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Scale : 1 cm : 5km
Pipe line :

Figure 1: Pipeline sketching on real map location Kulai Johor Bahru

1.0 Determination of basic design requirement

1. City gate
The city gate of ML209 was choosen based on distance between city gate and power plant.
This is because, higher in term of distance will required more in term of pipeline length and this
could consumed high construction cost.The other factor that being considered is the area that
been through by pipeline that will be installed to transport the natural gas from city gate to the
power plant. By considering the factor of sensitive area like cementery, the city gate TO 235 was
rejected because this kind of area could not be disturb. Since, the pipeline construction required
the pipeline to be under the ground, thus it must be not possible to dig on the cementary area to
put the pipeline inside. Even if the cementary area could be avoided, but again need to deal with
distance issue. There are too many places from city gate TO 235 that should be avoided if the
pipeline construction begin from that city gate. For example, residential area, highway and river.
By comparison, the residential area along the way from city gate ML 209 to power plant less
compared from city gate TO 235. Therefore, by considering safety factor it is best to choose city
gate ML 209 to begin the pipeline construction.

2. Pipe length
Best on rough estimation from the sketching, the total pipeline length is 80.2 km. The length
of pipeline was the very optimum of that position. By considering places that should be avoided
like residential area and airport, this pipeline become 80.2 km in length with one servis station
that will be installed near to the power plant.

3. Road crossing
Number of road crossing is 3 which are 1 main highway and 2 roads. These roads cannot
be avoided since its already existed before the plant was constructed. However, all these factors
are being considered in pipeline construction.

4. River crossing
Number of river crossing is 2. These rivers come from the same junction which cannot be
avoided. This factor also being considered in pipeline construction.

5. Suggested R.O.W width

Based on avaibility of space, the suggested R.O.W is between 20 m to 40 m width. For the
residential area and near road, R.O.W with 40 m width will be used and the other places is 20
m. The main reason of is to minimize the cost since different areas will giving different prices.
However, it could not be deny that R.O.W with 40 m width are much better in term of safety

6. Suggested class location

Considering the probability of development, it is the best to choose class location class 3.
This is because, if in case the population around the pipeline increase than the pipe need to be
replace by following the new class location. This would rise the future cost of pipeline
investment. By definition, class 3 location is for 46 houses above with pipe diameter of 0.51 inch
and every 16 km of valve installation.

7. Suggested maximum operation pressure

Suggested operation pressure is 250 psig before the servis station and 25 psig after the
servis station and maximum operating pressure is 1000 psig. The operation pressure is depand
on the customer desired. The maximum operation pressure cannot be so high because it will
effect on the construction cost. This is because, high pressure required high strength pipe and
much high cost for pipeline maintanane.

8. Suggested pipe material

Material of pipe chosen is steel pipe. This is because, the maximum operating pressure is
quite high and could not be handle by plastic pipe. Plastic pipe only can stand up to 60 psig
operating pressure. Even though there is another choice that can stand such maximum operating
pressure, but cast iron are being prohibited in Malaysia. Therefore, the only choice is steel pipe.
Plastic pipe however will be used after the servis station to reach the customer.

9. Code of practice
Design based on ASME B31.8 (NG) and MS 930 - Malaysia. This is because, ASME is
world wide used and easily deal with manufacture. Most pipeline construction companies using
this code of practice. Therefore, it more easy to deal with them with this code of practice. The
reason of using Malaysia standard is simply because this pipeline will be constructed in Malaysia
region. Thus all Malaysia regulation should be follow.

The design requirement of the pipeline is listed in the table as follow:

Table 1: Suggested design of basic requirement of pipeline

Design requirement


City gate

ML 209

Pipe length

80.2 KM

Number of road crossing

1 Highway 2 main road

Number of river crossing

2 rivers

R.O.W width

20 m R.O.W 40 m

Class location

Class iii

Maximum operating pressure

1000 psig

Pipe material
Code of practice

2.0 Construction methods

Steel pipe with high tensile carbon steel

ASME B31.8 (NG) and MS 930 - Malaysia

Suggested pipeline installation procedure:

Permits for Local and


Survey and Staking

Clearing and

Lowering-in and

Pipe Stringing,
Bending, and



Cleanup and

Connect with
transmission line

Cleanup and

Hydrostatic Testing

Figure 2: Suggested pipeline installation procedure


Prior to construction, a proposed pipeline project must obtain numerous local, state, and federal
permits and clearances. The permits address all natural resources land, air, water, vegetation,
and wildlife as well as the interests of the general public. Requirements generally include
1. Local
a). Building permits
b). Road-crossing permits

2. State
a). Land (Erosion and Sedimentation Permit)
b). Water
c). Stream and river crossings
d). Cultural resources preservation
e). Threatened and endangered species preservation
f). Highway permits

3. Federal
a). Streams and rivers
b). Highway permits

Survey and Staking

The first step of construction involves marking the limits of the approved work area (i.e.,
construction ROW boundaries, additional temporary workspace areas) and flagging the locations
of approved access roads and foreign utility lines. Wetland boundaries and other environmentally
sensitive areas also are marked or fenced for protection at this time. Before the pipeline trench is
excavated, a survey crew stakes the centerline of the proposed trench.

Clearing and Grading

Before clearing and grading activities are conducted, the landowners fences (if any) are braced
and cut, and temporary gates and fences are installed to contain livestock, if present. A clearing
crew follows the fence crew and clears the work area of vegetation and obstacles (e.g., trees,
logs, brush, rocks). Grading is conducted where necessary to provide a reasonably level work

Figure 3: Bulldozer Grading Pipeline ROW (Source: Photo courtesy of U.S. Pipeline, Inc.)

The trench is excavated to a depth that provides sufficient cover over the pipeline after
backfilling. Typically, the trench is about 4 to 6 feet wide in stable soils and about 2 to 5 feet
deep to the top of the pipe, depending on the pipelines diameter and DOT Class location.

Figure 4: Pipeline Trenching Operations (Source: Photo courtesy of U.S. Pipeline, Inc.)

Pipe Stringing, Bending, and Welding

Prior to or following trenching, sections of externally coated pipe up (also referred to as
joints) are transported to the ROW by truck over public road networks and along authorized
private access roads and placed, or strung, along the trench in a continuous line.

Figure 5: Pipeline Welding (Source: Photo courtesy of U.S. Pipeline, Inc.)

Lowering-in and Backfilling

Before the pipeline is lowered into the trench, an environmental inspector inspects the trench to
be sure it is free of livestock or wildlife that may have become trapped in the trench, as well as
free of rocks and other debris that could damage the pipe or protective coating.

Hydrostatic Testing
The pipeline is hydrostatically tested to ensure the system is capable of withstanding the
operating pressure for which it was designed. The pressure test was done by 15% of maximum
operating pressure.

The pipeline is cleaned and dried by using mechanical tools (pigs) that are moved through the
pipeline containing pressurized dry air. The pipeline is dried to minimize the potential for
internal corrosion. Once the pipe has dried sufficiently, pipeline commissioning commences.
Commissioning activities involve verifying that the equipment has been properly installed and is
working, that controls and communications systems are functional, and that the pipeline is ready
for service. In the final step, the pipeline is prepared for service by purging the line of air and
loading the line with natural gas; in some cases, the gas is blended at the distribution end until
achieving a certain moisture content level.

Cleanup and Restoration

After backfilling, final cleanup begins as soon as weather and site conditions permit. Trash and
construction debris are cleaned up both during and after construction. Every reasonable effort is
made to complete final cleanup (including final grading and the installation of erosion control
devices) after backfilling the trench. Construction debris is cleaned up and taken to a disposal
facility, and work areas are final-graded. The crews restore the work areas to preconstruction
contours, unless the landowner or land management agency directs otherwise. Appropriately
spaced breaks are left in the mounded topsoil and spoil piles to prevent interference with
groundwater runoff and irrigation. Segregated topsoil is spread over the surface of the ROW, and
permanent erosion controls are installed.

Connect to transmission line

After all are verified, the new pipeline distribution will connected to main transmission line to
supply gas. Once it being connected, this line will fully operated.

2.1 Special Construction Procedures

Since there are rivers and roads that need to be cross special construction technique will be used
in this pipeline installation. Special construction techniques are used when warranted by sitespecific conditions, such as when constructing across paved roads, highways, railroads, steep
terrain, waterbodies, and wetlands, and when blasting through rock. The techniques are described
below. Additional construction areas, or temporary extra workspaces, are required for
construction at road crossings, railroad crossings, crossings of existing pipelines and utilities,
stringing truck turnaround areas, wetland crossings, horizontal directional drilling (HDD)
entrance and exit pits, and open-cut waterbody crossings. These extra workspaces are located
adjacent to the construction ROW and could be used for such purposes as spoil storage, staging,
equipment movement, material stockpiles, and pull-string assembly associated with HDD

Road, Highway, and Railroad Crossings

Construction across paved roads, highways, and railroads would be carried out in accordance
with the requirements of the appropriate road and railroad crossing permits and approvals
obtained by the pipeline company. In general, major paved roads, highways, and railroads are
crossed by boring beneath the road or railroad. Boring requires excavating a pit on each side of
the feature, placing the boring equipment in the pit, and then boring a hole under the road at least
equal to the diameter of the pipe.

Waterbody Crossings
The generally preferred method of crossing a waterbody that is flowing at the time of
construction is HDD compared to the open-cut method, since HDDs decreasing cost and lack of
environmental impact are making it more popular. The open-cut crossing method involves
trenching through the waterbody while water continues to flow through the trenching area.

Figure 6: Typical HDD Waterbody Crossing Method (Source: FERC 2006a)

3.0 Buoyancy control

The suggested buoyancy control for this pipeline are:
1. Backfill
2. Swamp weight

The reason of choosing these methods is to minimize the cost. These methods are very economic
and the avaibilty material are very excellent. On the other hand, swamp weight is very easy to
handle during transportation and construction. Most of the contractor in Malaysia also prefer to
use swamp weight as a method to overcome buoyancy problem. Swamp weight alsodoes not
required any maintenance and has a very long life. Therefore, by considering all the reason, it is
justify that swamp weight and backfill are the most suitable methods to overcome buoyancy for
this pipeline construction.

4.0 References

AGA (American Gas Association), 2004, Natural Gas 101 An Introduction to the Natural Gas
Industry. Available at
ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=14896. Accessed May 7, 2015.

FERC, 2006a, Final Environmental Impact Statement on Cypress Pipeline Project and Phase VII
Expansion Project, April 7. Available at 0407-06.asp. Accessed May 16 2015.

TAPS, 2007, TAPS Construction Photo. Available at

construction.html. Accessed May 16, 2015.