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# Narrative Report

When an object is immersed in water, it feels lighter. In a cylinder filled with water, the action of
inserting a mass in the liquid causes it to displace upward. In 212 B.C., the Greek scientist Archimedes
discovered the following principle: an object is immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the
weight of the fluid displaced by the object. This became known as Archimede's principle. The weight of
the displaced fluid can be found mathematically. The fluid displaced has a weight W = mg. The mass can
now be expressed in terms of the density and its volume, m = pV. Hence, W = pVg.
It is important to note that the buoyant force does not depend on the weight or shape of the
submerged object, only on the weight of the displaced fluid. Archimede's principle applies to object of all
densities. If the density of the object is greater than that of the fluid, the object will sink. If the density of
the object is equal to that of the fluid, the object will neither sink or float. If the density of the object is
less than that of the fluid, the object will float.
Also about resistors, Resistors are "Passive Devices", that is they contain no source of power or
amplification but only attenuate or reduce the voltage signal passing through them. This attenuation
results in electrical energy being lost in the form of heat as the resistor resists the flow of electrons
through it.
Then a potential difference is required between the two terminals of a resistor for current to flow.
This potential difference balances out the energy lost. When used in DC circuits the potential difference,
also known as a resistors voltage drop, is measured across the terminals as the circuit current flows
through the resistor.
Most resistors are linear devices that produce a voltage drop across themselves when an
electrical current flows through them because they obey Ohm's Law, and different values of resistance
produces different values of current or voltage. This can be very useful in Electronic circuits by
controlling or reducing either the current flow or voltage produced across them.

## Post Lab Questions

1. Enumerate and describe the common types of resistors.
a)

Carbon Composition Resistor - Made of carbon dust or graphite paste, low wattage values

b) Film or Cermet Resistor - Made from conductive metal oxide paste, very low wattage values
c)

Wire-wound Resistor - Metallic bodies for heatsink mounting, very high wattage ratings

## d) Semiconductor Resistor - High frequency/precision surface mount thin film technology

2. Describe the following instruments and devices as to their functions and give their electrical symbols:
Multimeter, DC ammeter, DC Voltmeter, Fix Resistors, Variable Resistors, Galvanometer, Capacitors, and
Rectifier.
Multimeter
Resistor and Capacitor
Multimeters are tools used to troubleshoot electrical and electronic
circuits. They are also used to check voltages to ensure correct operating
levels.
The most common models measure voltage, current and resistance.
More expensive models can also measure capacitance and inductance.

Rectifier
Rectifier, Semiconductor
Rectifier, Silicon-Controlled
Rectifier, Tube-Type
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically
reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The process is known
as rectification. Physically, rectifiers take a number of forms, including vacuum tube diodes, mercury-arc
valves,solid-state diodes, silicon-controlled rectifiers and other silicon-based semiconductor switches.
Historically, even synchronous electromechanical switches and motors have been used. Early radio
receivers, called crystal radios, used a "cat's whisker" of fine wire pressing on a crystal of galena (lead
sulfide) to serve as a point-contact rectifier or "crystal detector".

Component

Circuit Symbol

Function of Component

Voltmeter

## A voltmeter is used to measure voltage.

The proper name for voltage is 'potential difference', but
most people prefer to say voltage!

Ammeter

Galvanomete
r

## A galvanometer is a very sensitive meter which is used

to measure tiny currents, usually 1mA or less.

Variable Resistor
(Rheostat)

## This type of variable resistor with 2 contacts (a

rheostat) is usually used to control current. Examples
include: adjusting lamp brightness, adjusting motor
speed, and adjusting the rate of flow of charge into a
capacitor in a timing circuit.

Variable Resistor
(Potentiometer)

## This type of variable resistor with 3 contacts (a

potentiometer) is usually used to control voltage. It
can be used like this as a transducer converting
position (angle of the control spindle) to an electrical
signal.

Variable Resistor
(Preset)

## This type of variable resistor (a preset) is operated

with a small screwdriver or similar tool. It is
designed to be set when the circuit is made and then
left without further adjustment. Presets are cheaper
than normal variable resistors so they are often used
in projects to reduce the cost.

Capacitor

## A capacitor stores electric charge. A capacitor is used

with a resistor in a timing circuit. It can also be used
as a filter, to block DC signals but pass AC signals.

Capacitor,
polarised

## A capacitor stores electric charge. This type must be

connected the correct way round. A capacitor is used
with a resistor in a timing circuit. It can also be used
as a filter, to block DC signals but pass AC signals.

Fix Resistor

## A resistor restricts the flow of current, for example to

limit the current passing through an LED. A resistor
is used with a capacitor in a timing circuit.
Some publications still use the old resistor
symbol:

3. Enumerate some preliminary precautions before using a multimeter, DC Voltmeter, and DC ammeter.
Multimeter
Warning! Do not reverse battery polarity use only: red clamp to positive (+) black clamp to battery
negative (-) preliminary precautions & setup
3.1 avoid damage from shorting
Ensure that power switch is set to off to avoid damage to the ti. ensure that the alligator clamps are
separated and secured so that short circuit does not exist when the ti is turned on.
3.2 connect to appropriate ac source
Connect the auxiliary equipment and the ti to the appropriate power source. (120v 50/60hz 10a)

Voltmeter
NOTE: Unless otherwise specified, verify the results of each test and take corrective action whenever the
test requirement is not met
Before proceeding.
4.1 VOLTMETER Tests
Voltmeter tests performed WITHOUT BATTERY or LOAD BANK CONNECTED.
4.1.1 Set Conditioner switch
Set switch on C25C, located at the bottom of front panel, to ON position.
4.1.2 Verify voltage reading
TI voltmeter reads approximately 21 Volts.

Ammeter
WARNING Current & Voltages
Harmful currents and voltages may be present in the ti dc battery cable leads. the ti on/off/reset switch
must be set to the off/reset position before connecting or disconnecting the ti dc battery cable to/from the
battery.
4.1.6 AMPERE METER TESTS
Note: The TI ammeter is connected to an internal shunt in the TI. Shunts are large blocks of copper
connectors and copper alloy resistor bars. They dont lose accuracy unless subjected to prolonged
overload above 50 Amps, which the C25C is not capable of producing. Therefore 2 options are described.
Option 1: Verifying TI shunt and ammeter. Option 2: Verifying the TI ammeter only with the TIs internal
shunt.