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Doane Stat - CH17 test answers

- Total Quality Management 331 v1
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- Project Quality Management
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- STATS - DOANE - Chapter 15 Chi-Square Tests
- Chap 016
- Chap 012
- Company Wide Quality Management
- Chap 001
- Doane Solutions
- DOANE - STAT - Chap 006
- Chap 009
- Basic SQC Practices for Healthcare Labs.pdf
- Chap 011
- DOANE - Stats answer key Chap 008
- How to Audit the Process Based QMS
- Variability and Spc Lesson52
- Chapter 05 W7 L2 L3 Statistical Process Control 2015 UTP C5
- Quality Management.pdf
- His To

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Quality Management

1. Quality control refers to methods used by organizations to ensure that

their products and services meet customer expectations.

True

False

True

False

a process.

True

False

prior to World War II.

True

False

5. Process control charts were adopted by the Japanese after World War

II.

True

False

descending order.

True

False

Shewhart.

True

False

Taguchi and Ishikawa.

True

False

variation.

True

False

.

True False

11 The presence of common cause variation is an indication that the

. process is out of control.

True

False

. that are not from the same population as the majority of the

observations.

True

False

. produced.

True

False

. more than two standard deviations above the centerline.

True

False

15 A p-chart is a type of process control chart that can be used for plotting

. the proportion of nonconforming sampled items.

True

False

16 The Cpk index may indicate a capable process even though the Cp index

. is unacceptable.

True

False

. every single item is being inspected (n = 1) since the range (R) cannot

be calculated.

True

False

. centerline, the process is not in control.

True

False

19 ISO 9000 standards were first developed in the United States under the

. leadership of Joseph Juran.

True

False

.

True False

21 Deming stressed identifying the workers who contributed the most to

. poor quality.

True

False

. to faulty equipment.

True

False

.

True False

. distances between the centerline and the USL and LSL.

True

False

25 As a rule of thumb, if a process Cpk index is less than 1.00, the level of

. process capability is usually judged acceptable.

True

False

26 The Cp index equals the Cpk index if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545,

. and = 0.75.

True

False

27 The Cp index equals the Cpk index if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 543,

. and = 0.75.

True

False

28 The Cp index equals the Cpk index if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 546,

. and = 1.25.

True

False

29 If USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545, and = 1.00, the Cp index is 1.67.

.

True False

30 If USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545, and = 0.4, the process is highly

. capable.

True

False

31 If USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545, and = 1.75, the process is highly

. capable.

True

False

. in relation to the distance between the centerline and the upper and

lower specification limits.

True

False

. index at least equal to 1.33 (and ideally much more than 1.33).

True

False

chart,

. it is necessary to recalculate your control limits because the limits will

be narrower.

True

False

chart,

. it is necessary to recalculate your control limits because the limits will

be wider.

True

False

chart are typically set at

. plus or minus three standard errors from the centerline.

True

False

37 A p-chart is a type of process control chart that is used for plotting the

. number of defects per unit produced.

True

False

.

True False

39 Quality management is characterized by focus on the customer and

. continual improvement.

True

False

. statistical control, regardless of whether the desired specifications are

being met.

True

False

41 A control chart for the mean tells whether the product conforms to

. specifications.

True

False

. process is stable and in control by detecting special cause variation.

True

False

43 Walter Shewhart was an American who studied the control charts that

. the Japanese had invented after World War II and brought those

methods back to the United States during the 1980s.

True

False

44 Quality experts would probably not recommend:

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

reducing variation.

using control charts.

placing blame for poor work.

identifying sources of variation.

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

trained statisticians.

quality control inspectors.

management.

customers.

. Edwards Deming?

the 1950s.

B. He lived a very long life and was a highly paid consultant past age

80.

C. He invented control charts and proposed the ISO 9000 standard.

D. He believed that poor quality is not primarily the fault of the

workers.

47 Control charts (SPC charts) are attributed to:

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Deming.

Shewhart.

Juran.

Taguchi.

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Potter and Granger.

Dodge and Romig.

Taguchi and Ishikawa.

49 __________ and ___________ are well known for their statistical work

. related to customer satisfaction and the cost of quality.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Harold and Kumar

Dodge and Romig

Taguchi and Ishikawa

. Management?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Employee empowerment

Reduction of waste

Continuous improvement

Reducing the Cp index

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

chart.

R chart.

np chart.

I chart.

. chart is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

mixture.

oscillation.

cycle.

trend.

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Fishbone diagram

Pareto chart

Attribute control chart

Deming chart

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Shewhart in the 1920s.

Westinghouse in the 1960s.

Pacioli in the 1490s.

.

A. Taking measurements on a variable and keeping careful records

B. Posting quality banners or company flags where they are visible to

all

C. Castigating the lazy employees for their shoddy workmanship

D. Sending employees to Motivation Camp taught by expensive

consultants

56 Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the

. following?

B. The engineers were underpaid for their work.

C. There was insufficient preliminary sampling.

D. Process variation was not zero, as expected.

57 Attribute control charts would not be used to display the:

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

sample range for a measured variable.

total number nonconforming parts.

average number of nonconforming parts.

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Instability

Cycles

Level shift

Trend

59 Which of the following is most likely the cause of a level shift in a SPC

. chart?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Tool wear

A new worker

Temperature fluctuations

Alternating samples from two machines

.

A. tend to alternate between high and low values.

B. drift slowly either upward or downward.

C.

vary more than expected.

D. shift abruptly either above or below the centerline.

61 A level shift in a process is indicated when samples:

.

A. tend to alternate between high and low values.

B. drift slowly either upward or downward.

C.

vary more than expected.

D.

shift abruptly to a new mean.

62 A slow drift of measurements either up or down from the process

. centerline suggests a:

A.

B.

C.

D.

mixed process.

trend.

instability.

cycle.

.

A. Variance is essentially unchanged from sample to sample.

B. It is often due to mixing two batches of materials.

C. It is detectable on a control chart if enough samples are taken.

D. Rules of thumb can be established to detect it.

. the

chart?

A.

Single point outside three sigma

B. Three of four successive points outside two sigma on the same side

of the centerline

C. Four of five successive points outside one sigma on the same side of

the centerline

D. Nine successive points on the same side of the centerline

65 Which is not a characteristic of instability?

.

A. Larger than normal amount of variation

B. Higher-than-expected frequencies in tails of the distribution of

means

C.

Often caused by untrained operators

D. Specification limits that are too narrow

66 Refer to the diagram below:

.

A.

B.

C.

equal to one.

greater than one.

67 Find the Cp index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545,

. and = 0.75.

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.25

1.33

2.22

1.75

68 Find the Cpk index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545,

. and = 0.75.

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.33

2.22

1.25

1.75

69 Find the Cp index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 543,

. and = 0.75.

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.25

1.33

2.22

1.75

70 Find the Cpk index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 543,

. and = 0.75.

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.33

2.22

1.25

1.75

71 Find the Cpk index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 544,

. and = 1.25.

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.33

2.22

1.07

1.75

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

No, but very close

Yes, just barely

Yes, highly capable

.

A.

B.

C.

the capability of a process.

both stability and capability.

. it would typically:

A.

B.

C.

D.

increase variation.

decrease variation.

widen the specification limits.

improve conformance to specifications.

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Juran

Deming

Taguchi

Ishikawa

. parameters are = 2.75 and = .044, the control limits for the

chart will be:

A.

B.

C.

D.

LCL = 2.728, UCL = 2.772.

LCL = 2.618, UCL = 2.882.

LCL = 2.518, UCL = 2.998.

.

A. It shows the number of defects per item being inspected.

B. It measures the fraction of nonconforming items in a sample.

C. It is based on the binomial distribution (or its normal

approximation).

D. It will have varying control limits if the sample size is changing.

78 Ten samples of n = 5 were collected to construct an

chart. The

. sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table below.

A.

B.

C.

D.

210.5

206.9

205.3

208.2

chart.

chart. The

. sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table below.

Calculate the empirical lower and upper control limits for the

(you will need a table of control chart factors).

A.

B.

C.

D.

196.46, 217.34

171.81, 241.39

188.03, 225.17

163.64, 250.56

chart

chart. The

. sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table below.

A.

B.

C.

D.

20.8

17.2

18.1

19.4

chart. The

. sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table below.

Calculate empirical lower and upper control limits for the R chart (you

will need a table of control chart factors).

A.

B.

C.

D.

0, 45.86

0, 42.49

0, 38.26

4.48, 35.58

. percentage of absenteeism in his introductory statistics course (50

students are registered). Absences per period for the last 15 class

sessions are in the table below.

A.

B.

C.

D.

.068

.072

.146

.202

. percentage of absenteeism in his introductory statistics course (50

students are registered). Absences per period for the last 15 class

sessions are in the table below.

Using 3 sigma limits, calculate lower and upper control limits for a pchart to track absences.

A.

B.

C.

D.

0, .252

0, .175

0, .114

-0.038, .272

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Instability

Trend

Level shift

Cycle

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Instability

Trend

Level shift

Cycle

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Instability

Trend

Level shift

Cycle

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Instability

Trend

Level shift

Cycle

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Instability

Oscillation

Level shift

Cycle

89 What does the first letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Design

Distribute

Describe

Define

90 What does the second letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Maximize

Measure

Mentor

Mobilize

91 What does the third letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Analyze

Action

Absolve

Attack

92 What does the fourth letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Integrate

Investigate

Improve

Interact

93 What does the fifth letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Cooperate

Correlate

Coordinate

Control

. measurement?

A.

B.

C.

D.

s-chart

MR-chart

R-chart

p-chart

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

I-chart

c-chart

p-chart

chart

. maintain the product specifications would be:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1 on each side.

2 on each side.

3 on each side.

. margin" for product specifications would be:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1 on each side.

2 on each side.

3 on each side.

.

chart?

A.

Single point outside one sigma

B. Two of three successive points outside one sigma on the same side

of the centerline

C. Four of five successive points on the same side of the centerline

D. Nine successive points alternating in sign

.

.

.

.

.

chart. The

.

sample means and ranges are in the table below. Calculate the control

limits for the

and R charts, what is your conclusion?

Note: You will need a table of control chart factors.

.

percentage of absenteeism in his introductory statistics course (50

students are registered). Absences per period for the last 15 class

sessions are in the table below. Find the empirical control limits for a

p-chart to be used in the future for monitoring class attendance

(assuming that past experience is the appropriate attainable

centerline for class absences).

1.

that their products and services meet customer expectations.

TRUE

Quality control is a broad area encompassing various statistical and

behavioral tools.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-01 Define quality and explain how it may be measured.

Topic: Quality Improvement

2.

TRUE

Variation in products and services should lie within a desired target

range.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-01 Define quality and explain how it may be measured.

Topic: Quality and Variation

3.

in a process.

TRUE

Services and products with less variation perform more consistently.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-01 Define quality and explain how it may be measured.

Topic: Quality and Variation

4.

prior to World War II.

FALSE

U.S. experts pioneered quality control, but the Japanese adopted and

refined its methods.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

5.

Process control charts were adopted by the Japanese after World War

II.

TRUE

After WW II the Japanese became experts in quality control.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

6.

in descending order.

TRUE

The Pareto chart is like a histogram showing frequencies of

problems.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-04 List common statistical tools used in quality improvement.

Topic: Quality Improvement

7.

Shewhart.

TRUE

Walter Shewhart invented and refined control charts.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

8.

of Taguchi and Ishikawa.

FALSE

Harold F. Dodge and Harry G. Romig created tables for acceptance

sampling.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

9.

variation.

TRUE

"In-control" processes have variation that is within predictable

normal limits.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-02 Distinguish between common cause variation and special cause variation.

Topic: Quality and Variation

10.

process.

TRUE

"In-control" processes have variation that is within predictable

normal limits.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-02 Distinguish between common cause variation and special cause variation.

Topic: Control Charts: Overview

11.

process is out of control.

FALSE

"In-control" processes have variation that is within predictable

normal limits.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-02 Distinguish between common cause variation and special cause variation.

Topic: Quality and Variation

12.

observations that are not from the same population as the majority

of the observations.

TRUE

Contrast with common cause variation, which is within predictable

normal limits.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-02 Distinguish between common cause variation and special cause variation.

Topic: Quality and Variation

13.

is produced.

FALSE

Control charts are based on measurements taken from actual output

or services.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Control Charts: Overview

14.

more than two standard deviations above the centerline.

TRUE

We expect a sample mean beyond two standard errors about 5

percent of the time.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

15.

plotting the proportion of nonconforming sampled items.

TRUE

With a p-chart we can track the proportion of nonconforming items.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Other Control Charts

16.

The Cpk index may indicate a capable process even though the Cp

index is unacceptable.

FALSE

The Cpk index may indicate problems when the Cp index is OK.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

17.

every single item is being inspected (n = 1) since the range (R)

cannot be calculated.

TRUE

With n = 1 there is no range or standard deviation, so we use a

moving range.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Control Charts: Overview

18.

centerline, the process is not in control.

FALSE

Sample means only lie within two standard errors about 95 percent

of the time. A single point outside 2 sigmas is not indicative of a

problem.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

19.

ISO 9000 standards were first developed in the United States under

the leadership of Joseph Juran.

FALSE

The ISO standards were mostly developed in Europe.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

20.

TRUE

The focus in ISO is on systems that prevent quality problems and

defects.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.

Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

21.

poor quality.

FALSE

Deming felt that management must take responsibility for ensuring

quality.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

22.

to faulty equipment.

FALSE

Deming felt that poor management was mainly to blame for low

quality.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

23.

FALSE

Fishbone (cause-and-effect) diagrams display likely sources of quality

problems.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-04 List common statistical tools used in quality improvement.

Topic: Quality Improvement

24.

distances between the centerline and the USL and LSL.

TRUE

The Cpk index remedies a weakness of the Cp index by showing poor

centering.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

25.

As a rule of thumb, if a process Cpk index is less than 1.00, the level

of process capability is usually judged acceptable.

FALSE

The Cpk index must be greater than 1 for the process to have a safety

margin.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

26.

The Cp index equals the Cpk index if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545,

and = 0.75.

TRUE

Because is halfway between the USL and LSL, we know that Cp =

Cpk.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

27.

The Cp index equals the Cpk index if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 543,

and = 0.75.

FALSE

Because is not centered between the USL and LSL, we know that

Cp Cpk.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

28.

The Cp index equals the Cpk index if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 546,

and = 1.25.

FALSE

Because is not centered between the USL and LSL, we know that

Cp Cpk.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

29.

If USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545, and = 1.00, the Cp index is 1.67.

TRUE

Cp = (USL - LSL)/(6) = (550 - 540)/[(6)(1)] = 1.67.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

30.

If USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545, and = 0.4, the process is highly

capable.

TRUE

Cp = (USL - LSL)/(6) = (550 - 540)/[(6)(0.4)] = 4.17.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

31.

If USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545, and = 1.75, the process is highly

capable.

FALSE

Cp = (USL - LSL)/(6) = (550 - 540)/[(6)(1.75)] = 0.95.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

32.

small in relation to the distance between the centerline and the

upper and lower specification limits.

TRUE

A highly capable process has low variation relative to the spec range

(safety margin).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

33.

index at least equal to 1.33 (and ideally much more than 1.33).

TRUE

A highly capable process has a safety margin of 1 or more.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

34.

chart, it is necessary to recalculate your control limits because the

limits will be narrower.

TRUE

The control limits are 3/n1/2 from the centerline.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

35.

chart, it is necessary to recalculate your control limits because the

limits will be wider.

FALSE

Control limits are 3/n1/2 from the centerline so the limits will be

narrower.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

36.

chart are typically set at

plus or minus three standard errors from the centerline.

TRUE

The control limits are 3/n1/2 from the centerline.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Other Control Charts

37.

the number of defects per unit produced.

FALSE

The p-chart plots the proportion of defective (or conforming)

products or services.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Other Control Charts

38.

TRUE

The c-chart is used when the number of defects follows a Poisson

distribution.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Other Control Charts

39.

continual improvement.

TRUE

The idea is to improve quality by more consistency and less

variation.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.

Topic: Quality Improvement

40.

in statistical control, regardless of whether the desired specifications

are being met.

TRUE

A process can be stable and in control while producing

nonconforming results.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

41.

A control chart for the mean tells whether the product conforms to

specifications.

FALSE

A process can be stable and in control while producing

nonconforming results.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

42.

process is stable and in control by detecting special cause variation.

TRUE

Control limits and pattern detection rules will reveal unusual (special

cause) variation.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-02 Distinguish between common cause variation and special cause variation.

Topic: Control Charts: Overview

43.

that the Japanese had invented after World War II and brought those

methods back to the United States during the 1980s.

FALSE

Shewhart invented the control charts that the Japanese adopted

after WWII.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

44.

A.

B.

C.

D.

reducing variation.

using control charts.

placing blame for poor work.

identifying sources of variation.

finding solutions.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-01 Define quality and explain how it may be measured.

Topic: Quality and Variation

45.

A.

B.

C.

D.

trained statisticians.

quality control inspectors.

management.

customers.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-01 Define quality and explain how it may be measured.

Topic: Quality and Variation

46.

Edwards Deming?

during the 1950s.

B. He lived a very long life and was a highly paid consultant past age

80.

C. He invented control charts and proposed the ISO 9000 standard.

D. He believed that poor quality is not primarily the fault of the

workers.

Deming lived long and taught the Japanese, but ISO was a European

innovation.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

47.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Deming.

Shewhart.

Juran.

Taguchi.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

48.

of:

A.

B.

C.

D.

Potter and Granger.

Dodge and Romig.

Taguchi and Ishikawa.

sampling.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

49.

__________ and ___________ are well known for their statistical work

related to customer satisfaction and the cost of quality.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Harold and Kumar

Dodge and Romig

Taguchi and Ishikawa

focused on customer satisfaction and costs of quality.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

50.

Management?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Employee empowerment

Reduction of waste

Continuous improvement

Reducing the Cp index

TQM covers a variety of tools but does not deal with capability.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.

Topic: Quality Improvement

51.

A.

B.

C.

D.

chart.

R chart.

np chart.

I chart.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

52.

chart is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

mixture.

oscillation.

cycle.

trend.

can be subtle.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

53.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Fishbone diagram

Pareto chart

Attribute control chart

Deming chart

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-04 List common statistical tools used in quality improvement.

Topic: Quality Improvement

54.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Shewhart in the 1920s.

Westinghouse in the 1960s.

Pacioli in the 1490s.

ago.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

55.

B. Posting quality banners or company flags where they are visible to

all

C. Castigating the lazy employees for their shoddy workmanship

D. Sending employees to Motivation Camp taught by expensive

consultants

No control chart can be created without a record of accurate

measurements.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.

Topic: Quality Improvement

56.

the following?

B. The engineers were underpaid for their work.

C. There was insufficient preliminary sampling.

D. Process variation was not zero, as expected.

A control chart requires a long enough record of accurate

measurements.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Control Charts: Overview

57.

A.

B.

C.

D.

sample range for a measured variable.

total number nonconforming parts.

average number of nonconforming parts.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Control Charts: Overview

58.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Instability

Cycles

Level shift

Trend

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

59.

SPC chart?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Tool wear

A new worker

Temperature fluctuations

Alternating samples from two machines

personnel.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

60.

B. drift slowly either upward or downward.

C.

vary more than expected.

D. shift abruptly either above or below the centerline.

Increased variation in a process (relative to the past) is called

instability.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

61.

B. drift slowly either upward or downward.

C.

vary more than expected.

D.

shift abruptly to a new mean.

A process may stabilize at a new level (but this is a control chart

violation).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

62.

centerline suggests a:

A.

B.

C.

D.

mixed process.

trend.

instability.

cycle.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

63.

A.

B.

C.

D.

It is often due to mixing two batches of materials.

It is detectable on a control chart if enough samples are taken.

Rules of thumb can be established to detect it.

steady change.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

64.

the

chart?

A.

Single point outside three sigma

B. Three of four successive points outside two sigma on the same

side of the centerline

C. Four of five successive points outside one sigma on the same side

of the centerline

D. Nine successive points on the same side of the centerline

Learn the textbook rules (Rule 3 is four of five successive points

beyond one sigma).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

65.

B. Higher-than-expected frequencies in tails of the distribution of

means

C.

Often caused by untrained operators

D. Specification limits that are too narrow

Specification limits are based on customer requirements (achievable

or not).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

66.

A.

B.

C.

equal to one.

greater than one.

3 on right).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

67.

Find the Cp index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545,

and = 0.75.

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.25

1.33

2.22

1.75

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

68.

Find the Cpk index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545,

and = 0.75.

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.33

2.22

1.25

1.75

(0.75)] = 2.22.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

69.

Find the Cp index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 543,

and = 0.75.

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.25

1.33

2.22

1.75

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

70.

Find the Cpk index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 543,

and = 0.75.

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.33

2.22

1.25

1.75

(0.75)] = 1.33.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

71.

Find the Cpk index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 544,

and = 1.25.

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.33

2.22

1.07

1.75

(1.25)] = 1.07.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

72.

1.25?

A.

B.

C.

D.

No, but very close

Yes, just barely

Yes, highly capable

(1.25)] = 0.53.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

73.

A.

B.

C.

the capability of a process.

both stability and capability.

Cpk index).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Control Charts: Overview

74.

sample, it would typically:

A.

B.

C.

D.

increase variation.

decrease variation.

widen the specification limits.

improve conformance to specifications.

variation.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

75.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Juran

Deming

Taguchi

Ishikawa

quality.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.

Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

76.

parameters are = 2.75 and = .044, the control limits for the

chart will be:

A.

B.

C.

D.

LCL

LCL

LCL

LCL

=

=

=

=

2.684,

2.728,

2.618,

2.518,

UCL

UCL

UCL

UCL

=

=

=

=

2.816.

2.772.

2.882.

2.998.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

77.

B. It measures the fraction of nonconforming items in a sample.

C. It is based on the binomial distribution (or its normal

approximation).

D. It will have varying control limits if the sample size is changing.

The p-chart shows the proportion of nonconforming items p = x/n.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Other Control Charts

78.

chart. The

sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table

below.

A.

B.

C.

D.

chart.

210.5

206.9

205.3

208.2

+ . . .+ 212)/10.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

79.

chart. The

sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table

below.

Calculate the empirical lower and upper control limits for the

chart (you will need a table of control chart factors).

A.

B.

C.

D.

196.46,

171.81,

188.03,

163.64,

217.34

241.39

225.17

250.56

mean of 10 ranges is 18.1, and the control limits are 206.9

3(18.1)/[(2.326)(51/2)].

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

80.

chart. The

sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table

below.

A.

B.

C.

D.

20.8

17.2

18.1

19.4

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

81.

chart. The

sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table

below.

Calculate empirical lower and upper control limits for the R chart

(you will need a table of control chart factors).

A.

B.

C.

D.

0, 45.86

0, 42.49

0, 38.26

4.48, 35.58

+ . . .+ 17)/10 = 18.1, so LCL = D3(R-bar) = 0(18.1) = 0 and UCL =

D4(R-bar) = (2.114)(18.1) = 38.26.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Control Charts for a Range

82.

percentage of absenteeism in his introductory statistics course (50

students are registered). Absences per period for the last 15 class

sessions are in the table below.

A.

B.

C.

D.

.068

.072

.146

.202

(class size) = (3.4)/50 = .068, or you could average the 15 sample

proportions [5/50, 0/50, 2/50, . . ., 3/50].

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Other Control Charts

83.

percentage of absenteeism in his introductory statistics course (50

students are registered). Absences per period for the last 15 class

sessions are in the table below.

Using 3 sigma limits, calculate lower and upper control limits for a pchart to track absences.

A.

B.

C.

D.

0, .252

0, .175

0, .114

-0.038, .272

(avg absences)/(class size) = (3.4)/50 = .068, so the control limits

are pavg 3[pavg(1 - pavg)/n]1/2.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Other Control Charts

84.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Instability

Trend

Level shift

Cycle

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Analyze

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

85.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Instability

Trend

Level shift

Cycle

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Analyze

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

86.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Instability

Trend

Level shift

Cycle

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Analyze

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

87.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Instability

Trend

Level shift

Cycle

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Analyze

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

88.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Instability

Oscillation

Level shift

Cycle

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Analyze

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

89.

What does the first letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Design

Distribute

Describe

Define

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.

Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

90.

acronym?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Maximize

Measure

Mentor

Mobilize

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.

Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

91.

What does the third letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Analyze

Action

Absolve

Attack

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.

Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

92.

What does the fourth letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Integrate

Investigate

Improve

Interact

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.

Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

93.

What does the fifth letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Cooperate

Correlate

Coordinate

Control

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.

Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

94.

measurement?

A.

B.

C.

D.

s-chart

MR-chart

R-chart

p-chart

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Other Control Charts

95.

A.

B.

C.

D.

I-chart

c-chart

p-chart

chart

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Other Control Charts

96.

maintain the product specifications would be:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1 on each side.

2 on each side.

3 on each side.

margin.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

97.

margin" for product specifications would be:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1 on each side.

2 on each side.

3 on each side.

The lower end of the expected range of X would be - 3 = 53 3(.50) = 51.5, while the upper end of the expected range of X would

be + 3 = 53 + 3(.50) = 54.5. This leaves a safety margin of 1.5

on either end which is 3 because 3 0.5 = 1.5.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.

Topic: Process Capability

98.

chart?

A.

Single point outside one sigma

B. Two of three successive points outside one sigma on the same

side of the centerline

C. Four of five successive points on the same side of the centerline

D. Nine successive points alternating in sign

Review the rules (Other choices are incorrectly stated).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

99.

Clearly out of control. Violates all four rules (one beyond three

sigma, two of three beyond two sigma, four of five beyond one

sigma, nine successive on one side of the mean).

Feedback: Clearly out of control. Violates all four rules (one beyond

three sigma, two of three beyond two sigma, four of five beyond one

sigma, nine successive on one side of the mean).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Analyze

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

centerline. No other rules are being broken.

Feedback: Oscillation is occurring. There are more than m/2

crossings of the centerline. No other rules are being broken.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Analyze

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

centerline. No other rules are being broken.

Feedback: Oscillation is occurring. There are more than m/2

crossings of the centerline. No other rules are being broken.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Analyze

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

Feedback: Out of control (Rule 3 violation, four of five beyond one

sigma).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

pattern suggests that oscillation is occurring since there are more

than m/2 crossings of the centerline.

Feedback: May be in control. Rules 1 through 4 are not broken, but

visual pattern suggests that oscillation is occurring since there are

more than m/2 crossings of the centerline.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.

Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

chart. The

sample means and ranges are in the table below. Calculate the

control limits for the

and R charts, what is your

conclusion? Note: You will need a table of control chart factors.

For the

chart, the centerline is the mean of the means

= 206.9

and the control limits are LCL = 196.46 and UCL = 217.46 (using

control chart factors d2 = 2.326 and n = 5). For the R-chart, the

centerline is 18.1 and the control limits are LCL = 0 and UCL = 38.26

(using control chart factors D3 = 0 and D4 = 2.114 for n = 5). We

normally do not use the same sample to calculate control chart limits

and then plot the data to assess the process (however, note that

both MINITAB and MegaStat do this). In this case the result is that

the process appears to be out of control with respect to the mean

(means of samples 4, 5, 6 are above the UCL) but in control for the

range.

Feedback: For the

chart, the centerline is the mean of the means

= 206.9 and the control limits are LCL = 196.46 and UCL =

217.46 (using control chart factors d2 = 2.326 and n = 5). For the Rchart, the centerline is 18.1 and the control limits are LCL = 0 and

UCL = 38.26 (using control chart factors D3 = 0 and D4 = 2.114 for n

= 5). We normally do not use the same sample to calculate control

chart limits and then plot the data to assess the process (however,

note that both MINITAB and MegaStat do this). In this case the result

is that the process appears to be out of control with respect to the

mean (means of samples 4, 5, 6 are above the UCL) but in control for

the range.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Evaluate

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

percentage of absenteeism in his introductory statistics course (50

students are registered). Absences per period for the last 15 class

sessions are in the table below. Find the empirical control limits for a

p-chart to be used in the future for monitoring class attendance

(assuming that past experience is the appropriate attainable

centerline for class absences).

proportion

from the 15 class sessions, and then use it in the

formulas for p-chart control limits. Note that n = 50 for the control

chart limits since that is the number of students in the class (the

sample size of 15 is only used to estimate ). There are 51 absences

in 15 class sessions, an average of 3.4 absences per class, so the

empirical centerline is

= (3.4)/(50) = .068. Using n = 50, the

resulting control limits for the p-chart are LCL = 0 (since we can't

have a negative proportion) and UCL = .1748.

Feedback: Since there is no historical value, we must estimate the

average proportion

from the 15 class sessions, and then use it in

the formulas for p-chart control limits. Note that n = 50 for the

control chart limits since that is the number of students in the class

(the sample size of 15 is only used to estimate ). There are 51

absences in 15 class sessions, an average of 3.4 absences per class,

so the empirical centerline is

= (3.4)/(50) = .068. Using n = 50,

the resulting control limits for the p-chart are LCL = 0 (since we can't

have a negative proportion) and UCL = .1748.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Evaluate

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).

Topic: Other Control Charts

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