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Chapter 17

Quality Management

True / False Questions


1. Quality control refers to methods used by organizations to ensure that
their products and services meet customer expectations.
True

False

2. An important attribute of quality is conformance to specifications.


True

False

3. A major goal in statistical quality control is the reduction of variation in


a process.
True

False

4. The Japanese invented and implemented quality control techniques


prior to World War II.
True

False

5. Process control charts were adopted by the Japanese after World War
II.
True

False

6. Pareto charts show the frequency of problems that affect a process in


descending order.
True

False

7. Statistical process control charts (SPC charts) are attributed to


Shewhart.
True

False

8. The development of acceptance sampling is attributed to the works of


Taguchi and Ishikawa.
True

False

9. An in-control process will always exhibit some common cause


variation.
True

False

10 Common cause variation does not indicate an out-of-control process.


.
True False
11 The presence of common cause variation is an indication that the
. process is out of control.
True

False

12 Special cause variation exists when the process produces observations


. that are not from the same population as the majority of the
observations.
True

False

13 Control charts are used to monitor the quality of a product before it is


. produced.
True

False

14 A process may be in a state of control even if one sample mean is


. more than two standard deviations above the centerline.
True

False

15 A p-chart is a type of process control chart that can be used for plotting
. the proportion of nonconforming sampled items.
True

False

16 The Cpk index may indicate a capable process even though the Cp index
. is unacceptable.
True

False

17 A moving range (MR) chart is appropriate to monitor variation when


. every single item is being inspected (n = 1) since the range (R) cannot
be calculated.
True

False

18 If a single sample mean is 2.1 standard deviations above the


. centerline, the process is not in control.
True

False

19 ISO 9000 standards were first developed in the United States under the
. leadership of Joseph Juran.
True

False

20 ISO 9000 specifies quality processes rather than defect rates.


.
True False
21 Deming stressed identifying the workers who contributed the most to
. poor quality.
True

False

22 Deming thought that the majority of quality problems were traceable


. to faulty equipment.
True

False

23 Fishbone diagrams were developed for the Japanese fishing industry.


.
True False

24 In statistical process control, the Cpk index measures the separate


. distances between the centerline and the USL and LSL.
True

False

25 As a rule of thumb, if a process Cpk index is less than 1.00, the level of
. process capability is usually judged acceptable.
True

False

26 The Cp index equals the Cpk index if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545,
. and = 0.75.
True

False

27 The Cp index equals the Cpk index if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 543,
. and = 0.75.
True

False

28 The Cp index equals the Cpk index if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 546,
. and = 1.25.
True

False

29 If USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545, and = 1.00, the Cp index is 1.67.
.
True False
30 If USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545, and = 0.4, the process is highly
. capable.
True

False

31 If USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545, and = 1.75, the process is highly
. capable.
True

False

32 In general terms, a capable process is one whose variability () is small


. in relation to the distance between the centerline and the upper and
lower specification limits.
True

False

33 Management wants a process to be in control and have a capability


. index at least equal to 1.33 (and ideally much more than 1.33).
True

False

34 If you increase the size of the samples taken when using an


chart,
. it is necessary to recalculate your control limits because the limits will
be narrower.
True

False

35 If you increase the size of the samples taken when using an


chart,
. it is necessary to recalculate your control limits because the limits will
be wider.
True

False

36 The upper and lower control limits of an


chart are typically set at
. plus or minus three standard errors from the centerline.
True

False

37 A p-chart is a type of process control chart that is used for plotting the
. number of defects per unit produced.
True

False

38 A c-chart is based on the Poisson distribution.


.
True False
39 Quality management is characterized by focus on the customer and
. continual improvement.
True

False

40 A process whose output distribution is stable over time is said to be in


. statistical control, regardless of whether the desired specifications are
being met.
True

False

41 A control chart for the mean tells whether the product conforms to
. specifications.
True

False

42 In statistical process control, control charts are used to ensure that a


. process is stable and in control by detecting special cause variation.
True

False

43 Walter Shewhart was an American who studied the control charts that
. the Japanese had invented after World War II and brought those
methods back to the United States during the 1980s.
True

False

Multiple Choice Questions


44 Quality experts would probably not recommend:
.
A.
B.
C.
D.

reducing variation.
using control charts.
placing blame for poor work.
identifying sources of variation.

45 Quality is ultimately best assessed by:


.
A.
B.
C.
D.

trained statisticians.
quality control inspectors.
management.
customers.

46 Which is not a true statement about the life and philosophy of W.


. Edwards Deming?

A. He taught quality control techniques to Japanese companies during


the 1950s.
B. He lived a very long life and was a highly paid consultant past age
80.
C. He invented control charts and proposed the ISO 9000 standard.
D. He believed that poor quality is not primarily the fault of the
workers.
47 Control charts (SPC charts) are attributed to:
.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Deming.
Shewhart.
Juran.
Taguchi.

48 The development of acceptance sampling is attributed to the works of:


.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Deming and Shewhart.


Potter and Granger.
Dodge and Romig.
Taguchi and Ishikawa.

49 __________ and ___________ are well known for their statistical work
. related to customer satisfaction and the cost of quality.

A.
B.
C.
D.

Deming and Shewhart


Harold and Kumar
Dodge and Romig
Taguchi and Ishikawa

50 Which of the following is not a characteristic of Total Quality


. Management?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Employee empowerment
Reduction of waste
Continuous improvement
Reducing the Cp index

51 Instability is most readily apparent on the:


.
A.
B.
C.
D.

chart.
R chart.
np chart.
I chart.

52 The problem that is probably the hardest to identify from a control


. chart is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

mixture.
oscillation.
cycle.
trend.

53 Which is not a tool of statistical quality control?


.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Fishbone diagram
Pareto chart
Attribute control chart
Deming chart

54 Control charts were an innovation attributed to:


.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Deming in the 1950s.


Shewhart in the 1920s.
Westinghouse in the 1960s.
Pacioli in the 1490s.

55 Which is an appropriate step in continuous quality improvement?


.
A. Taking measurements on a variable and keeping careful records
B. Posting quality banners or company flags where they are visible to
all
C. Castigating the lazy employees for their shoddy workmanship
D. Sending employees to Motivation Camp taught by expensive
consultants
56 Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the
. following?

A. The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.


B. The engineers were underpaid for their work.
C. There was insufficient preliminary sampling.
D. Process variation was not zero, as expected.
57 Attribute control charts would not be used to display the:
.
A.
B.
C.
D.

proportion of nonconforming parts.


sample range for a measured variable.
total number nonconforming parts.
average number of nonconforming parts.

58 The R chart is likely to reveal which problem?


.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Instability
Cycles
Level shift
Trend

59 Which of the following is most likely the cause of a level shift in a SPC
. chart?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Tool wear
A new worker
Temperature fluctuations
Alternating samples from two machines

60 Instability in a process is indicated when samples:


.
A. tend to alternate between high and low values.
B. drift slowly either upward or downward.
C.
vary more than expected.
D. shift abruptly either above or below the centerline.
61 A level shift in a process is indicated when samples:
.
A. tend to alternate between high and low values.
B. drift slowly either upward or downward.
C.
vary more than expected.
D.
shift abruptly to a new mean.
62 A slow drift of measurements either up or down from the process
. centerline suggests a:

A.
B.
C.
D.

mixed process.
trend.
instability.
cycle.

63 Which is not characteristic of a trend?


.
A. Variance is essentially unchanged from sample to sample.
B. It is often due to mixing two batches of materials.
C. It is detectable on a control chart if enough samples are taken.
D. Rules of thumb can be established to detect it.

64 Which is not a rule of thumb to indicate an out-of-control process on


. the
chart?

A.
Single point outside three sigma
B. Three of four successive points outside two sigma on the same side
of the centerline
C. Four of five successive points outside one sigma on the same side of
the centerline
D. Nine successive points on the same side of the centerline
65 Which is not a characteristic of instability?
.
A. Larger than normal amount of variation
B. Higher-than-expected frequencies in tails of the distribution of
means
C.
Often caused by untrained operators
D. Specification limits that are too narrow
66 Refer to the diagram below:
.

For this process, the Cp index would be:

A.
B.
C.

less than one.


equal to one.
greater than one.

67 Find the Cp index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545,
. and = 0.75.

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.25
1.33
2.22
1.75

68 Find the Cpk index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545,
. and = 0.75.

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.33
2.22
1.25
1.75

69 Find the Cp index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 543,
. and = 0.75.

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.25
1.33
2.22
1.75

70 Find the Cpk index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 543,
. and = 0.75.

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.33
2.22
1.25
1.75

71 Find the Cpk index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 544,
. and = 1.25.

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.33
2.22
1.07
1.75

72 Is a process capable if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 542, and = 1.25?


.
A.
B.
C.
D.

No, clearly not


No, but very close
Yes, just barely
Yes, highly capable

73 Statistical process control charts can measure:


.
A.
B.
C.

the stability of the process.


the capability of a process.
both stability and capability.

74 In manufacturing, if workers readjust the equipment after each sample,


. it would typically:

A.
B.
C.
D.

increase variation.
decrease variation.
widen the specification limits.
improve conformance to specifications.

75 Which statistician developed the 14 Points of Quality?


.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Juran
Deming
Taguchi
Ishikawa

76 If the specification subgroup size is n = 4 and the known process


. parameters are = 2.75 and = .044, the control limits for the
chart will be:

A.
B.
C.
D.

LCL = 2.684, UCL = 2.816.


LCL = 2.728, UCL = 2.772.
LCL = 2.618, UCL = 2.882.
LCL = 2.518, UCL = 2.998.

77 Which is not a characteristic of a p-chart?


.
A. It shows the number of defects per item being inspected.
B. It measures the fraction of nonconforming items in a sample.
C. It is based on the binomial distribution (or its normal
approximation).
D. It will have varying control limits if the sample size is changing.
78 Ten samples of n = 5 were collected to construct an
chart. The
. sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table below.

Calculate the empirical centerline for the

A.
B.
C.
D.

210.5
206.9
205.3
208.2

chart.

79 Ten samples of n = 5 were collected to construct an


chart. The
. sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table below.

Calculate the empirical lower and upper control limits for the
(you will need a table of control chart factors).

A.
B.
C.
D.

196.46, 217.34
171.81, 241.39
188.03, 225.17
163.64, 250.56

chart

80 Ten samples of n = 5 were collected to construct an


chart. The
. sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table below.

Calculate the empirical centerline for the R chart.

A.
B.
C.
D.

20.8
17.2
18.1
19.4

81 Ten samples of n = 5 were collected to construct an


chart. The
. sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table below.

Calculate empirical lower and upper control limits for the R chart (you
will need a table of control chart factors).

A.
B.
C.
D.

0, 45.86
0, 42.49
0, 38.26
4.48, 35.58

82 Professor Murphy wants to set up a control chart to monitor the


. percentage of absenteeism in his introductory statistics course (50
students are registered). Absences per period for the last 15 class
sessions are in the table below.

Calculate the empirical centerline for a p-chart to track absences.

A.
B.
C.
D.

.068
.072
.146
.202

83 Professor Murphy wants to set up a control chart to monitor the


. percentage of absenteeism in his introductory statistics course (50
students are registered). Absences per period for the last 15 class
sessions are in the table below.

Using 3 sigma limits, calculate lower and upper control limits for a pchart to track absences.

A.
B.
C.
D.

0, .252
0, .175
0, .114
-0.038, .272

84 Given the following control chart, which problem is most likely?


.

A.
B.
C.
D.

Instability
Trend
Level shift
Cycle

85 Given the following control chart, which problem is most likely?


.

A.
B.
C.
D.

Instability
Trend
Level shift
Cycle

86 Given the following control chart, which problem is most likely?


.

A.
B.
C.
D.

Instability
Trend
Level shift
Cycle

87 Given the following control chart, which problem is most likely?


.

A.
B.
C.
D.

Instability
Trend
Level shift
Cycle

88 Given the following control chart, which problem is most likely?


.

A.
B.
C.
D.

Instability
Oscillation
Level shift
Cycle

89 What does the first letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?
.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Design
Distribute
Describe
Define

90 What does the second letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?
.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Maximize
Measure
Mentor
Mobilize

91 What does the third letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?
.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Analyze
Action
Absolve
Attack

92 What does the fourth letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?
.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Integrate
Investigate
Improve
Interact

93 What does the fifth letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?
.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Cooperate
Correlate
Coordinate
Control

94 Which is not primarily intended to detect excessive variation in a


. measurement?

A.
B.
C.
D.

s-chart
MR-chart
R-chart
p-chart

95 Which is most applicable when continuous inspection is used?


.
A.
B.
C.
D.

I-chart
c-chart
p-chart
chart

96 If LSL = 500, USL = 518, = 509, and = 3, the "safety margin" to


. maintain the product specifications would be:

A.
B.
C.
D.

nonexistent (i.e., zero).


1 on each side.
2 on each side.
3 on each side.

97 If LSL = 50.00, USL = 56.00, = 53.00, and = 0.50, the "safety


. margin" for product specifications would be:

A.
B.
C.
D.

nonexistent (i.e., zero).


1 on each side.
2 on each side.
3 on each side.

98 Which is a rule of thumb to indicate an out-of-control process on the


.
chart?

A.
Single point outside one sigma
B. Two of three successive points outside one sigma on the same side
of the centerline
C. Four of five successive points on the same side of the centerline
D. Nine successive points alternating in sign

Short Answer Questions

99 What, if anything, is wrong in this control chart? Explain briefly.


.

100 What, if anything, is wrong in this chart? Explain briefly.


.

101 What, if anything, is wrong in this control chart? Explain briefly.


.

102 What, if anything, is wrong in this control chart? Explain briefly.


.

103 What, if anything, is wrong in this control chart? Explain briefly.


.

104 Ten samples of n = 5 were collected to construct an


chart. The
.
sample means and ranges are in the table below. Calculate the control
limits for the

chart and R-chart. After plotting the 10 sample

means and ranges on the


and R charts, what is your conclusion?
Note: You will need a table of control chart factors.

105 Professor Murphy wants to set up a control chart to monitor the


.
percentage of absenteeism in his introductory statistics course (50
students are registered). Absences per period for the last 15 class
sessions are in the table below. Find the empirical control limits for a
p-chart to be used in the future for monitoring class attendance
(assuming that past experience is the appropriate attainable
centerline for class absences).

Chapter 17 Quality Management Answer Key

True / False Questions


1.

Quality control refers to methods used by organizations to ensure


that their products and services meet customer expectations.
TRUE
Quality control is a broad area encompassing various statistical and
behavioral tools.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-01 Define quality and explain how it may be measured.
Topic: Quality Improvement

2.

An important attribute of quality is conformance to specifications.


TRUE
Variation in products and services should lie within a desired target
range.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-01 Define quality and explain how it may be measured.
Topic: Quality and Variation

3.

A major goal in statistical quality control is the reduction of variation


in a process.
TRUE
Services and products with less variation perform more consistently.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-01 Define quality and explain how it may be measured.
Topic: Quality and Variation

4.

The Japanese invented and implemented quality control techniques


prior to World War II.
FALSE
U.S. experts pioneered quality control, but the Japanese adopted and
refined its methods.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

5.

Process control charts were adopted by the Japanese after World War
II.
TRUE
After WW II the Japanese became experts in quality control.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

6.

Pareto charts show the frequency of problems that affect a process


in descending order.
TRUE
The Pareto chart is like a histogram showing frequencies of
problems.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-04 List common statistical tools used in quality improvement.
Topic: Quality Improvement

7.

Statistical process control charts (SPC charts) are attributed to


Shewhart.
TRUE
Walter Shewhart invented and refined control charts.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

8.

The development of acceptance sampling is attributed to the works


of Taguchi and Ishikawa.
FALSE
Harold F. Dodge and Harry G. Romig created tables for acceptance
sampling.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

9.

An in-control process will always exhibit some common cause


variation.
TRUE
"In-control" processes have variation that is within predictable
normal limits.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-02 Distinguish between common cause variation and special cause variation.
Topic: Quality and Variation

10.

Common cause variation does not indicate an out-of-control


process.
TRUE
"In-control" processes have variation that is within predictable
normal limits.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-02 Distinguish between common cause variation and special cause variation.
Topic: Control Charts: Overview

11.

The presence of common cause variation is an indication that the


process is out of control.
FALSE
"In-control" processes have variation that is within predictable
normal limits.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-02 Distinguish between common cause variation and special cause variation.
Topic: Quality and Variation

12.

Special cause variation exists when the process produces


observations that are not from the same population as the majority
of the observations.
TRUE
Contrast with common cause variation, which is within predictable
normal limits.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-02 Distinguish between common cause variation and special cause variation.
Topic: Quality and Variation

13.

Control charts are used to monitor the quality of a product before it


is produced.
FALSE
Control charts are based on measurements taken from actual output
or services.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Control Charts: Overview

14.

A process may be in a state of control even if one sample mean is


more than two standard deviations above the centerline.
TRUE
We expect a sample mean beyond two standard errors about 5
percent of the time.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

15.

A p-chart is a type of process control chart that can be used for


plotting the proportion of nonconforming sampled items.
TRUE
With a p-chart we can track the proportion of nonconforming items.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Other Control Charts

16.

The Cpk index may indicate a capable process even though the Cp
index is unacceptable.
FALSE
The Cpk index may indicate problems when the Cp index is OK.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

17.

A moving range (MR) chart is appropriate to monitor variation when


every single item is being inspected (n = 1) since the range (R)
cannot be calculated.
TRUE
With n = 1 there is no range or standard deviation, so we use a
moving range.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Control Charts: Overview

18.

If a single sample mean is 2.1 standard deviations above the


centerline, the process is not in control.
FALSE
Sample means only lie within two standard errors about 95 percent
of the time. A single point outside 2 sigmas is not indicative of a
problem.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

19.

ISO 9000 standards were first developed in the United States under
the leadership of Joseph Juran.
FALSE
The ISO standards were mostly developed in Europe.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

20.

ISO 9000 specifies quality processes rather than defect rates.


TRUE
The focus in ISO is on systems that prevent quality problems and
defects.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.
Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

21.

Deming stressed identifying the workers who contributed the most to


poor quality.
FALSE
Deming felt that management must take responsibility for ensuring
quality.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

22.

Deming thought that the majority of quality problems were traceable


to faulty equipment.
FALSE
Deming felt that poor management was mainly to blame for low
quality.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

23.

Fishbone diagrams were developed for the Japanese fishing industry.


FALSE
Fishbone (cause-and-effect) diagrams display likely sources of quality
problems.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-04 List common statistical tools used in quality improvement.
Topic: Quality Improvement

24.

In statistical process control, the Cpk index measures the separate


distances between the centerline and the USL and LSL.
TRUE
The Cpk index remedies a weakness of the Cp index by showing poor
centering.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

25.

As a rule of thumb, if a process Cpk index is less than 1.00, the level
of process capability is usually judged acceptable.
FALSE
The Cpk index must be greater than 1 for the process to have a safety
margin.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

26.

The Cp index equals the Cpk index if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545,
and = 0.75.
TRUE
Because is halfway between the USL and LSL, we know that Cp =
Cpk.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

27.

The Cp index equals the Cpk index if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 543,
and = 0.75.
FALSE
Because is not centered between the USL and LSL, we know that
Cp Cpk.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

28.

The Cp index equals the Cpk index if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 546,
and = 1.25.
FALSE
Because is not centered between the USL and LSL, we know that
Cp Cpk.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

29.

If USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545, and = 1.00, the Cp index is 1.67.
TRUE
Cp = (USL - LSL)/(6) = (550 - 540)/[(6)(1)] = 1.67.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

30.

If USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545, and = 0.4, the process is highly
capable.
TRUE
Cp = (USL - LSL)/(6) = (550 - 540)/[(6)(0.4)] = 4.17.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

31.

If USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545, and = 1.75, the process is highly
capable.
FALSE
Cp = (USL - LSL)/(6) = (550 - 540)/[(6)(1.75)] = 0.95.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

32.

In general terms, a capable process is one whose variability () is


small in relation to the distance between the centerline and the
upper and lower specification limits.
TRUE
A highly capable process has low variation relative to the spec range
(safety margin).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

33.

Management wants a process to be in control and have a capability


index at least equal to 1.33 (and ideally much more than 1.33).
TRUE
A highly capable process has a safety margin of 1 or more.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

34.

If you increase the size of the samples taken when using an


chart, it is necessary to recalculate your control limits because the
limits will be narrower.
TRUE
The control limits are 3/n1/2 from the centerline.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

35.

If you increase the size of the samples taken when using an


chart, it is necessary to recalculate your control limits because the
limits will be wider.
FALSE
Control limits are 3/n1/2 from the centerline so the limits will be
narrower.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

36.

The upper and lower control limits of an


chart are typically set at
plus or minus three standard errors from the centerline.
TRUE
The control limits are 3/n1/2 from the centerline.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Other Control Charts

37.

A p-chart is a type of process control chart that is used for plotting


the number of defects per unit produced.
FALSE
The p-chart plots the proportion of defective (or conforming)
products or services.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Other Control Charts

38.

A c-chart is based on the Poisson distribution.


TRUE
The c-chart is used when the number of defects follows a Poisson
distribution.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Other Control Charts

39.

Quality management is characterized by focus on the customer and


continual improvement.
TRUE
The idea is to improve quality by more consistency and less
variation.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.
Topic: Quality Improvement

40.

A process whose output distribution is stable over time is said to be


in statistical control, regardless of whether the desired specifications
are being met.
TRUE
A process can be stable and in control while producing
nonconforming results.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

41.

A control chart for the mean tells whether the product conforms to
specifications.
FALSE
A process can be stable and in control while producing
nonconforming results.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

42.

In statistical process control, control charts are used to ensure that a


process is stable and in control by detecting special cause variation.
TRUE
Control limits and pattern detection rules will reveal unusual (special
cause) variation.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-02 Distinguish between common cause variation and special cause variation.
Topic: Control Charts: Overview

43.

Walter Shewhart was an American who studied the control charts


that the Japanese had invented after World War II and brought those
methods back to the United States during the 1980s.
FALSE
Shewhart invented the control charts that the Japanese adopted
after WWII.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

Multiple Choice Questions

44.

Quality experts would probably not recommend:

A.
B.
C.
D.

reducing variation.
using control charts.
placing blame for poor work.
identifying sources of variation.

Deming especially thought that assigning blame distracts from


finding solutions.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-01 Define quality and explain how it may be measured.
Topic: Quality and Variation

45.

Quality is ultimately best assessed by:

A.
B.
C.
D.

trained statisticians.
quality control inspectors.
management.
customers.

Customers are the final judges of quality.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-01 Define quality and explain how it may be measured.
Topic: Quality and Variation

46.

Which is not a true statement about the life and philosophy of W.


Edwards Deming?

A. He taught quality control techniques to Japanese companies


during the 1950s.
B. He lived a very long life and was a highly paid consultant past age
80.
C. He invented control charts and proposed the ISO 9000 standard.
D. He believed that poor quality is not primarily the fault of the
workers.
Deming lived long and taught the Japanese, but ISO was a European
innovation.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

47.

Control charts (SPC charts) are attributed to:

A.
B.
C.
D.

Deming.
Shewhart.
Juran.
Taguchi.

Shewhart is credited with inventing control charts.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

48.

The development of acceptance sampling is attributed to the works


of:

A.
B.
C.
D.

Deming and Shewhart.


Potter and Granger.
Dodge and Romig.
Taguchi and Ishikawa.

Harold F. Dodge and Harry G. Romig created tables for acceptance


sampling.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

49.

__________ and ___________ are well known for their statistical work
related to customer satisfaction and the cost of quality.

A.
B.
C.
D.

Deming and Shewhart


Harold and Kumar
Dodge and Romig
Taguchi and Ishikawa

Genichi Taguchi and Kaoru Ishikawa developed new approaches that


focused on customer satisfaction and costs of quality.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

50.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of Total Quality


Management?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Employee empowerment
Reduction of waste
Continuous improvement
Reducing the Cp index

TQM covers a variety of tools but does not deal with capability.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.
Topic: Quality Improvement

51.

Instability is most readily apparent on the:

A.
B.
C.
D.

chart.
R chart.
np chart.
I chart.

The R chart reveals variability.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

52.

The problem that is probably the hardest to identify from a control


chart is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

mixture.
oscillation.
cycle.
trend.

Mixing two processes can create nonrandom patterns, but symptoms


can be subtle.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

53.

Which is not a tool of statistical quality control?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Fishbone diagram
Pareto chart
Attribute control chart
Deming chart

There is no Deming chart.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-04 List common statistical tools used in quality improvement.
Topic: Quality Improvement

54.

Control charts were an innovation attributed to:

A.
B.
C.
D.

Deming in the 1950s.


Shewhart in the 1920s.
Westinghouse in the 1960s.
Pacioli in the 1490s.

Walter Shewhart created process control charts almost 100 years


ago.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

55.

Which is an appropriate step in continuous quality improvement?

A. Taking measurements on a variable and keeping careful records


B. Posting quality banners or company flags where they are visible to
all
C. Castigating the lazy employees for their shoddy workmanship
D. Sending employees to Motivation Camp taught by expensive
consultants
No control chart can be created without a record of accurate
measurements.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.
Topic: Quality Improvement

56.

Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of


the following?

A. The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.


B. The engineers were underpaid for their work.
C. There was insufficient preliminary sampling.
D. Process variation was not zero, as expected.
A control chart requires a long enough record of accurate
measurements.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Control Charts: Overview

57.

Attribute control charts would not be used to display the:

A.
B.
C.
D.

proportion of nonconforming parts.


sample range for a measured variable.
total number nonconforming parts.
average number of nonconforming parts.

Calculating a range R = xmax - xmin requires numerical data.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Control Charts: Overview

58.

The R chart is likely to reveal which problem?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Instability
Cycles
Level shift
Trend

The range R = xmax - xmin measures variability.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

59.

Which of the following is most likely the cause of a level shift in a


SPC chart?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Tool wear
A new worker
Temperature fluctuations
Alternating samples from two machines

Sudden change in a process could be caused by new or untrained


personnel.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

60.

Instability in a process is indicated when samples:

A. tend to alternate between high and low values.


B. drift slowly either upward or downward.
C.
vary more than expected.
D. shift abruptly either above or below the centerline.
Increased variation in a process (relative to the past) is called
instability.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

61.

A level shift in a process is indicated when samples:

A. tend to alternate between high and low values.


B. drift slowly either upward or downward.
C.
vary more than expected.
D.
shift abruptly to a new mean.
A process may stabilize at a new level (but this is a control chart
violation).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

62.

A slow drift of measurements either up or down from the process


centerline suggests a:

A.
B.
C.
D.

mixed process.
trend.
instability.
cycle.

Steady drifting of a mean or proportion is called a trend.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

63.

Which is not characteristic of a trend?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Variance is essentially unchanged from sample to sample.


It is often due to mixing two batches of materials.
It is detectable on a control chart if enough samples are taken.
Rules of thumb can be established to detect it.

Mixing two processes might produce excessive variation but not


steady change.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

64.

Which is not a rule of thumb to indicate an out-of-control process on


the
chart?

A.
Single point outside three sigma
B. Three of four successive points outside two sigma on the same
side of the centerline
C. Four of five successive points outside one sigma on the same side
of the centerline
D. Nine successive points on the same side of the centerline
Learn the textbook rules (Rule 3 is four of five successive points
beyond one sigma).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

65.

Which is not a characteristic of instability?

A. Larger than normal amount of variation


B. Higher-than-expected frequencies in tails of the distribution of
means
C.
Often caused by untrained operators
D. Specification limits that are too narrow
Specification limits are based on customer requirements (achievable
or not).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

66.

Refer to the diagram below:

For this process, the Cp index would be:

A.
B.
C.

less than one.


equal to one.
greater than one.

The process is not centered, but there is a safety margin (1 on left,


3 on right).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

67.

Find the Cp index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545,
and = 0.75.

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.25
1.33
2.22
1.75

Cp = (USL - LSL)/(6) = (550 - 540)/[(6)(0.75)] = 2.22.


AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

68.

Find the Cpk index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 545,
and = 0.75.

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.33
2.22
1.25
1.75

Cpk = min(USL - , - LSL)/(3) = min(550 - 545, 545 - 540))/[(3)


(0.75)] = 2.22.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

69.

Find the Cp index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 543,
and = 0.75.

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.25
1.33
2.22
1.75

Cp = (USL - LSL)/(6) = (550 - 540)/[(6)(0.75)] = 2.22.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

70.

Find the Cpk index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 543,
and = 0.75.

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.33
2.22
1.25
1.75

Cpk = min(USL - , - LSL)/(3) = min(550 - 543, 543 - 540))/[(3)


(0.75)] = 1.33.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

71.

Find the Cpk index for a process with USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 544,
and = 1.25.

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.33
2.22
1.07
1.75

Cpk = min(USL - , - LSL)/(3) = min(550 - 544, 544 - 540))/[(3)


(1.25)] = 1.07.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

72.

Is a process capable if USL = 550, LSL = 540, = 542, and =


1.25?

A.
B.
C.
D.

No, clearly not


No, but very close
Yes, just barely
Yes, highly capable

Cpk = min(USL - , - LSL)/(3) = min(550 - 542, 542 - 540))/[(3)


(1.25)] = 0.53.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

73.

Statistical process control charts can measure:

A.
B.
C.

the stability of the process.


the capability of a process.
both stability and capability.

Capability cannot be assessed using a control chart (need the Cp or


Cpk index).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Control Charts: Overview

74.

In manufacturing, if workers readjust the equipment after each


sample, it would typically:

A.
B.
C.
D.

increase variation.
decrease variation.
widen the specification limits.
improve conformance to specifications.

Attempting to adjust the process after each sample increases


variation.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

75.

Which statistician developed the 14 Points of Quality?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Juran
Deming
Taguchi
Ishikawa

Deming's 14 Points are still an influential guide to thinking about


quality.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-03 Name key individuals and their contributions to the quality movement.
Topic: Pioneers in Quality Management

76.

If the specification subgroup size is n = 4 and the known process


parameters are = 2.75 and = .044, the control limits for the
chart will be:

A.
B.
C.
D.

LCL
LCL
LCL
LCL

=
=
=
=

2.684,
2.728,
2.618,
2.518,

UCL
UCL
UCL
UCL

=
=
=
=

2.816.
2.772.
2.882.
2.998.

The control limits are 3/n1/2, so 2.75 3(0.044)/41/2.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

77.

Which is not a characteristic of a p-chart?

A. It shows the number of defects per item being inspected.


B. It measures the fraction of nonconforming items in a sample.
C. It is based on the binomial distribution (or its normal
approximation).
D. It will have varying control limits if the sample size is changing.
The p-chart shows the proportion of nonconforming items p = x/n.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Other Control Charts

78.

Ten samples of n = 5 were collected to construct an


chart. The
sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table
below.

Calculate the empirical centerline for the

A.
B.
C.
D.

chart.

210.5
206.9
205.3
208.2

The control limits are 3/n1/2, so our estimate of is (215 + 204


+ . . .+ 212)/10.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

79.

Ten samples of n = 5 were collected to construct an


chart. The
sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table
below.

Calculate the empirical lower and upper control limits for the
chart (you will need a table of control chart factors).

A.
B.
C.
D.

196.46,
171.81,
188.03,
163.64,

217.34
241.39
225.17
250.56

Subgroup size is n = 5, so d2 = 2.326, mean of 10 means is 206.9,


mean of 10 ranges is 18.1, and the control limits are 206.9
3(18.1)/[(2.326)(51/2)].
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

80.

Ten samples of n = 5 were collected to construct an


chart. The
sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table
below.

Calculate the empirical centerline for the R chart.

A.
B.
C.
D.

20.8
17.2
18.1
19.4

The average range is (15 + 20 + . . .+ 17)/10.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

81.

Ten samples of n = 5 were collected to construct an


chart. The
sample mean and range for each sample are shown in the table
below.

Calculate empirical lower and upper control limits for the R chart
(you will need a table of control chart factors).

A.
B.
C.
D.

0, 45.86
0, 42.49
0, 38.26
4.48, 35.58

For n = 5, D3 = 0 and D4 = 2.114, and the average range is (15 + 20


+ . . .+ 17)/10 = 18.1, so LCL = D3(R-bar) = 0(18.1) = 0 and UCL =
D4(R-bar) = (2.114)(18.1) = 38.26.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Control Charts for a Range

82.

Professor Murphy wants to set up a control chart to monitor the


percentage of absenteeism in his introductory statistics course (50
students are registered). Absences per period for the last 15 class
sessions are in the table below.

Calculate the empirical centerline for a p-chart to track absences.

A.
B.
C.
D.

.068
.072
.146
.202

The average is 3.4 absences per class, so pavg = (avg absences)/


(class size) = (3.4)/50 = .068, or you could average the 15 sample
proportions [5/50, 0/50, 2/50, . . ., 3/50].
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Other Control Charts

83.

Professor Murphy wants to set up a control chart to monitor the


percentage of absenteeism in his introductory statistics course (50
students are registered). Absences per period for the last 15 class
sessions are in the table below.

Using 3 sigma limits, calculate lower and upper control limits for a pchart to track absences.

A.
B.
C.
D.

0, .252
0, .175
0, .114
-0.038, .272

The average is 3.4 absences per class of n = 50 students, so pavg =


(avg absences)/(class size) = (3.4)/50 = .068, so the control limits
are pavg 3[pavg(1 - pavg)/n]1/2.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Other Control Charts

84.

Given the following control chart, which problem is most likely?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Instability
Trend
Level shift
Cycle

Sudden jump to a new level (not a continuing trend).


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

85.

Given the following control chart, which problem is most likely?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Instability
Trend
Level shift
Cycle

Steady drift downward.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

86.

Given the following control chart, which problem is most likely?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Instability
Trend
Level shift
Cycle

Sudden onset of high variability.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

87.

Given the following control chart, which problem is most likely?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Instability
Trend
Level shift
Cycle

Crosses the centerline less than 50/2 = 25 times.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

88.

Given the following control chart, which problem is most likely?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Instability
Oscillation
Level shift
Cycle

Crosses the centerline more than 50/2 = 25 times.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

89.

What does the first letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Design
Distribute
Describe
Define

Review the Six Sigma steps.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.
Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

90.

What does the second letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC


acronym?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Maximize
Measure
Mentor
Mobilize

Review the Six Sigma steps.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.
Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

91.

What does the third letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Analyze
Action
Absolve
Attack

Review the Six Sigma steps.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.
Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

92.

What does the fourth letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Integrate
Investigate
Improve
Interact

Review the Six Sigma steps.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.
Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

93.

What does the fifth letter mean in the Six-Sigma DMAIC acronym?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Cooperate
Correlate
Coordinate
Control

Review the Six Sigma steps.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-05 List steps toward continuous quality improvement and variance reduction.
Topic: Additional Quality Topics (Optional)

94.

Which is not primarily intended to detect excessive variation in a


measurement?

A.
B.
C.
D.

s-chart
MR-chart
R-chart
p-chart

The p-chart tracks the proportion of nonconforming items.


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Other Control Charts

95.

Which is most applicable when continuous inspection is used?

A.
B.
C.
D.

I-chart
c-chart
p-chart
chart

If every item is inspected, we can use the I-chart (n = 1).


AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Other Control Charts

96.

If LSL = 500, USL = 518, = 509, and = 3, the "safety margin" to


maintain the product specifications would be:

A.
B.
C.
D.

nonexistent (i.e., zero).


1 on each side.
2 on each side.
3 on each side.

(USL - LSL)/(6) = (518 - 500)/[6(3)] = 1, so there is no safety


margin.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

97.

If LSL = 50.00, USL = 56.00, = 53.00, and = 0.50, the "safety


margin" for product specifications would be:

A.
B.
C.
D.

nonexistent (i.e., zero).


1 on each side.
2 on each side.
3 on each side.

The lower end of the expected range of X would be - 3 = 53 3(.50) = 51.5, while the upper end of the expected range of X would
be + 3 = 53 + 3(.50) = 54.5. This leaves a safety margin of 1.5
on either end which is 3 because 3 0.5 = 1.5.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-08 Assess the capability of a process.
Topic: Process Capability

98.

Which is a rule of thumb to indicate an out-of-control process on the


chart?

A.
Single point outside one sigma
B. Two of three successive points outside one sigma on the same
side of the centerline
C. Four of five successive points on the same side of the centerline
D. Nine successive points alternating in sign
Review the rules (Other choices are incorrectly stated).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

Short Answer Questions

99.

What, if anything, is wrong in this control chart? Explain briefly.

Clearly out of control. Violates all four rules (one beyond three
sigma, two of three beyond two sigma, four of five beyond one
sigma, nine successive on one side of the mean).
Feedback: Clearly out of control. Violates all four rules (one beyond
three sigma, two of three beyond two sigma, four of five beyond one
sigma, nine successive on one side of the mean).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

100. What, if anything, is wrong in this chart? Explain briefly.

Oscillation is occurring. There are more than m/2 crossings of the


centerline. No other rules are being broken.
Feedback: Oscillation is occurring. There are more than m/2
crossings of the centerline. No other rules are being broken.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

101. What, if anything, is wrong in this control chart? Explain briefly.

Oscillation is occurring. There are more than m/2 crossings of the


centerline. No other rules are being broken.
Feedback: Oscillation is occurring. There are more than m/2
crossings of the centerline. No other rules are being broken.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

102. What, if anything, is wrong in this control chart? Explain briefly.

Out of control (Rule 3 violation, four of five beyond one sigma).


Feedback: Out of control (Rule 3 violation, four of five beyond one
sigma).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

103. What, if anything, is wrong in this control chart? Explain briefly.

May be in control. Rules 1 through 4 are not broken, but visual


pattern suggests that oscillation is occurring since there are more
than m/2 crossings of the centerline.
Feedback: May be in control. Rules 1 through 4 are not broken, but
visual pattern suggests that oscillation is occurring since there are
more than m/2 crossings of the centerline.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 17-07 Recognize abnormal patterns in control charts and their potential causes.
Topic: Patterns in Control Charts

104. Ten samples of n = 5 were collected to construct an


chart. The
sample means and ranges are in the table below. Calculate the
control limits for the

chart and R-chart. After plotting the 10

sample means and ranges on the


and R charts, what is your
conclusion? Note: You will need a table of control chart factors.

For the
chart, the centerline is the mean of the means
= 206.9
and the control limits are LCL = 196.46 and UCL = 217.46 (using
control chart factors d2 = 2.326 and n = 5). For the R-chart, the
centerline is 18.1 and the control limits are LCL = 0 and UCL = 38.26
(using control chart factors D3 = 0 and D4 = 2.114 for n = 5). We
normally do not use the same sample to calculate control chart limits
and then plot the data to assess the process (however, note that
both MINITAB and MegaStat do this). In this case the result is that
the process appears to be out of control with respect to the mean
(means of samples 4, 5, 6 are above the UCL) but in control for the
range.
Feedback: For the
chart, the centerline is the mean of the means
= 206.9 and the control limits are LCL = 196.46 and UCL =

217.46 (using control chart factors d2 = 2.326 and n = 5). For the Rchart, the centerline is 18.1 and the control limits are LCL = 0 and
UCL = 38.26 (using control chart factors D3 = 0 and D4 = 2.114 for n
= 5). We normally do not use the same sample to calculate control
chart limits and then plot the data to assess the process (however,
note that both MINITAB and MegaStat do this). In this case the result
is that the process appears to be out of control with respect to the
mean (means of samples 4, 5, 6 are above the UCL) but in control for
the range.
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Control Charts for a Mean

105. Professor Murphy wants to set up a control chart to monitor the


percentage of absenteeism in his introductory statistics course (50
students are registered). Absences per period for the last 15 class
sessions are in the table below. Find the empirical control limits for a
p-chart to be used in the future for monitoring class attendance
(assuming that past experience is the appropriate attainable
centerline for class absences).

Since there is no historical value, we must estimate the average


proportion
from the 15 class sessions, and then use it in the
formulas for p-chart control limits. Note that n = 50 for the control
chart limits since that is the number of students in the class (the
sample size of 15 is only used to estimate ). There are 51 absences
in 15 class sessions, an average of 3.4 absences per class, so the
empirical centerline is
= (3.4)/(50) = .068. Using n = 50, the
resulting control limits for the p-chart are LCL = 0 (since we can't
have a negative proportion) and UCL = .1748.
Feedback: Since there is no historical value, we must estimate the
average proportion
from the 15 class sessions, and then use it in
the formulas for p-chart control limits. Note that n = 50 for the
control chart limits since that is the number of students in the class
(the sample size of 15 is only used to estimate ). There are 51
absences in 15 class sessions, an average of 3.4 absences per class,
so the empirical centerline is
= (3.4)/(50) = .068. Using n = 50,
the resulting control limits for the p-chart are LCL = 0 (since we can't
have a negative proportion) and UCL = .1748.
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 17-06 Make and interpret common control charts (x-bar; R; and p).
Topic: Other Control Charts