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SMK TANJONG RAMBUTAN


PROGRAM SKOR FIZIK
PANITIA FIZIK

TIPS & RAMALAN


(FIZIK)
2012
(EDISI KE DUA)

Disusun dan di sediakan oleh


Mahazir Kasim
Bach .Engineering (Hons) , Dip. Education (Physics)
www.mahazir73.webs.com

Isi Kandungan
Pendahuluan

Tip Paper 3

Tip Paper2

13

Ramalan 2012

21

Kaedah Mengingat (Pneumonik)

24

Common question
JIKA ANDA KEHILANGAN HARTA ,
ANDA BOLEH BERUSAHA
MENDAPATKANNYA KEMBALI.
JIKA ANDA KEHILANGAN MASA ,
ANDA HILANG SEGALA-GALANYA.

Pendahuluan
Memiliki Ijazah Sarjana Muda Kejuruteraan
dan Diploma Pendidikan (Pengajian Fizik)
Penah berkhidmat sebagai jurutera di
syarikat multinasional hampir lima tahun
sebelum menjadi pendidik. Pernah menjadi
panel pengubal Modul WAJA Negeri Perak.
dan menjadi penceramah bengkel teknik
menjawab Fizik di sekolah-sekolah Daerah
Kinta .

Buku ini dapat membantu pelajar membuat ulangkaji secara sistematik.Ini


dapat meningkatkan tahap keyakinan pelajar dalam mata pelajaran fizik.
Ia menjadi buah tangan pelajar-pelajar yang selama ini tercari-cari rahsia
dan tip pembelajaran dan kecemerlangan dalam fizik . Saya sentiasa
mendoakan kejayaan yang cemerlang kepada pelajar-pelajar. Sekian
Terima Kasih.
Alfatihah
Untuk jujungan Nabi Muhammad s.a.w , para anbia, ahli keluarga , para
sahabat , para ulama dan khusus untuk kedua ibu bapa iaitu Almarhum
Kasim Bin Mat dan Almarhumah Siti Zaharah Mohamed Yatim. . Semoga
Allah mencucuri rahmat keatas roh mereka. Amin..

TIPS PAPER 3
A) Graph Plotting (no 1)
i)

Student able to read vernier caliper, micrometer , metre rule, protactor,


thermometer, analog stopwatch, digital stopwatch, ammeter , voltmeter.
- Determine the accuracy of instrument (smallest division)
Example :
Metre rule ( 0.1 cm) , Vernier Caliper (0,01cm), Micrometer (0.01 mm) etc
D) Measuring Apparatus

PHYSICAL QUANTITY
MEASURING APPARATUS
BIL.
1 Length/Distance/Depth/Height/ Meter rule
Extension
2 Mass
Lever balance/Triple beam balance
3 Time of oscillations/Period
Stopwatch
4 Temperature
Thermometer
5 Current
Ammeter / Galvanometer
6 Force
Spring balance
7 Diameter of wire
Micrometer screw gauge
8 Velocity / Acceleration
Ticker timer and Ticker tape
9 Gas volume
Syringe
10 Gas pressure
Bourdon gauge
11 Potential difference
Voltmeter
12 Magnetic field strength
Number of nails attracted
13 Wavelength
Meter rule
14 Control current
Rheostat
15 Water volume
Measuring cylinder/Beaker

5
ii) Key word in tabulating data
V

Variables: manipulated variables or responding variable


Experiment data has to sistematically presented in a table

Unit
Every column must be named: Physics quantity, symbol and
unit.
Consistent decimal place
Accuracy of Instrument
All readings given must correspond to sensitivity of instrument
used.

D
A

iii) Key word in plotting graph (checklist )


VAN

Variables

SEKOLAH
SAYA

Scale
Smooth

PANCIT
BAWA
PELAJAR
UNIVERSITI

Plot
Balanced
Physical Quantity
Unit

iv)Types Of Graph And Relationship

Manipulatted variable : x axis


Responding variable : y axis
Staright line or curve line using
flexible ruler
Correct unit

6
Relationship
.is direct proportional to
.

Type of graph
If the straight line graph
passes through the origin

Increase proportionally

A straight line intercept at


Y axis (positive gradient)

.. Is decreasing linearly
with ..

A straight line intercept at


Y axis (negative gradient)

..is inverse proportional


to

A curved graph with


negative gradient

When ..increases,
..increase

A curved graph with


positive gradient
(decrease)

7
is exponentially
proportional to .

A curved graph with


positive gradient
( increase)

B) Graph Interpretation (no2)


i)

Coordinate
Find a when x= 2cm
( 3 marks)

x/cm

i)

Horizontal & vertical dotted


line

ii)

1/a = 4

iii)

a = 1/4
= 0,25 m

1/a / m-1

ii)

Straight line equation


Given the equations

V/V
E = V + Ir
E
Find E and r
i)

y = mx + c
V = -mI + E

I/A
E = V + Im
m is graph gradient
E is y intercept
iii)
-

Gradient
Gradient : Draw larger triangle 4 X 3 larger square ( 2cm X 2cm)
The triangle should be on tangent line for curve graph ( SPM 2006 )
Show substitutions
Show and state the value with unit

Notes: TCA ( 3 marks)


T Triangle

9
C Calculation
A Answer and unit
iv)

Gradient unit
Gradient unit = y axis unit / x axis unit

v) Safety Precautions
Make sure the line of vision is perpendicular with scale of reading to avoid
parallax error .
NO.
1

TYPE OF
PRECAUTIONS THAT CAN BE TAKEN
EXPERIMENT
INVOLVING
Light
a. Experiment must be carried out in darkened
room.
b. Lens, screen and object must be in line
c. Make sure the line of vision is perpendicular with
scale of reading to avoid parallax error .
Spring
a. make sure the spring is not loaded beyond the
elastic limit. (spring return to original length
when load is taken off).
b. Make sure the line of vision is perpendicular with
scale of reading to avoid parallax error .
Electric
a. All connections must be secure/tight avoid current
leakage.
b. Off the switch after readings are taken to
prevent wires from heating up (resistance
increase)
c. Make sure the line of vision is perpendicular with
scale of reading to avoid parallax error .
Heat
a. Liquid must be stirred constantly so that
temperature rises evenly.
b. Alluminium block must be wrapped with

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insulating material to prevent heat lost.
c. Thermometer bulb should be smeared with oil
to give better thermal contact with the block.
d. Make sure the line of vision is perpendicular with
scale of reading to avoid parallax error ..
a. Make sure the line of vision is perpendicular with
scale of reading to avoid parallax error .

Measuring
instruments
such as
ammeter,
b. Take into account zero error of instrument.
voltmeter,
metre rule ...
* [Student can give more than one answer for this question.
No penalty for the answer which is unsuitable]

Calon boleh memberikan jawapan lebih dari 1. Tiada markah dipotong jika satu jawapan yang
diberi salah dan yang lainnya betul.
* unacceptable answer : Avoid parallax error. [without explanation]
Jawapan tidak diterima : Elak ralat paralaks
[tiada penjelasan]

vi)

Type of gradient

Types of Gradient
Positive gradient
Negative gradient
Zero gradient

Hypothesis
When x increase, y will increase
When x increase, y will decrease
When x increase, y will constant

Notes: staright line graph means gradient constant


Curve graph means gradient not constant
vii) Interpolation and Extrapolation ( smooth line )
C) Section B Paper3( 12 Marks)
a) Inference Manipulated Variables Influenced Responding Variables

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b)
Hypothesis
c) i) Aim
ii)
Variables

Or
Responding Variables is depends on Manipulated Variables
Or
Responding Variables is influenced by Manipulated
Variables
When the manipulated variables increases / decreases , the
responding variables increases / decreases
To study relationship between manipulated variables and
responding variables
Manipulated Variable :
Responding Variable :
Fix Variable
:
* State the variables that can be measured
* Encourage students to write operational definition for
responding variable

(iii) List of
apparatus
and material
(iv)
Arrangement Draw a fully labeled diagram
of Apparatus
(v) Method 1. Start the experiment with manipulated variable ( a practical
value)
2. Responding Variables is mesured and record
3. Repeat the experiment 4 times with different values of
manipulated variable , ., . ,.. and .

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(vi)
Tabulation of Manipulated variables Responding variables
data
/ unit
/ unit
-state all the values
-blank

(vii) Analysis State : A Graph of responding variable against manipulated


of data
variable is plotted and sketch

SESIAPA YANG BERUSAHA MENCARI JALAN


BAGI MENDAPATKAN ILMU ,

13
MAKA ALLAH AKAN MEMUDAHKAN BAGINYA JALAN KE SYURGA.
( HADIS )

TIPS PAPER 2
A) Definition
Topic
Introduction
Physics

Force &

DEFINITION
Parralax error : error in reading / observer eye is not
perpendicular to the scale
Base Quantities : The physical quantities which are used as
the basis for the measurement and cant be derived from
other physical quantities.
Physical quantities are quantities that can be measured
Derived Quantities :The physical quantities which were
derived from base quantities by multiplication operation or
division operation or both
A scalar is any quantity with size (magnitude) but without
specified direction.
A vector is any quantity with size (magnitude) and specified
direction.
Accuracy is the degree of closeness of the measurements to
the actual or accepted value.
Sensitivity is the degree of a measuring instrument to record
small change in its reading.
Systematic errors are errors in the measurement of a
physical quantity due to instruments, the effects of
surrounding conditions and physical constraints of the
observer.
Zero errors occurs when the instrument gives a non- zero
reading when in fact the actual reading is zero.
Velocity : Rate of displacement

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Motion

- Accelaration : Rate of change of velocity


- Inertia ( 1st Laws of Newton) is tendency of object to remain
rest or motion state.
- Momentum : Product mass and velocity
- Principle of Conservation of Momentum state that total
momentum before and after collision are same if no external
applied on the system.
- Impuls : Change of momentum
- Impulsive Force : Rate of Change of momentum in short
interval
- 2nd Laws of Newton state that Impulsive force is directly
proportional with rate of change in momentum.
- 3rd Laws of Newton : Any action there have a reaction same
magnitude but opposite direction.
- Free Fall : the object fall under gravitional force only
- Elasticity : return to its original length when force acting
removed
- Principle of conservation of energy : energy cannot be
created or destroyed but it can be transferred from one form
to another
- Hooke Law : The extension or compression of a spring is
direct proportional to the applied force until the elastic limit is
not exceed.

Force &
Pressure

- Density : is the mass per volume


- Pressure is defined as the force acting normally on a unit of
surface area.
- Pascal Principle : In the closed fluid system, an external
applied force is transmitted uniformly in all direction.
- Archimedes Principle : upward bouyant force an a
submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced
by the object.

15

Heat

Light

Waves

- Bernoulli Principle : when the speed increase in fluid


system, pressure will decrease
- Thermal equlibrium : When two object in thermal contact ,
no net heat energy transfer between each other/ rate of heat
transfer is same between each other, same temperature.
- Specific heat capacity : heat energy required to increase
temperature 1 C for 1 kg substance.
- Specific latent heat of fusion: quantity heat energy required
to change 1 kg of a substance from solid to liquid without a
change of temperature
- Specific latent heat of vapourisation: quantity heat energy
required to change 1 kg of a substance from liquid to gas
without a change of temperature
- Temperature : Degree of hotness of a body
- Heat : Form of energy that tranfer from hot body to cold body
- Laws of reflection : The angle incidence is equal to angle of
reflection
- Snell Laws state that refractive index is ratio of sin incident
angle per sin refracted angle
- Real Image : Image can be seen on the screen
- Virtual Image : Image is not form on the screen
Critical angle : Angle of incidence when angle of
refraction 90.
- Coherent waves : The waves that have same frequency
and same phase
- Frequency : the number of oscillation in one second
- Damping : The decreasing amplitude with time due to air or
water resistance
- Resonance : The system oscillate with maximum amplitude
due to external forces has same frequency with natural
frequency of the system.

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Electrical

Electromag
netism

Electronic

Radioactive

- Diffraction : The spread out of waves after through the


narrow gap // slit // barrier
- 20W , 240V : the eletrical appliances use 240 potential
difference/ voltage will release energy 20J in 1 second.
- Current : The rate of flow of charge
- Ohm Laws : Current is directly proportional to the potential
different across the wire when resistance and temperature
constant
- Magnetic field : the region is under magnetic force
- Lenz Laws : states that the direction of the induced emf is
such that its magnetic effects always oppose the changing
producing it
- Faraday Laws state that the magnitude of induced current is
directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux.
- Transfomer : A device to increase or decrease volatage of
alternate current.
- Ideal transformer :transformer operate with 100% efficiency.
- Semiconductor : A conductivity between a conductor and
insulator
- Thermionic emission : the release of electron from the
heated metal.
- Capacitor : is electronic component can store charge and
smoothen the output current of rectification circuit
- Diode is electronic component can allow current flows in one
direction
- Doping is adding of impurity into pure semiconductor material
- Rectification : a process to convert alternate current to direct
current
- Radioactivity : the spontaneous disintegration of unstable
nucleus to become more tsble
- Half life : Time for activity of radioisotope element reduce to

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half its original value
- Radioisotope : Isotope that are not stable
- Nuclear Fisson : the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two light
nucles with release of energy
- Nuclear Fusion : The combination of two light nucleus into a
heavy nucleus with radioactive and energy emission.
B) PHYSICS CONCEPT
Phenomenon Reflection , refraction , Diffraction , Interference , Total Internal
reflection , resonance , damping
Principle
Bernoulli Principle , Principle Conservation of Energy, Principle
Conservation of Momentum , Pascal Principle , Archimedes
Principle
Laws
Charles Laws , Boyle Laws , First Laws of Newton , Second
Laws of Newton , Third Laws of Newton, Lenz Laws , Faraday
Laws , Hooke Laws , Ohm Laws
C) Problem Solving (Essay Questions)
NO.
I

TERM
Acceleration

ii

Density

ii

Force
constant

VALUE
Low /
small
High / big
Low /
small
High /
large
small
Large /

EXPLANATION
Slow increase of velocity
Fast increase of velocity
Lighter / less compact / easy to carry
Heavier / more compact
Spring is soft / easy to stretch
Spring is stiff / difficult to stretch

18
Big

Specific Heat
Capacity

Specific
Latent Heat

Melting point /
Freezing point

Low /
small

Easily heated up , short time to heat up


Need less heat to raise temperature

High /
large

More difficult to heat up, takes more time to


heat up
Need more heat to raise temperature, use
more fuel

Low /
small
High /
large
Low

Need less heat to melt / vaporize

High
Low

Boiling point
High
Refractive
index High

Low /
small
High /
large

Time to melt / vaporise is shorter


Melts at low temperature / Freezes at low
temperature.
Starts melting earlier / Starts freezing later
Melts at higher temperature / Freezes at
higher temperature.
Starts melting latter / Starts freezing earlier
Starts boiling at lower temperature
Starts boiling earlier
Slower to begin condensation
Starts boiling at higher temperature
Starts boiling latter Faster to begin
condensation
Substance that refracts light less
Substance that refracts light more

19

Critical angle

10

Power (of a
lens)

11 Focal length
Frequency (of
12 Electromagnet
wave)

Low /
small
High /
large
Low
High
Short
Large /
Long
High

Wavelength
Long /
(for
large
13
Electromagnet
wave)
High
Frequency
14
(sound)

15 Resistivity

16 e.m.f. of cell
17 Power (of

Easier for total internal reflection occur


Difficult for total internal reflection occur
Large / long focal length refract light less
Short focal length Refract light more
High Power
Lower power
Short wavelength
High penetration power
Low frequency
Low penetration power

Low /
small

High pitch
Short wavelength
Spreads out less
Having lower resistance compared to wires
of the same thickness and length.

High /
large

Having higher resistance compared to wires of


the same thickness and length.

Large /
big
High /

Supply a larger current through the same


resistance.
Uses more energy per second

20
electrical
device)

large

Voltage
(working
voltage of
18
electrical
device)

High

Needs a smaller current to produce a fixed


amount of power.

Range
19 (of an
ammeter)

Big

Can measure large current


Usually has a lower sensitivity

Big

Can measure higher voltage


Usually has a lower sensitivity

Short

Decays faster
Reactivity decreases faster
Decays slowly
Reactivity decreases slowly
Radioactivity lasts longer
Changes shape easily when acted upon by
external force
Does not change shape easily when acted
upon by external force
Breaks easily / breaks under small external
Force
Difficult to break / Needs a large force to
Break
Wet a surface (glass) easily

Range
20 (of a
voltmeter)

21 Half-life

Long
Low

22 Rigidity

High
Low

23 Strength
24 Surface

High
Low

21
tension
Rate of
25
rusting

High
Low
High

Does not wet a surface easily


Does not rust easily / quickly
High Rust easily / quickly

RAMALAN 2012
TOPIC
PAPER 1
Introduction of Micrometer
Physics
Scalar & vector
Error
Scientific
Investigation

PAPER 2
PAPER 3
Vernier Caliper
Micrometer
Micrometer
Triple Beam Balance
Triple Beam Balance
Design Experiment
Pendulum system

Force &
Motion

Ticker timer
Motion Graph
Inertia
Effect of Force
Garvity & Free Fall

Ticker Timer
Momentum
Motion Graph
Inertia
Momentum
Effect of Force
Garvity & Free Fall

Force &
Pressure

Pressure
Pascal Principle

Pressure
Liquid Pressure
Atmospheric
Pressure
Archimedes
Principle
Bernoulli Priciple

Heat

Specific Heat
Capacity
Gas Laws

Thermal Equilibrium Design Experiment


Latent Haet
Specific Heat
Boyle Laws
Capacity
Charles Laws

Force & Mass

Design Experiment
Depth & Pressure

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Essay
Light

Waves

Electric

Refraction
Total internal
reflection
Lense

Refraction
Total Internal
reflection
microscope

Real Depth & real


depth
Object & Image
distance

Essay

Design Experiment
Incident angle &
refraction angle

Refraction of waves Diffraction


Diffraction of Waves Reflection
Sound waves
Resonance
Electromagnetic
waves
Series & Parallel
Ohm Laws
Internal Resistance
EMF

Electromagnet Force in current


carrying conductor
Electromagnetic
Induction
Generation &
Transmission

Essay
EMF
Electrical energy &
power
Essay
Transformer
Natinal grid Network
Electromagnetic
Induction
Generation &
Transmission

Interference

Ohms Laws
Design Experiment
Ohm Laws
Design Experiment
Force depend on
number of turn
Induced current
increase when no of
turn increase

23

Electronic

Radioactive

Semiconductor
Transisitor
Logic Gates

Nucleus of atom
The use of
radioisotope

CRO
Semiconductor
Transisitor
Logic Gates
Essay
Nuclear Fusion
Nuclear Fission
Handling
Radioistope
substance

Base Currrnt &


Collector Current

--

Proper management
of radioactive
substance
Pipe Leaking Test
Determine the
Nuclear Fusion
thickness of Paper
Nuclear Fission
Half Life

WAHAI ANAKKU , CARILAH ILMU , KERANA APABILA ENGKAU MENJADI FAKIR ,


MAKA ILMU ITULAH HARTAMU , AKAN TETAPI JIKA ENGKAU KAYA ,ILMU ITU
MENJADI PERHIASAN DIRIMU.

( LUQMAN AL-HAKIM )

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KAEDAH MENGINGAT Pneumonik


( TECHNIQUES TO REMEMBER)
1. Factor affecting the spring constant k
Mat
Arab
TIDUR
DALAM
LORI

Materials
Arrangement
Thickness // Diameter of wire
Diameter of coil // Area
Length of spring

2. Trivalent Impurities // Dopant GABIN


Ga
B
In

Galium
Boron
Indium

3 Pentavalent Impurities // Dopant PANAS


P
An
As

Phosphorus
Antimoni
Arsenic

4 Factor affecting the resistance R


Mat
Arab
TIDUR
DALAM

Materials
Arrangement series or parallel
Thickness // Diameter of wire
Diameter of coil // Area

25
LORI
Length of spring
Tangki
Temperature
5 SUSUNAN WARNA SPEKTRUM
. MAK JUAL KACANG HIJAU BANYAK IA UNTUNG.
Ini adalah kaedah mereka cerita dan akronim iaitu MOKHBIU.
M= MERAH
O = ORANGE
K = KUNING
H = HIJAU
B = BANYAK
I = INDIGO
U= UNGU
6 ISOTOP: Same Proton
Kaedah ini untuk mengingati maksud isotop iaitu unsur yang mempunyai
bilangan proton yang sama.
7 ANTINOD AT Amplitud Tinggi
Kaedah ini adalah untuk mengingati maksud antinod iaitu dengan mengingati
AT yang bermakna amplitud tinggi.
8 BIASAN GELOMBANG AIR DCD( Dalam cetek Dekat)// DST
(Deep shallow towards)
Kaedah ini untuk mengingati arah perambatan gelombang apabila
gelombang
air merambat dari kawasan dalam ke cetek ia akan mendekati garis normal
BIASAN GELOMBANG AIR: CDJ (Cetek Dalam jauh) // SDA
(Shallow deep away)
Kaedah ini untuk mengingati arah perambatan gelombang apabila
gelombang air merambat dari kawasan cetek ke dalam ia akan menjauhi

26
garis normal.
9. TUKAR C KE KELVIN: CK 273
Kaedah ini untuk mengingati kaedah menukar unit suhu dari Celcius kepada
Kelvin. Caranya adalah dengan menambah 273 kepada suhu dalam
celcius.
Contohnya:
30C = 30 + 273 = 300 K
10 Factor affect the strength of electromagnet
Current , Core , Coil
.
11. PETUA TANGAN KIRI/KANAN FLEMING: FBI
(F = Force, B= Magnetic field , I = Current) .
12 JISIM ATOM : JAPAN
Kaedah ini untuk mengingati maksud jsim atom.
J= Jisim
A= Atom
P = Proton
A = Add
N = Neutron
13 KAEDAH GRAF: MAXIS (Manipulated Variable at X axis.)
Kaedah ini adalah untuk mengingati paksi X adalah untuk Manipulated
Variable.
14 PEMBIASAN GELOMBANG CAHAYA: (LEBIH KURANG JA )
Jika sinar cahaya merambat dari medium lebih tumpat kepada medium
kurang tumpat maka sinar itu akan dibiaskan menjauhi garis normal.

27

15

KUANTITI ASAS FIZIK: (MASPJ)


-Kaedah ini adalah untuk mengingati contoh bagi kuantiti asas fizik
iaitu masa, arus, suhu,panjang dan jisim.
M = masa
A = arus
S = suhu
P= panjang
J = Jisim

16 Use Fleming Left Hand Rule or Fleming Right Hand Rule


Fleming Left Hand Rule
F - Force
B Magnetic Field
I - Current
Find force direction
Peace
Use current
Battery // power supply
Application
Motor

Fleming Right Hand Rule


F- Force
B Magnetic Field
I Induced Currnt
Find Induced current
Pistol
Produce induced current
Galvanometer
Dynamo

17 Unit conversion

prefixes

Times( X )

Divide ( )

No
prefixes

28

18 Prefixes
Pak
Nano
Mendapat
Maklumat
Canggih
Dari
Kawan
Mega
Giga
Tera

Piko
Nano
Mikro
Mili
Centi
Desi
Kilo
Mega
Giga
Tera

+
+
+
+

12
9
6
3
2
1
3
6
9
12

19. Types of energy loss in transformer


Types
Raja
Resistance of wire
Eddy
Eddy current
Hysteria Hyterisis
Lagi
Flux leakage

Way to reduce
Copper
Laminate
Soft iron core
Wrap secondary coil on primary coil in
same core

20 Right Hand Grip Rule

Thumb
Curling
finger

Find direction
magnetic field
Current
Direction magnetic field

Polarity of solenoid
North pole
Direction of current

Maxwell screw rule

Clockwise=South pole

29
Anti clockwise = North
SEMOGA BERJAYA.
I have not failed, I have just 10 000 ways that wont work
- Thomas Alva Edison -

ILMU ITU DIDAPATI DARIPADA LIDAH YANG SUKA BERTANYA DAN


AKAL YANG SUKA BERFIKIR.