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Kepedasan merupakan salah satu indikator mutu cabai merah yang

dicerminkan oleh kandungan capsaicin. Capsaicin adalah senyawa utama


capsaicinoid yang terdapat dalam buah cabai dari tanaman genus Capsicum.
Cabai mengandung 0,1 sampai 1,5% capsaicin tergantung dari jenis cabai
dan varietasnya serta kondisi lingkungan tempat tumbuhnya (Edmond dkk.,
1983). Senyawa capsaicinoid terdiri dari capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin,
nordihydrocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, dan vanillyl
pelargonamide (Edmond dkk., 1983; Govindarajan, 1985; Todd dkk., 1997).
Capsaicin merupakan komponen terbesar yaitu sebesar 69% dari total
capsaicinoid diikuti dihydrocapsaicin sebesar 22%. Kandungan homocapsaicin
dan homodihydro capsaicin terdapat dalam konsentrasi sangat kecil (Andrew,
1979; Govindarajan, 1985). Oleh karena itu rasa pedas pada cabai
diidentikkan dengan capsaicin.
Cabai mengandung senyawa aktif capsaicin dengan rumus kimia
C18H27NO3. Senyawa capsaicin memiliki kelarutan rendah dalam air tetapi
larut dalam lemak, dan mudah rusak oleh proses oksidasi. Capsaicin terdiri
dari unit vanil amin dengan asam dekanoat yang mempunyai ikatan rangkap
pada rantai bagian asam (Andrew, 1979).
Derajat kepedasan cabai diukur dengan satuan Scoville. Skala scoville
mengukur konsenstrasi capsaicin dalam cabai. Terdapat beberapa tingkat
kepedasan cabai atau scoville rating yang berkisar antara 0 sampai
16.000.000 SHU (Scoville Heat Unit). Sebagai contoh bell pepper (termasuk
juga paprika) mempunyai skala scoville 0 (nol), ini berarti bell pepper tidak
pedas sama sekali karena tidak mempunyai zat capsaicin (Todd dkk., 1997).
Namun cabai rawait (Thai pepper atau birds eye pepper) atau jika di
Malaysia sering disebut chili padi mempunyai skala scoville 50.000 hingga
100.000 SHU.
Selama penyimpanan akan terjadi degradasi mutu cabai merah giling seperti
degradasi capsaicin, penurunan vitamin C, perubahan warna. Degradasi
capsaicin meningkat seiring dengan peningkatan temperatur (Ahmed dkk.,
2000 dan Ahmed dkk., 2002). Proses pemanasan pada pengolahan puree
cabai merah yang dilakukan exhausting pada suhu 82C selama 10 menit
dapat memperpanjang masa simpan produk 2 hingga 3 bulan (Renate, 2004).
Kehilangan nilai gizi juga terjadi pada penyimpanan yang terlalu lama,
terutama pada kondisi suhu kamar atau suhu panas. Pertumbuhan jamur
dapat dikurangi dengan menurunkan suhu tetapi jamur juga kurang aktif di
ruang yang tidak lembab atau ruangan yang kering.
Kondisi proses terhadap parameter kinetika dapat dinyatakan dengan
pendekatan model kinetika maupun model matematis seperti bentuk linier,
eksponensial maupun hiperbola. Suhu merupakan faktor yang berpengaruh

terhadap perubahan produk pangan. Semakin tinggi suhu penyimpanan


maka laju reaksi sebagai senyawa kimia akan semakin cepat.. Untuk
menentukan kecepatan reaksi kimia bahan pangan dalam kaitannya dengan
perubahan s
(AGRITECH, Vol. 34, No. 3, Agustus 2014
MODEL KINETIKA DEGRADASI CAPSAICIN CABAI MERAH GILING PADA
BERBAGAI KONDISI SUHU PENYIMPANAN
Kinetic Model of Capsaicin Degradation on Red Chilli Paste at Various Storage
Temperature
Dharia Renate1, Filli Pratama2, Kiki Yuliati2, Gatot Priyanto2 )
The major capsaicinoids present in most varieties of the chili are capsaicin
(tran-8-methyl-N-vanillyl- 6-nonenamide)and dihydrocapsaicin (8-methyl- Nvanillylnonanamide). In addition, other minor ones are also found such as
nordihydrocapsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin. Capsaicin has been used in
neurological research to stimulate sensory nerves and also to treat bladder
inflammation. It is also found in topical ointments used for arthritis and
neuralgia (Kaale et al., 2002), and exerts its effect on the sensory nerves by
interacting with the vanilloid receptor, promoting the release of substance P
as well as other cytokines (Surh et al., 2005).The determination of
*Corresponding author.
Email: pandyagh@rediffmail.com
All Rights Reserved
capsaicinoids in chili peppers, topical cream (Kaale et al., 2002), self-defense
weapons (Reilly et al., 2001a) and aerosol defense sprays (Spicer and
Almirall, 2005) has been of increasing interest for many reasons.
Chilli punge
high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has replaced the
organoleptic method since the HPLC method is considered the most reliable
and accurate method for determining both the amount of capsaicin and
pungency in chili samples. HPLC is currently the most popular and reliable
technique for the analysis of capsaicinoids. The technique has been mainly
associated with UV absorption detection. Reversed phase-HPLC separation of
capsaicinoids in some chili varieties was achieved using UV-Visible detector
method. The linearity range of calibration curve was 0.0 to 200 ug/ml
Validation was carried out by establishing the repeatability and Limits of
detection (LOD/MDL) and Limit of quantitation (LOQ). The optimized

conditions were applied for the determination of capsaicinoids in varieties of


the chili samples.
In this work, reverse phase HPLC was used. The application of HPLC methods
allows one to obtain a sensitivity and selectivity gain over other conventional
methods. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an LC method for
determining capsaicin in chilli samples determined in less than 20 min after
extraction.
International Food Research Journal 21(3): 1137-1142 (2014) Journal
homepage: http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my

Study of quality control and uncertainty in estimation of capsaicinoids


content and pungency in real chili samples using RP HPLC
Mukund Nagarnaik, Anil Dhakulkar and *Girish Pandya.. 2014

Capsanthin is the most important carotenoid pigment in red pepper (Kim et


al. 2002). It has different properties such as antioxidant and
immunoenhancing activities (Rhim et al. 2011; Topuz et al. 2011). Capsaicin
(8-methyl- N-vanillyl-trans-6-nonenamide) is the main pungency compound
isolated from red pepper (Othman et al.
2011). As a spicy by-product, it affects the quality of capsanthin extracted
from hot red pepper. In fact, capsaicin is also used to treat pain and
inflammation associated with various diseases (Shakhidoyatov et al. 2001;
Zhang et al. 2008; Kim et al. 2009).
Capsanthin and capsaicin are usually extracted using conventional organic
solvents and then iso- lated from the crude extract. This multistep process
has some disadvantages such as high consumption of energy, inefficiency,
and need of large amounts of a solvent. Although supercritical carbon dioxide
(SC-CO2) extraction, a new method, can be used to extract capsanthin and
capsaicin (Uquiche et
al. 2004; Kwon et al. 2011), it has no advantage in the extraction of some
polar components, such as capsanthin and capsaicin, because carbon dioxide
is a weak polar solvent. In addition, SC-CO2 extraction has stringent
equipment requirements.
The salting-out extraction (SOE) system composed of short-chain alcohol,
hydrophobic organic solvents, inorganic salt, and water is a novel method

used to separate active constituents from fermentation broth or natural plant


(Liu et al. 2010; Dai et al.
2011). Recently, aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) and three-liquid-phase
system (TLPS) have been used to extract and isolate effective components
from natural products such as anthocyanins from mulberry (Wu et al. 2011),
geniposide from garde- nia fruit (Pan et al. 2002), piceid, resveratrol, and
emodine from Polygonum cuspidatum (Wang et al.
2008), and salvianolic acid B from the crude extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Zhi
et al. 2006). This method has many advantages such as low solvent requirement, low cost, low equipment requirements, and short extraction time.
Vol. 32, 2014, No. 1: 109114 Czech J. Food Sci.

This study aims to establish TLPS with hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic
solvents and inorganic salt aqueous solution as well as to extract capsanthin
and capsaicin from red pepper in a single step. A fast extraction and
separation method of capsanthin and capsaicin was realised by analysing the
distribution of capsanthin and capsaicin in different phases.
(Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant No.
21266028, and by the Technology Innovation Program of Xinjiang Bingtuan,
Project No. 2012CB015.
Three-liquid-phase Extraction and Separation
of Capsanthin and Capsaicin from Capsicum annum L.
Yan-Yan DANG1,2, Hua ZHANG1 and Zhi-Long XIU1