
W/m

Appendix III: Conversion graph psi vs bar

75

Appendix IV : Conversion graph C vs F

76

Appendix V : Examples combined stresses


Example I:

Question
Inner diameter 400 mm, pipe series EST 20 to be used as vertical pump column. Is the maximum torque
generated by the pump allowable?
Pump data
max operating pressure (P)
pump weight
maximum moment
Pipe data
pipe series
inner diameter
winding angle
( )
effective wall thickness
linear mass
bore area
structural wall area
moment of resistance to
torsion
specific gravity of pipe
laminate
mass of ID 400 mm
EST 20 flange
pipe length
column length
flanged pipe lenghts of 3 m each,
total column length 12 m.

12

bar

90
(MW) 8100

EST 20
(ID) 400
55

(TE) 6.5
(GB) 17.3
(AB) 125660
(A)
8320

kN
Nm

mm
mm
kg/m
mm2
mm2

(table II-b., page 9)

(W W) 1669200

mm3

(SL)

1850

kg/m3

27.5
3
12

kg
m
m

(Product List)

(LP)
(L)

150792

15079

2076

90000

2200

N
+
N

Calculation
1) axial load due to pressure:
Fax,1
= AB * P
= 125660 * 1.2
2) weight of water column:
Fax,2
= AB * L * 1000E-8
= 125660 * 12000 * 1000E-8
3) weight of pipe EST 20:
Fax,3
= GB * L
= 173 * 12
4) weight of pump
Fax,4
5) weight of flanges:
number of flanges = 2 * L/LP = 2 * 12/3 = 8
Fax,5
= 8 * 275
Total axial load (Fax,tot):

(Eq.II.7. incl. note,


table II-b., page 9)

260147

77

Resulting axial stress (Sax):


Sax
= Fax,tot / A
= 260147 / 8320

31.3

N/mm2

Actual hoop stress due to internal pressure (SY):


SY
= P/2 *{(ID/TE)+ 1}
= 1.2/2 *{(400/6.5)+ 1}

37.5

N/mm2

Actual shear stress due to torsion ()

= MW / W W
= 8100000 / 1669200

4.9

N/mm2

Fig. V-1.

Conclusion
The allowable shear stress at the combination of Sax = 31.3 N/mm2 and SY = 37.5 N/mm2 is = 20 N/mm2,
which exceeds the calculated of 4.9 N/mm2 clearly. The torque generated by the pump is allowable.

78

Example II:

Question
Inner diameter 150 mm, pipe series EST 20 to be installed horizontally on pipe supports. What is the maximum
support distance?
Operating data
operating pressure
occuring shear stress
due to torsion
continuous span support
operating temperature
Pipe data
Pipe series
Inner diameter
(ID)
winding angle
effective wall thickness
linear mass of the pipe
linear mass of the pipe content

(P)

15

bar

()

15

N/mm

(T)

60

EST 20
150
( )
55
(TE)
2.4
(GB)
2.8
(G V)
17.7

mm

mm
kg/m
kg/m

bore area
structural wall area
moment of resistance to
bending

(AB)
(A)

17670
1160

mm2
mm2

(W B)

43700

mm3

axial bending modulus


linear moment of inertia

(EX)
(I Z)

12000
3403000

N/mm2
mm4

47

N/mm

2) Axial stress due to internal pressure


(Eq.III.3.)
=

24

N/mm

3) Allowable axial stress


(see fig. V-2.)

34

N/mm

4) Allowable axial stress for support


purposes = 34 - 24

10

N/mm

9840

N/mm 2

0.201

N/mm

Calculation
1) Hoop stress due to internal pressure

5) Axial bending modulus at 60C (Eq. III.10.)


= 12000 * 0.82
=
6) Linear weight of the filled pipe (Eq. III.5.)
=

79

(table II-d., page 10;


SV = 1000 kg/m3)
(table II-b., page 9)
(equation II.7. including
note, table II-b., page 9)
(table II-j., page 24)
(table II-b., page 9)

Continuous span length based on axial stress (LC1) =


=

5108 mm

Continuous span length based on allowable sag (LC2) =


=

6839 mm

Fig V-2.

Conclusion
Under the described circumstances, a maximum support distance of 5.1 m. should be applied in order to
obtain a service factor (S F) of 1.5.

80

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