Anda di halaman 1dari 58

CAKRAWALA ELECTRIC VEHICLE

Suspension Design
Cakrawala Formula Elektrik
Danny Kusuma & Rama Primadi

Buku ini merupakan kumpulan referensi mengenai desain suspensi kendaraan darat,
khususnya kendaraan balap. Dasar referensi tersebut digunakan untuk desain suspensi
kendaraan balap dalam rangka lomba Formula SAE.

CONTENTS
Contents............................................................................................................................ 1
Rules & Scoring Discussion................................................................................................ 3
Daftar Literatur.................................................................................................................. 4
Books.............................................................................................................................. 4
Other Universities Design............................................................................................... 4
Websites......................................................................................................................... 4
Introduction....................................................................................................................... 5
Aim of the work............................................................................................................... 5
Competition Objective.................................................................................................... 5
The dynamic events........................................................................................................ 5
What is Suspension?..................................................................................................... 6
Design Aspect.................................................................................................................... 8
Vehicle Dynamics............................................................................................................ 8
Modeling & Vibration Mechanics...........................................................................8
Coordinate System.................................................................................................10
Ride & Handling...................................................................................................... 11
Lateral Dynamics.................................................................................................... 13
Longitudinal Dynamics.......................................................................................... 14
Terminology.................................................................................................................. 18
The wheelbase........................................................................................................ 18
Track......................................................................................................................... 20
Ride Height............................................................................................................. 21
KingPin & Scrub Radius.........................................................................................22
Caster & Trail.......................................................................................................... 24
Camber..................................................................................................................... 26
Toe............................................................................................................................ 30
Anti Features.......................................................................................................... 31
Instant Centre & Roll Centre................................................................................33
Tie Rod Location..................................................................................................... 35
Anti-Rol Bar............................................................................................................. 36
Damper.................................................................................................................... 37
Spring....................................................................................................................... 39
Design Step...................................................................................................................... 40
Rules............................................................................................................................. 40
[1] 2015 Formula SAE Rules...................................................................................40
[2] FSAE/FS EV Design Score Sheet...........................................................................42

Suspension Types.......................................................................................................... 42
Vertical Dycnamics (Ride&Handling Pitch&Bounce)...................................................43
Lateral Dynamics Cornering Performance..................................................................43
Steady State Cornering Skidpad, Steady Turn.........................................................43
Transient Rollover Slalom, Rapid steering...............................................................43
Suspension Geometry............................................................................................... 43
Anti Roll Bar design.................................................................................................... 43
Tire Performance........................................................................................................ 43
Longitudinal Dynamics.................................................................................................. 43
Desain Suspensi Cakrawala Formula Electric...................................................................44
Penetuan DR&O............................................................................................................ 44
Data Kendaraan............................................................................................................ 44
Perhitungan Kekakuan Pegas........................................................................................44
Set Gaya Peredaman Bertingkat...................................................................................44
Penentuan Geometri Suspensi......................................................................................44
Performa Steady State Cornering..................................................................................44
Performa Transient Cornering........................................................................................ 44
Perhitungan Kekakuan Anti Rollbar...............................................................................44

REFERENCES
BOOKS
Berdasarkan [3] Gillespie, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dunamics
Berdasarkan [4] Jazar, Vehicle Dunamics: Theory and Application
Berdasarkan [5] Dixon, The Shock Absorber Handbook
Berdasarkan [6] Miliken, Race Car Vehicle Dynamics
Berdasarkan [7] Reimpell, The Automotive Chassis: Engineering Principle
Berdasarkan [8] Mahyuddin, Andi Isra. Design Calculation of Vehicle Suspension System.
JSAE Paper 2.
Berdasarkan [9] Theander, Design of a Suspension for a Formula Student Race Car
Berdasarkan [10] Subeng, Laporan Perancangan FSAE Mushika ITB: Divisi Suspensi

OTHER UNIVERSITIES DESIGN


WEBSITES
VIDEOS

INTRODUCTION
AIM

OF THE WORK

The aim of this thesis work is to design the suspension geometry for a
Formula Student race car. The design shall meet the demands caused by the
different dynamic events in the competition.

COMPETITION OBJECTIVE
The objective of the competition is for students to conceive, design, fabricate
and compete with small formula-style racing cars. The design of the car
frame and engine are restricted in order to challenge the knowledge,
creativity and the imagination of the students [1].

THE

DYNAMIC EVENTS

Acceleration
Skid-Pad
Autocross
Endurance and Fuel Economy
1.4.1 Acceleration Event
The objective of the acceleration event is to evaluate the cars acceleration in a straight
line on flat pavement. The cars will be staged 0.3m behind the starting line and when the
cars cross the starting line the time will start. The goal is located 75m ahead of the
starting line. Each team will have two drivers, who can do two runs each, a total of four
runs. This is the event were the suspension design is of least importance among
the dynamic events, but not negligible.

1.4.2 Skid-Pad Event


The objective of the skid-pad event is to measure the cornering ability of the car on a flat
surface while making a constant-radius turn. The skid-pad layout will consist of two circles
with a diameter of 15.25m separated by 18.25m. The driving path will be 3m wide. The
layout of the skid-pad and driving directions are showed in Figure 1.1.

The procedure of the event is as follows: the cars will start by entering the right circle
completing one lap. Next lap will be timed and immediately after the left circle is entered
for the third lap. The fourth lap will be timed. Then the driver has the option to make a
second run immediately after the first. Each team will have two drivers who can do two
runs each. The design of the suspension and steering geometry will influence the
performance much.

1.4.3 Autocross Event

The objective of the autocross event is to evaluate the cars manoeuvrability and handling
qualities on a tight course. The autocross course will combine the performance features of
acceleration, braking and cornering. The layout of the autocross track is made to keep the
speeds from being dangerously high, average speeds should be
between 40km/h and 48km/h. The layout is specified as follows: Straights No longer
than 60m with hairpins at both ends or no longer than 45m with wide turns on the ends.
Constant Turns 23m to 45m in diameter.
Hairpin Turns Minimum of 9m outside diameter.
Slaloms Cones in a straight line with 7.62m to 12.19m spacing.
Miscellaneous Chicanes, multiple turns, decreasing radius turns, etc. The
minimum track width will be 3.5m
Length Approximately 0.805km.
Each team will have two drivers entering the event. Each driver will drive two timed laps
and the best time for each driver will stand as the time for that heat.

1.4.4 Endurance and Fuel Economy Event


To evaluate the overall performance and to test the cars reliability an endurance event is
performed. This event is combined with a fuel economy event implying that the fuel
economy will be measured during the endurance event. A single 22km heat is made
during which the teams will not be allowed to work on their cars. A driver change must be
made during a three-minute period at the mid point of the event. The layout of the
endurance track is similar to the layout of the autocross track:
Straights No longer than 77m with hairpins at both ends or no longer than 61m
with wide turns on the ends. There will be passing zones at several locations.
Constant Turns 30m to 54m in diameter.
Hairpin Turns Minimum of 9m outside diameter.
Slaloms Cones in a straight line with 9m to 15m spacing.
Miscellaneous Chicanes, multiple turns, decreasing radius turns etc. The
minimum track width will be 4.5m.
In both the autocross event and the endurance event the suspension design and
steering
geometry is of major importance. A well working design helps the drivers
perform at
the edge of their capacity. The layout of the 2003 event endurance track can be
viewed
in Figure 1.2.

WHAT

IS

SUSPENSION ?

The suspension on your car has two main functions. Its first job is to smooth the ride of
your car. According to Mr. Newton and his famed laws of physics, all forces of motion

have both a magnitude and a direction. A bump in the road causes the wheel to move up
and down perpendicular to the road surface. The bigger the bump encountered, the
bigger the movement. The movement experienced by the wheel is called vertical
acceleration.

Without an intervening structure, all of the wheel's vertical energy is transferred to the
frame, which tries to move in the same direction. In such a situation the wheels can lose
contact with the road completely. Then, under the downward force of gravity, the wheels
can slam back into the road surface. What you need is a system that will absorb the
energy of the vertically accelerated wheel allowing the frame and body to ride
undisturbed while the wheels follow bumps in the road and stay in contact with the
asphalt.

The suspension shall help to keep the tires in constant contact with the ground
so that the tires can be used to the limit of their capacity.
Will the tires stay in satisfactory contact with the road under all conditions?
This category focuses primarily on the unsprung masses of the vehicle, particularly those
related to road holding and directional control.
To provide good ride and handling performance
vertical compliance providing chassis isolation
ensuring that the wheels follow the road profile
very little tire load fluctuation
To ensure that steering control is maintained during maneuvering
wheels to be maintained in the proper position wrt road surface
To ensure that the vehicle responds favorably to control forces produced by
the tires during
longitudinal braking
accelerating forces,
lateral cornering forces and
braking and accelerating torques
this requires the suspension geometry to be designed to resist squat, dive and roll of the
vehicle body
To provide isolation from high frequency vibration from tire excitation
requires appropriate isolation in the suspension joints
Prevent transmission of road noise to the vehicle body

DESIGN ASPECT
RULES
[1] 2015 F ORMULA SAE RULES
1. T1.2.2 Once the vehicle is approved to compete in the dynamic events, the ONLY
modifications permitted to the vehicle are those listed below. They are also
referred to in Part S of the Formula SAE Rules Static Event Regulations.
Adjustment of the suspension where no part substitution is required, (except
that springs, sway bars and shims may be changed)
Apakah suspensi akan didesain adjustable atau tidak? Mengapa?
Referensi apa yang mendukung?
2. T5.8.1 To keep the drivers legs away from moving or sharp components, all
moving suspension and steering components, and other sharp edges inside the
cockpit between the front roll hoop and a vertical plane 100 mm (4 inches)
rearward of the pedals, must be shielded with a shield made of a solid
material. Moving components include, but are not limited to springs, shock
absorbers, rocker arms, anti-roll/sway bars, steering racks and steering column CV
joints.
T5.8.2 Covers over suspension and steering components must be removable to
allow inspection of the mounting points.
T6.1.2 All suspension mounting points must be visible at Technical Inspection,
either by direct view or by removing any covers.
Bagaimana desain penutup suspensi? Data apa saja yang diperlukan
(ukuran chasis, dll)?
3. T6.1.1 The car must be equipped with a fully operational suspension system
with shock absorbers, front and rear, with usable wheel travel of at least 50.8 mm
(2 inches), 25.4 mm (1 inch) jounce and 25.4 mm (1 inch) rebound, with driver
seated. The judges reserve the right to disqualify cars which do not CCC serious
attempt at an operational suspension system or which demonstrate handling
inappropriate for an autocross circuit.
Apa itu wheel travel? Apa itu rebound & jounce? Parameter apa yang
mempengaruhi nilai tersebut?
4. T6.5.2 The steering system must have positive steering stops that prevent the
steering linkages from locking up (the inversion of a four-bar linkage at one of the
pivots). The stops may be placed on the uprights or on the rack and must
prevent the tires from contacting suspension, body, or frame members
during the track events.
Bagaimana desain stops/rack di upright?
5. T11.1.1 All threaded fasteners utilized in the drivers cell structure, and the
steering, braking, drivers harness and suspension systems must meet or exceed,
SAE Grade 5, Metric Grade 8.8 and/or AN/MS specifications.
T11.2.1 All critical bolt, nuts, and other fasteners on the steering, braking,
drivers harness, and suspension must be secured from unintentional loosening by
the use of positive locking mechanisms.
Bagian-bagian mana saja yang dibutuhkan fasterner? Bagaimana
pemasangannya? Apakah mudah untuk dibuka?

6. T11.2.3 All spherical rod ends and spherical bearings on the steering or
suspension must be in double shear or captured by having a screw/bolt head or
washer with an O.D. that is larger than spherical bearing housing I.D.

Bagian mana saja yang harus memiliki double shear joint?


7. S6.1.2 The car that illustrates the best use of engineering to meet the design
goals, a cost effective high performance autocross car, and the best
understanding of the design by the team members will win the design event.
Comment: Teams are reminded that FSAE is an engineering design competition
and that in the Design Event; teams are evaluated on their design. Components
and systems that are incorporated into the design as finished items are not
evaluated as a student designed unit, but are only assessed on the teams
selection and application of that unit. For example, teams that design and
fabricate their own shocks are evaluated on the shock design itself as
well as the shocks application within the suspension system. Teams using
commercially available shocks are evaluated only on selection and
application within the suspension system.
Bagaimana pengambilan keputusan make/buy setiap part suspensi?
Bagian mana saja yang didesain sendiri/beli? Mengapa?

[2] FSAE/FS EV D ESIGN SCORE SHEET


1. Bagaimana desain masing-masing sub-sistem berikut?
Tires, wheels, hubs, uprights, control arms, steering linkage, springs, dampers,
anti-roll bars, geometry, kinematics, vehicle dynamics. Selection and use of
materials.
2. Bagaimana pula membuatnya?
3. Bagaimana cara validasi nya? (tes) dan metode perbaikannya?
4. Integrasi apa yang dibutuhkan suspensi dengan setiap divisi lain? (desain
upright dari steering, penempatan sensor dari telemetri)
5. Apakah kemudahan perbaikan dan akses juga akan dipertimbangkan dalam
mendesain?
Ease of repair? Sub-systems accessibility, parts interchangeability, manufacturing
complexity? Have fasteners been standardized? Are special tools required to
diagnose/service vehicle?
6. Apakah ada ide baru terkait desain suspensi? Atau hanya mengikuti desain yang
biasa dipakai? Bagian mana dari suspensi yang benar-benar desain baru?
Will this car cause a rules change? Have the judges learned something new? On
rare occasions, creative or innovative design may merit special points.
7. Penting dalam penilaian desain:
Design (~25%): Assessment of design process used by team. Is this a new
design, evolution, or complete carryover? Were different design options
considered? Were appropriate pre-build analyses performed?
Build (~25%): Does the physical specimen presented reflect the early design
work? Is it reflected in design report? If not, why not? What special manufacturing
considerations were encountered?
Refinement/Validation (~25%): How thorough and honest has the team been
about testing? Was a test plan developed and executed? Were discrepancies
between predicted and tested results documented and acted upon to improve
final build?
Understanding (~25%): Is the team that presents the car at competition truly
intimate with the design? Can they quickly give detailed answers about any subsystem? Or do they have to go ask someone else?
8. Apakah mengerti tentang Vehicle dynamic fundamental? Apa saja yang
berhubungan dengan suspensi? Harus seperti apa?
9. Bagaimana pemilihan ban dan ukurannya?
10. Apakah mengerti tentang ini: understanding of failure modes and critical
limp-home requirements should be addressed as well. This is known as
robustness.
11. Bagaimana handling dari desain suspensi kita? (respons dan traksi)
12. Bagaimana cara menentukan dan menganalisis : wheel base, weight distribution,
c.g. height, front and rear track widths, roll axis location (static and dynamic),
camber gain curves, link lengths, Ackerman, anti-squat/dive, king pin inclination
scrub radius, bump steer, and other geometry/kinematics?
13. Bagaimana menentukan beban puncak untuk desain?
14. Bagaimana pemilihan material? Perlukah heat treatment/coating?
15. Apakah attachment sudah dianalisis?
16. Bagaimana desain damper? Bagaimana mekanisme katupnya?
17. Bagaimana menetukan wheel rate dan roll resistance?
18. Apa saja yang dilakukan untuk mengurangi berat unsprung mass?
19. Bagaimana desain suspensi agar bisa di-adjust?
20. Bagaimana sistem friksi/lubrikasi?
21. Bagaimana memvalidasi karakteristik handling sehingga sesuai dengan
desain?

VEHICLE DYNAMICS
MODELING & VIBRATION MECHANICS

COORDINATE SYSTEM 1

1 Gillespie, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics

RIDE & HANDLING 2

The ride of a vehicle is the heaving, pitching and rolling motion in forced vibration caused
by road roughness. The purpose of the suspension in this context is to minimise the
discomfort of the passengers, which obviously involves a minimisation of some measure
of the vehicle body motion, by choice of the springs and dampers, Figure 3.3.1. The
optimum values will of course be dependent upon the quality of roads over which a
vehicle is expected to operate; the best suspension parameters for high-speed cruising
on good-quality roads may be quite different from the best over cobblestones. Another
important factor to bear in mind is that, although the ride motions can be measured
accurately, ride quality is really a subjective opinion, and as such depends very much
upon the individual. Ultimately, therefore, there is significant variation of opinion on
optimum suspension design, for both stiffness and damping, but especially of the latter.
Handling is the quality of a vehicle enabling it to be controlled by the driver in a safe and
predictable manner, so that it is easy to maintain a desired course, and easy to control
the vehicle at high longitudinal and lateral accelerations, should this be needed.
Dampers undoubtedly play an important role in this, partly because badly controlled
ride motions cause severe problems during cornering or braking, but also because the
variations of acceleration cause pitch and roll angles to develop, and this must occur in a
controlled way.
The quality of ride and handling of a vehicle is certainly influenced by many factors,
including the springs and dampers. In the case of ride, too soft a spring will give a very
low natural frequency which leads to passenger travel sickness. Too stiff a spring with a
high frequency gives too high a transmissibility of higher frequencies. For handling, a soft
spring allows excessive pitch and roll angles in acceleration, whilst a very stiff spring
does not permit the wheel to move adequately relative to the body and conform to the
road shape, so the tyre grip becomes worse. Considering some sort of quality rating QR
for ride and QH for handling, plotting these against spring stiffness, specific stiffness, or
natural frequency, gives Figure
The optimum stiffness for ride is less than that for optimum handling. Hence there is
evidently a compromise to be made; the wellknown ridehandling compromise. Practical
values of stiffness will lie between KR1, the best for ride, and KH1, the best for handling,
depending upon the type of vehicle. Plotting QR against QH gives a polar plot along the
lines of Figure 3.11.2. Here it is clear that around the best ride, with stiffness KR1, an
increase of stiffness will give a substantial (first-order) increase of handling with little loss
of ride quality (second-order). Near to optimum handling, with stiffness KH1, a reduction of
stiffness gives substantial improvement of ride with little deterioration of handling.

2 Dixon, The Shock Absorber Handbook

Hence, for passenger vehicles the practical range of choice lies within a range somewhat
less than KR1 to KH1.
Realistic values of natural frequencies
range from around 1 Hz for large
passenger cars (kSS 40 N m_1/kg) to
around 1.5 Hz for small passenger cars
(90 Nm_1/kg), and even more for sports
cars, 2 Hz or even 2.5 Hz (160 to 250
Nm_1/kg). Racing cars may have even
higher values, es pecially where they
have ground-effect aerodynamic
downforce; such cars are very critical on
ride height and need a very stiff
suspension to control this, with natural
heave frequencies of 5 to 6 Hz, possibly
1600 Nm_1/ kg ride stiffness, although at such a high ride stiffness the tyre stiffness is
very important factor, and must certainly be included in frequency calculations. In such
cases, at high speed the aerodynamic stiffness must be taken into account. The front
wing in particular is near to the ground and small changes of ride height have a large
effect on the air flow. The result may be a large negative stiffness contribution from the
aerodynamics.

Required values of the damping ratio vary in a somewhat similar way to stiffness.
Optimum values depend very much upon particular conditions, and especially on
personal preferences, but the ride of a passenger car will generally be best at a damping
ratio around 0.2, and the best handling may require an average damping ratio around
0.8. Hence values chosen in practice are
likely to be in the range 0.250.75, Figure
3.11.3. For example, in a study of
variable damping for a small passenger
car, using a simple heave model,
Sugasawa et al. (1985) found
theoretically a damping ratio of 0.17 to
be the ride optimum (minimum spectral
energy of body heave motion) and a
ratio of 0.45 the optimum for road
holding (minimum tyre force variation).
In more detail, the value found for
optimum ride in ordinary driving was
0.16, a value of 0.43 to minimise bouncy
feel, a value of 0.44 for road holding on rough roads, and a value of 0.71 for roll and
pitch minimisation with control inputs. The analytical model for this did not include tyre
stiffness.

LATERAL DYNAMICS 3
Low Speed Turning Ackerman
High Speed Cornering

3 Gillespie, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics

LONGITUDINAL DYNAMICS 4

4 Gillespie, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics

SUSPENSION TYPES

TERMINOLOGY
WHEELBASE 5
l, is the distance between the centre of the front axle and the centre of the rear axle. The
wheelbase has a big influence on the axle load distribution. A long wheelbase will give
less load transfers between the front and rear axles than a shorter wheelbase during
acceleration and braking according to Equation 2.1 and Figure 2.1.

THE

A longer wheelbase will therefore be able to be fitted with softer springs and will increase
the level of comfort for the driver. On the other hand a shorter wheelbase have the
advantages of smaller turning radius for the same steering input, see section 2.8 [3]. A
car with too short wheelbase may act nervously on corner exits and in straight line
driving. Anti features can be built into a suspension and these will also affect the
longitudinal load transfer, see section 2.7.
3.2 Wheelbase6
The wheelbase l, measured from the centre of the front to the centre of the rear axle (Fig.
6.1), is an important variable in the vehicles ride and handling properties. A long
wheelbase relative to the overall length of the vehicle makes it possible to accommodate
the passengers easily between the axles and reduces the influence of the load on the
axle load distribution (see Section 5.3.6). The short body overhangs to the front and rear
reduce the tendency to pitch oscillations and make it possible to fit soft springing,
normally associated with a high level of ride comfort. A short wheelbase, on the other
hand, makes cornering easier, i.e. gives a smaller swept turning circle for the same
steering input (see
Section 3.7.2). Vehicle designers seek to achieve a long wheelbase on both front-wheel
drive
passenger cars and on conventional designs. However, this depends on the body shape.
(See Section 1.1 in Ref. [8] and Ref. [20]). A hatchback estate saloon (Figs 1.68 and 1.72)

5 Thesis Adam Theander


6 Buku Reimpel hal 151

can be of a more compact design, giving a longer wheelbase relative to the vehicle
length than notchback saloons and the estate cars
developed from them. The ratio wheel base

TRACK
2.2 Track Width
The track width7 is of major importance when designing a vehicle. It has influence on the
vehicle cornering behaviour and tendency to roll. The larger the track width is the smaller
the lateral load transfer is when cornering and vice versa according to Equation 2.2 that
shows the load transfer for a rear axle [3].

A larger track width has the disadvantage that more lateral movement of the vehicle is
needed to avoid obstacles. According to the regulations the smallest section of the SkipPad may not be smaller than 3m and the Autocross and Endurance tracks no smaller
than 3.5m [1]. The amount of lateral load transfer wanted depends on tires fitted on the
car, see section 2.9. If the car has anti-roll bars these will also affect the load transfer.

It should be as large as possible but cannot exceed a certain value relative to the
vehicle width. On the front axle the compressing, fully turned wheel may not come
into contact with the wheel house (arch) (Fig.
2.8) and on the driven axle (regardless of whether front, rear or both) there has to be
enough space for snow chains to be fitted. When the wheels compress or rebound,
they must not come into contact with any part of the chassis or the bodywork. 8

The advantages of a relatively long wheelbase are increased


straight line stability, reduced longitudinal load transfer and
pitching moments, somewhat easier reduction of the polar
moment of inertia and more room to put things in.
The advantages of a relatively short wheelbase are reduced
overall weight and increased maneuverability.
The advantages of wide track widths are reduced lateral
load transfer for a given amount of centrifugal acceleration and room for longer suspension links. The major disadvan_
tage is increased frontal area. When we get into
aerodynamics,we will see that, at least on open wheeled cars
the importance of frontal area is overrated.

7 Thesis Adam Theander


8 Reimpell, The Automotive Chassis, 152

Very basically, the racing car with a long wheelbase and


relatively narrow track widths will be very stable in a
straight line at the expense of cornering power and
maneuverability. The vehicle with a shorter wheelbase and
wide tracks will be less stable, more maneuverable and will
develop more cornering power.
I
believe that the front track should be considerably wider
than the rear track.
The wider the front track, the more resistance
there is going to be to diagonal load transfer and the lesser
will be the tendency for the car to "trip over itself' on corner
entry and/or to push into the wall from the effect of the drive
on the inside rear wheel when the power is applied.

RIDE HEIGHT

Depending on the exact road or racing environment, generally speaking


the suspension should be as low as possible to the floor with out the the
car bottoming out ( wheel, chassis or ground making contact with each
other).
There are good reasons for reducing the ride height9:

Lower center of gravity-reducing weight transfer levels and aiding


handling characteristics on the limit.

Increased aerodynamic downforce, the front should always be


slightly lower then the rear to gain a rake effect (reducing lift) to aid
downforce.

Reducing drag and increasing fuel economy.

Adjustments will require fitting of adjustable coilovers, dampers, or shorter


springs. Care must be taken in lowering the car as it has a diverse effect
on other suspension geometry and this could end up hindering the
performance potential.

9 www.rapid-racer/suspension.php

KINGPIN & SCRUB RADIUS

The Kingpin10 axis is determined by the upper ball joints, UBJ, and lower ball joints, LBJ,
on the outer end of the A-arms. This axis is not necessary centred on the tire contact
patch. In front view the angle is called Kingpin inclination and the distance from the
centre of the tire print to the axle centre is called Scrub or Scrub radius. The distance
from the kingpin axis to the wheel centre plane measured horizontally at axle height is
called Spindle length. Figure 2.2 shows the kingpin geometry. There are numerous of
effects due to the values of these factors, the effects considered to in this work are found
in [2], [3]:

If the spindle length is positive the car will be raised up as the wheels are turned
and this results in a increase of the steering moment at the steering wheel. The
larger the kingpin inclination angle is the more the car will be raised regardless of
which way the front wheels are turned. If there is no caster present this effect is
symmetrical from side to side. The raise of the car has a self-aligning effect of the
steering at low speeds.
Kingpin inclination affects the Steer camber. When a wheel is steered it will lean
out at the top, towards positive camber if the kingpin inclination angle is positive.
The amount of this is small but not to neglect if the track includes tight turns.
If the driving or braking force is different on the left and right side this will
introduce a steering torque proportional to the scrub radius, which will be felt by
the driver at the steering wheel.

Kingpin inclination11 adalah sudut yang dibentuk garis sumbu vertikal dengan sumbu ball
joint atas dan bawah bila dilihat dari tampak depan kendaraan. Untuk meminimalisasi
scrub radius, kita harus mengatur kingpin inclination antara 0-10 derajat. Besar sudut
kingpin sebesar 40.
Scrub radus12 adalah jarak pada tampak depan antara kingpin axis dan garis tengah ban
ketika keduanya secara teoritik bersentuhan dengan tanah. Scrub radius harus diatur
antara 0 sampai 10 mm agar dapat meminimalisasi yawing moment yang ditimbulkan
10 Thesis Adam Theander
11 Laporan Steering Musika

karena adanya perbendaan resistansi antara ban kanan dan ban kiri terhadap
permukaan jalan. Gambar geometri ban dapat dilihat pada gambar dibawah. Besar scrub
radius yang didapat sebesar 1 mm.
Pada geometri kingpin diatas, terlihat adanya kingpin axis. Kingpin axis atau steering
axis merupakan garis bujur yang akan memutar upright dan roda. Momen yang terjadi
pada kingpin axis dapat dicari dengan rumus dibawah ini:

= cos + sin(+)
Keterangan :
MSA = momen Steering axis [Nm]
Fx = traksi roda = {besar gaya normal roda x (koefisien gesek)} [N]
d = scrub radius [m]
v = sudut caster [derajat]
= kingpin inclination [derajat]
Td = torsi pada axle [Nm]
= kemiringan tie rod terhadap sumbu horizontal [derajat]
The initial decision of zero degree kingpin inclination13 had to be reconsidered since the
56 mm of scrub radius resulted is large and will give an excessive feedback to the driver.
Therefore 4 degree kingpin inclination is to be build in the front upright design that will
result in an amount of scrub radius of 30mm calculated for last year wheel offset. Since
this amount is still grater than 10% of the thread width (Heisler 1989), new wheels with
less offset have been found therefore the resulting scrub radius is about 20 mm that is
the amount we aimed for.

12 Laporan Steering Musika


13 Desertasi Cristina Elena

CASTER & TRAIL


In the side view the kingpin inclination is called Caster angle.14 If the kingpin axis doesnt
pass through the centre of the wheel then there is a side view Kingpin offset present. The
distance from the kingpin axis to the centre of the tire print on the ground is called Trail
or Caster offset. See Figure 2.2 for the side view geometry. The caster angle and trail is of
importance when designing the suspension geometry. The effects considered in this work
are [2], [3]:

The larger the trail is the higher steering torque is needed.


Caster angle will cause the wheel to rise and fall with steer. This effect is
opposite from side to side and causes roll and weight transfer. Leading to an
oversteering effect.
Caster angle has a positive effect on steer-camber. With positive caster angle
the outside wheel will camber in a negative direction and the inner wheel in a
positive direction, causing both wheels to lean into the turn.
The size of the mechanical trail due to caster may not be too large compared to
the Pneumatic trail from the tire. The pneumatic trail will approach zero as the
tires reaches the slip limit. This will result in lowering the self-centring torque that
is present due to the lever arm between the tires rotation point at the ground and
the point of attack for the lateral force. This will be a signal to the driver that the
tire is near breakaway. This breakaway signal may be lost if the mechanical trail
is large compared to the pneumatic trail.

Caster15 adalah sudut yang dibentuk ketika Steering axis dimiringkan ke depan atau
belakang ketika dilihat dari samping. Jika Steering axis dimiringkan ke belakang (bagian
atas diposisikan di belakang bagian bawah), maka disebut caster positif, jika dimiringkan
ke depan, maka disebut caster negatif.
Caster trail atau mechanical trail digunakan untuk meningkatkan stabilitas Steering.
Mechanical trail juga mengakibatkan momen Steering. Momen ini dirasakan oleh
pengemudi melalui sistem kemudi.
Caster dapat melawan perubahan camber yang disebabkan oleh kingpin inclination.
Besaran sudut dan trail menurut literatur referensi adalah :
Caster angle : approximately 4 deg.
Caster trail : approximately 20 mm.
Besar sudut dan trail yang dipakai pada mobil Mushika-02 adalah :
Caster angle : 3 deg.
Caster trail : 13.3 mm.
The amount of castor angle16 was set to 3.5 degree and is also build in the front uprights.
However, castor angle can be adjusted by adjustment of the upper wishbone. This
requires that one arm of the wishbone to be shortened while lengthening the other arm
by screwing in or out the adjustable spherical rod ends. Another possible adjustment is to

14 Thesis Adam Theander


15 Laporan Steering Musika
16 Desertasi Cristina Elena

assemble the upright in an inclined position on the hub axle but this is not a handy
method of adjustment.

The Caster angle17 is the ability of the front suspension


system to self center under cornering loads. Too much
caster and the front of the car will understeer more
positive caster), too little and you will get oversteer
handling characteristics (negative caster).
Improper adjustment will result in steering inputs
required both into and out of a corners, resulting in a car
which is difficult to keep on a straight line. A large
positive camber setting (wheel facing forward of axis) is
good for high speed stability but can make it more
difficult for turning the steering, excessive amounts will
increase tyre/tire wear.

Caster angle18 introduces a new element. The caster


angle refers to the longitudinal inclination of the steering axis. It creates a self-centering
force that is somewhat different from the one created by the lateral steering axis
inclination. A positive caster is established when the steering axis meets the ground
ahead of the center point of the contact patch (a point directly under the axle). Most
passenger cars have a positive caster on the order of 0 to 5 degrees. A positive caster
causes the wheel to trail behind the steering axis. When the vehicle is steered, the caster
angle develops an opposing force that tends to steer the vehicle out of the turn
Another effect of caster angle is that it causes the camber angle to change when the
wheels are steered. When the vehicle is steered, the inside wheel progresses into a
positive camber and the outside wheel progresses into a negative camber. Considered
independently of steering axis inclination, the effect of caster in a turn is to drop the side
of the vehicle on the outside of the turn and to raise it on the inside of the turn.

17 www.rapid-racer/suspension.php
18 www.rqriley.com

CAMBER
Camber angle19 is the angle between a tilted wheel plane and a thought vertical plane.
Positive camber is defined as when the wheel is tilted outwards at the top relative to the
car. The camber angle has influences on the tires ability to generate lateral forces. A
cambered rolling pneumatic wheel produces a lateral force in the direction of the tilt. This
force is referred to as Camber thrust when it occurs at zero slip angles. Camber also
affects the aligning torque due to distortion of the tire print. The effect of this is rather
small and tends to be cancelled with increasing slip angle. Cambering the wheel also
leads to a raise in the lateral force produced by the wheel when cornering. This is true in
the linear range of the tire. If the linear range is exceeded the additive effects of the
camber inclination decreases, this effect is called Roll-off. Therefore the difference in
lateral force when comparing a cambered wheel and a non-cambered wheel is small,
around 5-10% at maximum slip angle. The difference is much larger at zero degrees slip
angle due to the camber thrust. The effects of cambering the tyre are bigger for a bias
ply tyre than a radial ply tyre. For radial tyre the camber forces tends to fall of at camber
angles above 5 while the maximum force due to camber for a bias ply racing tyre occurs
at smaller angles.

Negative Camber20: increases the cornering grip of the tyre/ tire during
cornering, helping to maximise grip and providing better traction. Too much Negative
Camber will increase the inside tyres/tires wear and could result in handling imbalances.
Neutral Camber: best suited for maximum acceleration and braking, this set up
makes sure a flat contact patch is retained on flat road surfaces. The inside wheels may
lift on the inner contact edge of the tyre/ tire duration extreme cornering.

19 Thesis Adam Theander


20 www.rapid-racer/suspension.php

Positive Camber: used more for off road applications, especially with agricultural
vehicles as this setting helps the wheels to turn with lighter steering effort required.The
outside wheel under extreme cornering loads will benefit, but camber levels are normally
linked ( might be a consideration for oval tracks).

Camber21 is the lateral


inclination of the wheel. If
the wheel leans out at the
top, away from the vehicle,
it has a positive camber
angle. With a negative
camber angle, the wheel
leans inward at the top.
Camber-changes
occur
when the body leans
during a turn and when the
wheels move vertically
through
jounce
and
rebound. A wheel set at a
camber angle produces "camber thrust," which is a lateral force generated in the
direction of the lean. The magnitude of camber thrust is substantially less than the forces
generated by slip angle (direction in which the tire is rolling). Bias ply tires produce
significantly greater camber thrust than do radial tires.
` As a general rule, the vehicle will handle well if the camber angle meets certain criteria.
At the fully laden ride height, the front wheels should assume a zero or slightly positive
camber angle. During jounce, as the wheel moves upward through its arc, camber should
progress to a negative angle in relation to the vehicle. The purpose of the negative
camber angle is to maximize cornering forces by keeping the outside tire upright or at a
slightly negative camber angle as the body leans to the outside of the turn. The second
purpose of negative camber is to minimize lateral movement, or tire scrubbing, at the
contact patch.
When wheels move through the arc prescribed by the suspension linkages, they may
be dragged laterally inboard and outboard as they move up and down. Lateral movement
causes a scrubbing action at the contact patch, which reduces adhesion and shortens tire
life. Severe lateral scrubbing can also cause a condition known as "bump-steer." A
suspension system with a large scrubbing action will cause the vehicle to veer to one
side when adhesion or vertical wheel movement is not equal at both side-by-side wheels.
21 www.rqriley.com

Ideally, the camber angle will change during jounce enough to compensate for the
suspension-induced lateral movement at the hub. Camber change should also
compensate for body roll to keep the outside wheel from lean away from the turn. Tire
scrubbing (changes in the
tread) should be minimized by
good suspension design, and
camber changes should be
minimal as well.
Consideration of camber angle
has traditionally emphasized
the front wheels. With the
proliferation of independent
rear suspension systems, the
effects of camber angle have
become just as important at
the rear of the vehicle. Rear
wheel camber changes can
augment cornering forces, and
they can influence the balance between oversteer and understeer.

TOE
Toe22 adjustment can be used to overcome handling difficulties in the car. Rear toe-out
can be used to improve the turn-in. As the car turns in the load transfer adds more load
to the outside wheel and the effect is in an oversteer direction. The amount of static toe
in the front will depend on factors such as Ackermann steering geometry, ride and roll
steer, compliance steer and camber. Minimum static toe is desirable to reduce rolling
resistance and unnecessary tyre heating and tyre wear caused by the tires working
against each other.
Toe In or Toe out23 is another important suspension setting, it affects the handling of the
car in terms of tyre/ tire wear, straight line and cornering characteristics.
In terms of the best braking and acceleration capacity for the tyres/ tires, it is best to
have neutral toe settings.

Too much toe in causes the outsides of the tyres/ tires to wear out.

Too much toe out causes the insides of the tyres/ tires to wear out.

22 Thesis Adam Theander


23 www.rapid-racer/suspension.php

ANTI FEATURES

The anti effect24 in a suspension describes the longitudinal to vertical force coupling
between the sprung and unsprung masses. It results from the angle of the side view
swing arm, svsa. Anti features do not change the steady-state load transfer at the tire
patch; it is only present during acceleration or braking. The longitudinal weight transfer
during steady acceleration or breaking is a function of wheelbase, CG height and
acceleration or breaking forces as described in Figure 2.4.
The anti features changes the amount of load going through the springs and the pitch
angle of the car. Anti features are measured in percent. A front axle with 100% anti dive
will not deflect during braking, no load will go through the springs, and a front axle with
0% anti dive will deflect according to the stiffness of the springs fitted; all load is going
through the springs. It is possible to have negative anti effects. This will result in a gain of
deflection. Equation 2.4 gives the percent of anti-dive in the front of a car with outboard
brakes.
Anti Dive = (% front braking) * ( tan f) * (1/h)
By substituting % front braking with % rear braking and tan fF tan with fR in Equation 2.4
the amount of anti lift can be calculated. The way that brake and drive torque is reacted
by the suspension alters the way to calculate the amount of anti present. If the control
arms react torque, either from the brakes or from drive torque, the antis are calculated
by the IC location relative to the ground contact point. If the suspension doesnt react
drive or brake torque, but only the forward or rearward force, then the antis are
calculated by the IC location relative to the wheel centre. For a rear-wheel driven car
there are 3 different types of anti features:
Anti dive, which reduces the bump deflection during forward braking.
Anti lift, which reduces the droop travel in forward braking.
Anti squat, which reduces the bump travel during forward acceleration.
Figure 2.5 shows the configuration for calculating the anti features for a car with
outboard front brakes and inboard rear brakes.
24 Thesis Adam Theander

INSTANT CENTRE & ROLL CENTRE


Instant centre25 is the momentary centre which the suspension linkage pivot around. As
the suspension moves the instant centre moves due to the changes in the suspension
geometry. Instant centres can be constructed in both the front view and the side view. If
the instant centre is viewed in front view a line can be drawn from the instant centre to
the centre of the tires contact patch. If done for both sides of the car the point of
intersection between the lines is the Roll centre of the sprung mass of the car. The
position of the roll centre is determined by the location of the instant centres. High
instant centres will lead to a high roll centre and vice versa. The roll centre establishes
the force coupling point between the sprung and the unsprung masses of the car. When
the car corners the centrifugal force acting on the centre of gravity can be translated to
the roll centre and down to the tires where the reactive lateral forces are built up. The
higher the roll centre is the smaller the rolling moment around the roll centre is. This
rolling moment must be restricted by the springs. Another factor is the horizontal-vertical
coupling effect. If the roll centre is located above the ground the lateral force generated
by the tire generates a moment about the instant centre, which pushes the wheel down
and lifts the sprung mass. This effect is called Jacking. If the roll centre is below the
ground level the force will push the sprung mass down. The lateral force will, regarding
the position of the roll centre, imply a vertical deflection. If the roll centre passes through
the ground level when the car is rolling there will be a change in the movement direction
of the sprung mass.

The camber change rate is a function only of the front view swing arm length, fvsa
length. Front view swing arm length is the length of the line from the wheel centre to the
instant centre when viewed from front. The amount of camber change achieved per mm
of ride travel would be as described in Equation 2.3 and Figure 2.3.
degrees/mm = arctan ( 1/ fvsa legth)
The camber change is not constant throughout the whole ride travel since the instant
centre also moves with wheel travel.

25 Thesis Adam Theander

TIE ROD LOCATION


The location of the tie rods26 is of major importance. The location shall be such that Bump
steer effects are kept at a minimum. Bump steer is the change in toe angle due to wheel
travel. A car with much bump steer will have a tendency to change its movement
direction when the front wheels runs over an obstacle. The affects of this can be
hazardous when running on an uneven track. The simplest way to minimize bump steer
is to locate the tie rod in the same plane as either the upper or lower A-arms. Another
factor to keep in mind is the camber compliance under lateral force. If the tie rods are
located either above and behind or below and in front of the wheel centre the effect on
the steering will be in understeer direction. If the A-arms are stiff enough the effects will
be small and thereby minimize the risk of oversteering effects due to compliance in the
A- arms. The length of the lever arm from the outer tie rod end to the upper ball joint
determine together with the steering rack ratio the total ratio from the steering wheels
angle to the wheels steering angle.

26 Thesis Adam Theander

ANTI-ROL BAR
Anti-Roll /Sway Bars27 as discussed in the Suspension Upgrades page, can
provide adjustable settings in the suspension set up. Especially useful in dialing out
oversteer, or understeer handling characteristics and getting a better balanced car. They
are the same effect as changing the springs, but their effects are only used in lateral
cornering forces.
The reason this is so useful, is that you can make adjustment to front and rear
independently with out affecting other suspension settings. Stiffer settings will reduce
body roll, while softer settings will increase body roll. The relationship between the front
and rear settings ( roll coupling), will also have a direct affect on the handling of the car.
Like most suspension adjustments, it is best to take small incremental adjustments
rather then going to one extreme to the other.
It is critical that the right Anti-Roll/Sway Bar is also selected to complement the other
suspension components. I would suggest seeking profession advice on the overall
suspension set as a whole and not just individual upgrades, when considering suspension
adjustments.
It is generally accepted that it is better to reduce the settings, rather then increase them
to get a better balanced car. Softer settings will make weight transfer more gradual, with
less abrupt loading, bending into corners rather then darting into them. Great care needs
to be taken with too soft a setting as well, if the car has a low center of gravity, a soft
setting could result in the car bottoming out. Also camber settings ranges could be
affected with a soft setting, where the tyre/ tire exceeds the optimum set up.
Having too stiff a setting could result in poor handling in tight corners, with the inside
wheel lifting off the ground. Also if either of the two wheels linked on the axle are on
different road surfaces (one wheel on track, other on the side of the track), having a stiff
set up will result in imbalances being transmitted through the Anti-Roll/ Sway Bar to the
other driven wheel.

Understeer: reduce front or increase rear anti-roll/ sway bar settings.

Oversteer: increase front or reduce rear anti-roll/ sway bar settings

27 www.rapid-racer/suspension.php

DAMPER
Dampers28 work in conjunction with springs to form the basis for car suspension, they are
sometimes incorrectly referred to as shock absorbers. If a car was only fitted with spring
and not dampers, then any movement in the cars suspension in the vertical plane, would
effectively keep bouncing up and down until the kinetic energy is displaced. This would
make the car very difficult to drive from a performance point of view, as the geometry
would be constantly changing.
Dampers effective help to dissipate any vertical movement in the suspension and keep
the springs movements controlled, also they help the wheel keep full motion under
different loads, while keeping the wheel in contact with the ground.

1-Way adjustable
Suspension: rebound
adjustable only.

2-Way
adjustable Suspension: bump
and rebound adjustable.

4-Way
adjustable Suspension: high
and low speed bump
setting , high and low
speed rebound settings (high
speed for bumps, low speed for
corners and braking).

It is possible to adjust the dampers to give different hydraulic resistance to fine tune the
handling of the suspension for given conditions, the movement is broken down into bump
(compression) and rebound (extension) motions. Dampers don't control load levels, but
affect the speed of how fast the suspensions reacts to load changes and how fast the
tyre/ tires contact patch receives these loads.

Stiffer front damping (bump and rebound), increases grip at the rear of the car,
increasing understeer characteristics.

Stiffer rear damping (bump and rebound), increases grip at the front of the car,
increasing oversteer characteristics.

BumpDuring bump, the dampers and springs absorb the upward movement from cornering or
road irregularities (the springs store some of it), the dampers then goes into rebound. If
there isn't enough damping then the cycle begins again until the car returns to the
original ride height, with a bouncing motion to the car. Another trait of under damping is
that loads go into tyre/ tire and suspension relatively slowly, this combined with the
bouncing effect means a constant varying download force. Acceleration, braking or
cornering in this state with also vary due to the various download rates, so it is important
to have enough bump stiffness to be able to deal with uneven surfaces.
If there is too much damping, then it is effectively like running no suspension and any
upward motion will be transmitted directly to the chassis. Over damping will result in a
increase in the loads acting on the suspension and the tyres/tires. The handling will feel
28 www.rapid-racer/suspension.php

very harsh and hard, this will effect street driving in terms of comfort levels, so might not
be desired for a daily drive.
This is undesirable in both under and over damping settings as it will reduce the handling
of the car and will affect acceleration, braking and cornering loads.

ReboundDuring rebound (following the bump compression phase) the dampers extend back to
their original positions, using up the stored energy from the springs. The rebound
stiffness needs to be set at a higher value then the bump setting as the stored energy is
being released. If there is not effect damping on the rebound, the wheel will quickly
return through the static level and start to bump again, with the bouncing effect
unsettling the suspension with little control.
If there is too much rebound stiffness, then the wheel could hold longer in the wheel
arch then needed, effectively losing contact with the road as the force to push the wheel
back down is slower to respond to the changing surface level. This state is again far from
ideal and it is best to make sure a good level is set for optimal tyre/tire contact with the
road.

Damping Effect On Cornering:


Bump
Front Bump Increase= Understeer.
Front Bump Decrease= Oversteer.
Rear Bump Increase= Oversteer.
Rear Bump Decrease= Understeer.
Rebound
Front Rebound Increase= Understeer.
Front Rebound Decrease= Oversteer.
Rear Rebound Increase= Oversteer.
Rear Rebound Decrease= Understeer.

SPRING
Spring Rate:
It is a ratio indicating the resistance of a spring during bump or rebound (compression or
expansion).Also known as suspension rate, it is critical for setting the correct ride height
and is proportionate to the movement of the length of component travel in its stoke
phases. As we know the whole job of suspension is to keep the wheels and tyres in
contact with the ground at all times, for total performance.
By having the ability to change the spring rate, heavier vehicles can have a higher
setting to stop the suspension bottoming out under extreme loads, or if the car has big
downforce generation abilities. Softer spring rates could be an advantage in rougher
terrains or raised kerbs at apexes. If have seen a car jump of a kerb at speed, than lower
spring rates are needed. Unless of course you enjoy bouncing down the track, or even off
the track in worse case examples.
Sometimes people complain when driving sports or track focused cars with competitive
suspension on normal roads, this is because of higher spring rates.
Most springs will have ratings on after market upgrades and unless you have radically
reduced weight of the car or revised the aerodynamic package, it is best to keep to the
manufactures' recommendations. Spring rates can be measure on a machine or
alternative the following formula may help:

where d is the wire diameter, G is the spring's Shear Modulus (for example
about 12,000,000 lbf/in2 or 80 GPa for steel), and N is the number of wraps
and D is the diameter of the coil.

Wheel Rate:
Similar to spring rate but measured at the wheel instead of at the suspension linkage of
the spring. Also it is important to know that the wheel rate would always normally be less
than the spring rate, as the wheel will travel a larger distance through compression or
expanding than the spring.
Wheel Rate is the Motion Ratio squared times the Spring Rate:
Wheel Rate = Spring Rate * (Motion Ratio ^ 2) * Spring Angle Correction

SUSPENSION GEOMETRY
TUNE TO WIN CARROL SMITH

The geometry of any wheel suspension system determines the linear and angular
paths that wheel and tire will follow when it is displaced from its static position.
The shape of these wheel path will depend on the realative lengths and
inclinations of suspensions links
We want to control change of wheel camber angle and change of track dimension
with wheel and sprung mass movement
In order to achieve the maximim footprint area and an even pressure pattern so
that we can realize maximum tire tractive effort under braking & accelerating
We wish the wheel to remain upright when the suspension is subjected to vertical
movemnet of the sprung mass caused by longitudinal load transfer
We want both the inboard and outboard wheels to remain vertical to the track
survace as the sprung mass rolls due to centrifugal acceleration
We also do not want the track dimension at the contact path to cange under any
of those condition as that would cause the tire to be scrubed sideways accros the
race track
It would be nice if the roll centers at each end of the car were to remain a contant
distane away from their respective centre of mass so that we can retain our linear
rate of roll generation and lateral load

PARALEL & EQUAL LENGTH


no camber change with vertical movement. There is, however, considerable
change in track width-which is not good. When the chasis rolls, the wheels and
tires change camber by the exact amount of chassis roll-with the outside wheel
cambering in the positive direction. This is not good under any condition and, the
wider the tire involved, the less good it is.
We can reduce the amount of track change for a given amount of vertical motion
by the simple expedient of
lengthening the suspension links, as in Figure (25). With this change, a given
amount of vertical wheel or chassis movement results in less angular
displacement of the wheel and therefore in less change in the track dimension
PARALEL & UNEQUAL LENGTH
Now, in vertical travel, the upper link has a shorter radius than the lower which
results in the wheel assuming a negative camber angle in both bump
and either negative or positive camber droop. If the wheels are allowed to
travel very much, the camber curves will become very steep indeed.
At any rate, the roll center with unequal but parallel links stays pretty constant
in relationship to the center of mass. Therefore the roll moment remains
more or less constant, which is a good thing.
UNEQUAL AND NON PARALLEL LINKS
By inclining the link pivot axes with respect to each other we can place the roll
centers wherever we please and we and further reduce the positive
camber of the laden wheel in roll.
What has happened is that the inclination of the upper link is too steep, resulting
in a very short instantaneous swing arm with the attendant very steep camber
curves. By raising the inboard points of both the upper and the lower links we

would achieve far better camber curves while maintaining the roll center
in the same static location.

BASIC TRUTHS
(1) While it is possible to control wheel camber either during vertical movement or
during chassis roll, it is not possible to achieve very good camber control
under the combined condition
(2) The longer we make the suspension links, the less angular and linear
wheel displacement will result from a given amount of chassis or wheel
movement.
(3) In vertical movement, the roll center moves with the center of gravity, tending
to keep the roIl moment constant.
(4) Increasing the effective swing arm length decreases the amount of
camber change due to vertical wheel movement, decreases the amount of
vertical roll center movement relative to the e.g. and increases the amount of
lateral roll center movement
(5) Except in the case of equal length and paraIlellinks long effective swing arms
don't stay long when the wheel moves into the bump position or, for the laden
wheel, when the chassis rolls.
(6) Increasing the inclination of the upper link (or shortening its relative length)
results in more negative camber in bump, less positive camber on the laden wheel
in roIl and a decrease in the amount of wheel or chassis movement before we lose
camber control.
COMPROMISE
(1) The present generation of racing tires is relatively insensitive, within
reasonable limits, to camber change.
(2) Load transfer characteristics are more important to tire performance
and vehicle balance than camber curves
(3) Different design philosophies tend to even out in terms of lap time-the car
whose geometry tends to limit its abosolute cornering power may well put the
power downbetter-what you gain on the straights you lose in the corners
and soon

GUIDELINES

The front camber curve should keep the laden wheel more upright in roIl
than the rear.
(2) The front roll center will always be lower than the rear. If it is too much lower,
we will have a car that does not enter corners well and which exits corner on three
wheels. The big trick here is to keep the front and rear roll center
movements approximately equal to each other-and in the same direction
(3) We can control wheel camber within narrow limits of chassis roll and rather
more broad limits of vertical movement. At some point in the generation of roll or
vertical movement, the geometry will go to hell and the wheel paths will start to
change very rapidly. The longer that we make the suspension links, the
more movement can take place before we lose camber control-and the
less wheel displacement
we will suffer per unit of chassis movement. Vehicle balance or driveability is
more important in terms of lap time and winning races than ultimate cornering
power. So. I feel that we should design the geometry of our

suspensions to minimize rapid changes of camber and relative front to


rear roll center movement as the car goes through its transitions from braking
to cornering acceleration restrict chassis rol
( I) We can use high roll centers which result in low roll moments. We do not want
to follow this approach because we will then have poor camber curves and high
jacking forces.
(2) We can use anti-roll bars at each end of the car stiff enough to restrict roll to
our desired maximum.
(3) We can use the suspension springs to restrict rolleither by making them stiffer,
which is a bad idea, or by optimizing their placement so that we get maximum
linear spring travel per degree of roll generated.
(4) We can use longer suspension links to reduce the amount of camber change
generated per degree of roll.

CONSIDERATION

Power to weight ratio


(2) Aerodynamic downforce to be generated and range ofvehicle speeds
(3) Tire width and characteristics
(4) Track characteristics-smoothness, corner speed, degree of banking present
and the amount of braking that will take place.

The ubiquitous Formula Ford features low engine power, low gross weight, narrow tires,
virtually no down force generation, and crazy drivers. They do not accelerate very hard
because they don't have much torque. Since they are not allowed to run wings, the
operating ride height does not change much with road speed. The narrow tires will
tolerate a fair amount of camber.
What Formula Fords need from the suspension geometry is maximum braking power
and maximum cornering power. They need the braking power, because one of the
few places for a Formula Ford to get by another one is in the braking area. They need the
cornering power, because they cannot afford to slow down any more.
We get the braking power by keeping the. front wheels as upright as possible in
bump and not allowmg the rear wheels to go into positive camber in droop. This
means long links with not much inclination at the front. At the rear, we don't need to
worry a lot about the effects of squat since we won't have enough torque to cause much
of it. We do, however, have to worry about the camber of the laden wheel. As no limited
slip diffs are allowed, we also have to avoid inside rear wheelspin which means lots of
droop travel, avoidance of extreme negative camber generation on the inside
wheel and minimum lateral load transfer at the rear.
I believe that it is a hell of a lot more important to get the roll center locations and
movements happy with each other and with the mass centroid axis than it is to
get the camber curves perfect If you decide to make the links longer, take a really
good look at the structural factors involved-they will necessarily have to be stiffer,
particularly at the front, due to the brake torque loads being reacted over a longer
distance.
Raising or lowering pivot points, at the front, is simply a case of making spacers for the
ball joints, or of reducing the height of the uprights. It is always easier to do it outboard
than inboard-except on production cars. The opposite condition exists at the rear where
the outboard pivots are pretty well fixed in the hub carrier design but the inboards are
bolt on structures or cross members which can be pretty easily replaced or modified

INTERNET

SOURCE

R OLL C ENTRE P OSITION


http://www.f1technical.net/forum/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=8614
Now be may have 4 basic positions:
1) Roll center height (from now on RCH) = center of gravity (CoG)
No pivoting here, it means that there is no roll. Its like trying to spin a door applying
force in the hinge. The car is turning, lateral force is applied, but there is no roll.
Hence, all the force is "catched" by the wishbones. This makes the car as hard as a
rock, as spring/dampers doesnt work here. Its good for nothing.
2) RCH between CoG and the ground.
Depending the percentage of that height you distribute how much force goes through
the wishbones and how much through the spring/dampers. The range between 15%
and 30% of RCH compared to CoG is the most common place to locate it in many
racing cars.
3) RCH = ground height.
All the lateral forces passes from the chasis to the wheels throught dampers/springs,
so virtually the wishbones makes no force under pure lateral load condition.
4) RCH below ground.
More force than whats actually transferred passes through the spring/dampers, so that
the wishbones is loaded unders "a negative" force. This means outer top wishbone for
example is not under compresion, but under traction.
This is the case of tourism racing cars that have to maintain the suspension geometry
from the original street car when you reduce their ride height, there you have to find
the best compromise between what you gain from aero and reduced CoG height and
what you loose for poor suspension geometry. Here you dont have jacking, but the
contrary. Also it is the case of heavily "tuned" street cars.

P OSITION E FFECT
If roll centres set too low, there will be more body roll and stiffer bars will be required
at both ends, that will effect wheel rates and traction on bumps when cornering, and
especially on slippery surfaces.
Low roll centres and stiff bars (with the higher wheel rate during cornering this
creates) will make it very fast in the dry but it will slide much too easily in the wet.
This is the one big reason production cars have moderately high roll centres.
Roll centres set far too high will cause jacking and produce minimal body roll which
makes the antiroll bars much less sensitive, and basically makes the car untunable.

A DJUSTING
http://speedtalk.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=31210
First balance the car on a skid pad for a very slightly increasing understeering gradient
with with increasing speed. You can get this right with the roll centres located just
about anywhere. This is also the time to find optimum tire pressures and optimum

camber. This will give you stable steady state cornering and get both ends of the car
working.
The next step is to start adjusting the roll axis inclination for best TRANSIENT
response. Load will transfer faster at the end of the car as the roll axis height is
increased at that end. A low roll centre will feed the lateral load transfer produced
from body roll mainly through the springs and bar. Body roll is not instantaneous, and
either will be lateral load transfer at that end, response will be slower. A high roll
centre will produce less body roll, because most of the lateral load transfer goes direct
through the suspension links, it responds faster to sudden changes in direction.
What we want is a stable vehicle with fastest possible response. We do this by building
in some steady state understeer (thicker front antiroll bar). And giving it just a bit of
transient oversteer (higher rear roll centre).
If it is done right, it will be fast and stable around a chicane, where you rapidly turn
first one way then the other. All this assumes there are no bump or roll steer problems
to complicate things. Every time you move one of the roll centre heights, you ideally
need to then rebalance the car on a skid pad before testing for a change in transient
response.
Vehicles with extreme or unusual weight distribution can require unconventional roll
centre inclinations, the front roll centre is not always lower than the rear, but it usually
is.
The fastest way to get from one steady state condition to another is with just a bit of
overshoot. That is where the transient oversteer comes in. It will not cause instability,
unless there is far too much.
What it does is speed up the response.
One more thought on roll centers. There are two types of weight transfer, geometric
and elastic. Geometric weight transfer is weight transferred through the linkages
(panhard bar or Jacob's ladder) and Elastic Weight Transfer is weight transferred
through the springs. As we raise our roll center we are increasing the amount
of Geometric Weight Transfer and reducing the amount of elastic. The issue with
geometric weight transfer is it happens instantaneously, with elastic it happens slower
because we have to wait for the spring to compress. As the roll center is raised, the
ride becomes more harsh and the car can get a tenancy to hop and also does not
absorb the ruts and bumps as well. This kinds goes against our wanting to loosen the
car up or keep the car from rolling by raising roll centers in the rear on a rough or wet
track to loosen the car.

R EADING AND A NALYZING C AMBER C URVES


http://www.auto-ware.com/setup/cam_curv.htm

P ARTS OF THE C AMBER G RAPH

The numbers on the left side of the graph


represent the up and down travel of a
wheel or suspension. The line in the middle
labeled "static" is the wheel (or
suspension) position when the race car is
at rest or standing still.
The negative (-) numbers represent the
condition where the wheel moves
downward from the frame. This could
happen when the tire drops into a pothole,
or when the inside of the chassis lifts as
during body roll in a corner.
The positive numbers above the static line
are where the wheel has moved up in
relation to the chassis. This can be a case
where the tire is going over a bump or
when the outside of the frame drops as during body roll in a turn.
The numbers on the bottom of the graph are used to identify the wheel's camber
change. The curving line on the graph is the camber change for each position of the
wheel's vertical movement.
Using the static line and the "0" camber line, the graph can be divided into 4
quadrants (top left, top right, bottom left, bottom right). Typically, it is desirable to
have a camber curve that is in the top left and bottom right quadrants.
Stock car suspensions from the 60s and 70s often had camber curves that ran from
the top right through the bottom left quadrant. This is almost always undesirable for
high performance handling.

D ESIRED S HAPE OF L INE


The next step in analyzing and improving your camber curve after getting the line in
the proper quadrants (or if you were lucky to have it in the proper quadrants to start),
is to achieve a specific line shape on the camber graph.
Depending on the type of track and car you will have different requirements. On a flat
track with small or no sway bars, generally your camber curve should be less of a
curve and more of a straight line. Ideally the line would slope uniformly from the top
left to the bottom right of the graph. On big bar soft spring setups the left and right
sides may need different camber lines and often a very steep sloping line works better
than a flatter sloped line.

G OOD AND B AD P ARTS OF L INE


Many stock car suspensions will have a camber curve that looks like the one in the
example. The hook part of the line where the arrow "A" is pointed is undesirable if you
have a lot of rebound (or extention) of the inside suspension when cornering.
If your car squeals the inside front tire in a corner, there is a good chance you have a
camber curve with a hook. Short track race cars that have a camber curve (like the
example) often require larger amounts of positive camber in the left front tire in order
to keep the car from pushing in the middle of the turns.

Again, the region of the line marked B is typically a desirable shape. Notice that here
the line it is flatter and less curved than at the opposite end of the line.
When analyzing your suspension, if you are limited to modifications due to rules, your
handling could be improved by lowering or raising your frame height. One way of
thinking about this is that lowering or raising the ride height will move the camber
curve to a different static spot on the graph. This can bring the better portion of the
curve to the operating range in the corners.
If you want a scientific way to set camber curves it needs to be done on the back of
testing. Attach some infra-red tyre temp sensors to your car and go running. You will
find that the type of tyre matters. The sidewall stiffness is very important. One
example from our testing is that the Goodyear tyres are very wear sensitive to camber
even if they are a little faster. The thing to learn from that is to take the tyre test data
with a grain of salt. Nothing beats on-track testing.
Analysing the data to find out what you should be running is a whole new topic. A
really simple way is to break your data down into corners that represent low, medium
and high speed corners and look at your temperature distribution in each of them.
Remember to keep a reference of your steering angle for the front as it will have a
great affect for the castor angles most of these cars run. You should be able to
differentiate between the effect of static camber and dynamic camber.
I would not over-estimate the effect of geometry on a skidpan. Most of our time gains
on the skidpan were made through damper work and driver training. Have a look at
the data of a skidpan run and notice how much lateral g's are dropped for just a small
steering or throttle change. Also note how difficult it is to hold constant throttle and
steering on a really bumpy track.

LOAD TRANSFER
LONGITUDINAL
LATERAL

DESIGN STEP
READ

AND UNDERSTAND

This is the first step you shold take before design anytihing. Understanding what a FSAE
race is and each rule of it is very important thing. These knowledge help you determine
the right design of your formula car, especially for this kind of race. Mistake on your
design not also make a bad car, but you can not race eventually. The Scrutineers inspect
every aspect of your car befor race. If anything go wrong, they forbid you race.
The winner of this competition is not the car that has best engine or the lightest weight,
but other things matters.Suspension itself do a great influence to the performance of car.
Suspension determine performance of a car when wheels hit a bump, corner in a turn,
and also accelerate and brake. A good suspension stabilize the car in every road
condition. Wheel base, track, roll centre, anti roll bar, transient dynamic, natural
frequency, weight distribution, and many other aspect determine how your suspension
perform. How on earth your suspension will work well if you dont khow these things?
A good setting of suspension can give responses to the driver so that he know how to
steer the wheel and when to pedal the gas or brake. Its also very important that the
suspension team understand what the driver need. King pin, camber, caster, trail, toel,
roll bar stiffness, spring stiffness, damper stiffness, and other settings change how the
suspension respons the force from road. As I said, driver can control his car by a
particullar suspension settings that give him a good response. How on earth you can set
th suspension parameter if you dont understand those parameters and the effects?
So, guys, do a lot of reading!

DESIGN REQUIREMENT

AND OBJECTIVES

Of corces, this is famiiar for those who has take Perancangan class. It is a set of
qualification of our design/product that we want acheive. Just like you, before start doing
anything you shold set your objectives. For example, before start a new year, its better
for you to state your dream, what do want to reach, career, love, etc.
This is an example of qualitatitive DR&O, a laptop:

Can operate in 5 hour wih batteries


Can do a lot of program simultaneously
Light and handy
Has Anti scratch LCD
Etc

ITERATIVE

PROCESS

Designing is an iterative process. Basically, its imposible to achive all reqirements in a


one shot design. Especially, when designing a complex product such as a formula car.
Whether you are a genius or just an coincident.
Analizing the vehichle dynamics requires the dimensions of your suspension design,
length og push rod, arms, etc. Ohtrewise, before draw the 3D solid you need the fix
dimension data that gives best vehicle dynamics performance. So, which one we do first?
Dreaming!

VERTICAL DYCNAMICS (RIDE&HANDLING PITCH&BOUNCE)


1. Collecting Vehicle Spesification
Centre of Gravity, Wheelbase, Mass, Radius of gyration, Weight distribution
2. Determining Quality of Ride & Handling
Desired natural frequncy, damping ratio,
3. Calculating Pitch&Bounce frequncy
Olley criterion, front/rear sping stiffness calculation,
4. Plotting damping force curve
Tension/compression ratio,
5.

LATERAL DYNAMICS CORNERING PERFORMANCE


STEADY STATE CORNERING SKIDPAD, STEADY TURN
TRANSIENT ROLLOVER SLALOM, RAPID STEERING
ANTI ROLL BAR DESIGN
TIRE PERFORMANCE

LONGITUDINAL DYNAMICS

DESAIN SUSPENSI CAKRAWALA FORMULA ELECTRIC


PENETUAN DR&O
Dari rama:
Ku coba ya:

Negative camber 1,5 - 3,5 degree


Caster angle 2-3 degree
Kingpin -> binun ini apa
Wheel travel minimal kan ? 50,8 mm (regulasi)
Toe nya normal aja
Wheelbase minimal 1525 mm (regulasi)
Trackwidth depan=belakang
Wheel 203,2mm diameter minimal
Ukuran tu si shock absorbernya? Belum diitung si dan tergantung vendor kayaba
bisa bikin / ngak
Frequency 1,1-3 Hz
Damping ratio 0,4 - 1
Roll rate satuannya torsi/degree ? Gatau nyari dimana dan gunanya apa.
Anti squad itu perbandingan depan sm belakang saat rem/akselerasi? Gtau dpt dr
mana
Camber gain, dynamic camber, static camber masi bingung gt
Cost max 30juta
Weight max 50kg (unsprung mass)
weight suspension system gatau, dimushika gada
Fastener cukup yg helical

DATA KENDARAAN
PERHITUNGAN KEKAKUAN PEGAS
SET GAYA PEREDAMAN BERTINGKAT
PENENTUAN GEOMETRI SUSPENSI
PERFORMA STEADY STATE CORNERING
PERFORMA TRANSIENT CORNERING
PERHITUNGAN KEKAKUAN ANTI ROLLBAR