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Desarrollo de termoconvertidores multiunion para la transferencia, con la menor incertidu


de magnitudes alternas a sus equivalentes magnitudes continuas. PTB-E-29, 1987.

Thermal converters as ac-dc transfer standards for current and voltage measurements at audio freque
Francis L. Hermach
Journal of research of the National Bureau of Standards
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume 48, Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 121-138.
The indirectly heated thermistor as a precise a.c.-d.c. transfer device
Widdis, F.C.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 103, Issue: 12, Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 693-703.
Precision Measuring Equipment for Electrical Power in the Range of Audio Frequencies.
Friedl, R., Wolf, G.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. IM - 15 (1966), p. 227 - 233.
Thermal converters for audio frequency voltage measurements of high accuracy.
Hermach, F. L.,Williams, E. S.
IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM - 15 (1966), p. 260 - 268.
Thermal voltage converters and comparators for very accurate ac voltage measurements.
E. S. Williams
Journal of research of the National Bureau of Standards
Vol. 75C, Nos. 3 and 4, Publication year: July-December 1971, Page(s): 145-154.

Theoretical analysis of the ac/dc transfer difference of the NPL multijunction thermal converter over th
Wilkins, F. J.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. IM - 21 (1972), 334 - 340.
New NBS measurement of the absolute Farad and Ohm.
Cutkosky, R. D.
IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM - 23 (1974), p. 305 - 309.
Thermal current converters for accurate AC current measurement
Williams, Earl S.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-25, Issue: 4, Publication Year: 1976, Page(s): 519-523.
An investigation of multijunction thermal converters.
Hermach, F. L., Flach, D. R.
IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM - 25 (1976), p. 524 - 528.
A differential thermal wattmeter for the AC/DC transfer of power.
Cox, L.G. ; Kusters, N.L.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-25, Issue: 4,Publication Year: 1976, Page(s): 553-557.
A Method for the Determination of AC - DC Transfer Errors in Thermoelements.
Inglis, B. D.
IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM - 27 (1978), p. 440 - 444.
An RMS Digital Voltmeter/Calibrator for Very - Low Frequencies.
Schoenwetter, H. K.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. IM - 27 (1978), p. 259 - 268.

Method for Reduction of AC-DC Transfer Error caused by the Thomson Effect for the Multijunction Ther
Zhang Deh-Shi, Zhang Zhong-Hua
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. IM - 29 (1980), p. 412 - 415.

Multijunction Thermal Converter with Adjustable Output Voltage/Current Characteristics.


Klonz, M., Wilkins. F. J.
IEEE Trans. Instru. Meas. IM - 29 (1980), p. 409 - 412.
Thermal Instrument for Measurement of Voltage, Current, Power and Energy at Power Frequencies.
Schuster, G.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. IM - 28 (1980), p. 153 - 157.
A Thermoelement Comparator for Automatic AC-DC Difference Measurements
Williams, Earl S.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 29, Issue: 4, Publication Year: 1980, Page(s): 405-409.
Components and Systems for AC/DC Transfer at the ppm Level
Martin, P. ; Knight, R.B.D.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 32, Issue: 1, Publication Year: 1983, Page(s): 63-72.
High - precision thermal emf comparator for automatic ac - dc trnansfer measurements.
Cabiati, F., U. Pogliano.
IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. vol. IM - 32 (1983), p. 57 - 62.
Current - Independent AC - DC Transfer Error Components in Single Junction Thermal Converters.
Inglis, B. D., Franchimon, C. C.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. IM - 34 (1985), p. 294 301.
AC-DC transfer standards-present status and future directions.
Inglis, Barry D.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-34, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1985, Page(s): 285-290.
The NBS Absolute Ampere Experiment.
Olsen, P. T., Bower, V. E.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. IM - 34 (1985), p. 175 - 181.
Low frequency behavior of thin-film multijunction thermal converters. PTB-E-63, 1999.

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H. Laiz
Current developments in accurate AC-DC transfer measurements.
Klonz, M.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 44, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 363-366.
Current - Independent AC - DC Transfer Error Components in Single Junction Thermal Converters.
Inglis, B. D., Franchimon, C. C.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. IM - 34 (1985), p. 294-301.
A computerized model of vacuum thermocouple performance.
Levinson, H.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 40, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1991, Page(s): 356-359.

Theoretical analysis of the ac/dc transfer difference of the NPL multijunction thermal converter over th
Wilkins, F. J.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. IM - 21 (1972), 334-340.
Desarrollo de termoconvertidores multiunion para la transferencia, con la menor incertidumbre,
de magnitudes alternas a sus equivalentes magnitudes continuas. PTB-E-29, 1987.
Accurate thin film multijunction thermal converter on a silicon chip.
Klonz, M. ; Weimann, T.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. Volume: 38, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 335-337.
Performance of multilayer thin-film multijunction thermal converters.
Kinard, J.R. ; Huang, D.X. ; Novotny, D.B.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 44, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1995, Page(s): 383-386.
Evaluation of a voltage source with three calculable RMS outputs.
Lapuh, R. ; Svetik, Z.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 46, Issue: 4, Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 784-788.
A 10 ppm accurate digital ac measurement algorithm.
Hewlett Packard Co, 1991.
Comparison of three accurate methods to measure ac voltage at low frequency.
Kampik, M. ; Laiz, H. ; Klonz, M.
Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 1999. IMTC/99.
Proceedings of the 16th IEEE, Volume: 3, Publication Year: 1999, Page(s): 1472-1477
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 49, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 2000, Page(s): 429-433.

Exploring the low-frequency performance of thermal converters using circuit models and a digitally sy
Oldham, N.M. ; Avramov-Zamurovic, S. ; Parker, M.E.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 46, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 352-355.
Precision measurement of AC voltage below 20 Hz at IEN
Pogliano, U.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 46, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 369-372.
A Method for the Determination of AC - DC Transfer Errors in Thermoelements.
Inglis, B. D.
IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM - 27 (1978), p. 440 444.

A reevaluation of the NIST low-frequency standards for AC-DC difference in the voltage range 0.6-100
Lipe, T.E.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 45, Issue: 6, Publication Year: 1996, Page(s): 913-917.

Transient Characteristics of Vacuo-Thermojunctions for Step Current


Takeishi, Taisuke
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 27, Issue: 4, Publication Year: 1978, Page(s): 456-460.
Characteristics of Vacuo-Thermojunctions at Ultra-Low Frequency
Takeishi, Taisuke
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-34, Issue: 1, Publication Year: 1985, Page(s): 34-41.
An RMS Digital Voltmeter/Calibrator for Very - Low Frequencies.
Schoenwetter, H. K.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. IM - 27 (1978), p. 259 - 268.

Increasing the time constant of a thin film multijunction thermal converter for low frequency applicatio
Klonz, M. ; Weimann, T.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 40, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1991, Page(s): 350-351.

Measuring thermoelectric effects in thermal converters with a fast reversed DC.


Klonz, M. ; Spiegel, T. ; Zirpel, R. ; Inglis, B.D. ; Hammond, G. ; Sasaki, H. ; Takahashi, K. ; Stojanovic, B
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 44, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1995, Page(s): 379-382.

Determination of the time constants of thermoelectric effects in thermal converters using a fast-rever
Sasaki, H. ; Inglis, B.D. ; Takahashi, K. ; Klonz, M.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 46, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 377-381.
Determination of AC-DC difference in the 0.1-100 MHz frequency range
Kinard, J.R. ; Cai, T.-X.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 38, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1989, Page(s): 360-367.
Evaluation of the calculable high frequency AC-DC standard.
van Mullem, C.J. ; Janssen, W.J.G.D. ; de Vreede, J.P.M.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 46, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 361-364.
AC-DC difference characteristics of high-voltage thermal converters
Huang, D.X. ; Lipe, T.E. ; Kinard, J.R. ; Childers, C.B.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 44, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1995, Page(s): 387-390.
AC-DC transfer with improved precision
Laiz, Hector ; Garcia, R. ; Cioffi, J. ; Iannone, C. ; Martinez, G.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 44, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1995, Page(s): 407-410.
Very low frequency ac-dc transfer standard.
Budovsky, I.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 44, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1995, Page(s): 367-369.

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Referencia
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Titulo

Desarrollo de termoconvertidores multiunion para la transferencia, con la menor incertidumbre,


de magnitudes alternas a sus equivalentes magnitudes continuas. PTB-E-29, 1987.
Low frequency behavior of thin-film multijunction thermal converters. PTB-E-63, 1999.
High frequency thin-film thermal converter on a quartz crystal chip. PTB-E-83, 2003.
Thermal converters as ac-dc transfer standards for current and voltage measurements at audio freque
Francis L. Hermach
Journal of research of the National Bureau of Standards
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume 48, Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 121-138.

The indirectly heated thermistor as a precise a.c.-d.c. transfer device


Widdis, F.C.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 103, Issue: 12, Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 693-703.

Thermal voltage converters for accurate voltage measurements to 30 megacycles per second.
Hermach, F. L. ; Williams, E. S.
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Part I: Communication and Electronics, Transactions of the V
Publication Year: 1960, Page(s): 200-206.

The theory of peltier and thomson effect errors in thermal AC-DC transfer devices.
F. C. WIDDIS, B.Sc.(Eng.), Ph.D., Member.
The Institution of Electrical Engineers, Monograph No. 497 M, Publication Year: January 1962, Pages: 3
Multijunction thermal convertor
PROC. IEE, Vol. 112, No. 4, APRIL 1965
Precision Measuring Equipment for Electrical Power in the Range of Audio Frequencies.
Friedl, R., Wolf, G.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM - 15, Publication year: 1966, Pages: 227-233.
Thermal converters for audio frequency voltage measurements of high accuracy.
Hermach, F. L.,Williams, E. S.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM - 15, Publication year: 1966, Pages: 260-268.
Thermal voltage converters and comparators for very accurate ac voltage measurements.
E. S. Williams
Journal of research of the National Bureau of Standards
Vol. 75C, Nos. 3 and 4, Publication year: July-December 1971, Page(s): 145-154.

Theoretical analysis of the ac/dc transfer difference of the NPL multijunction thermal converter over th
100 kHz.
Wilkins, F. J.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM - 21, Publication year: 1972, Pages: 334-340.
The Error Due to the Peltier Effect in Direct-Current Measurements of Resistance.
C. G. M. Kirby and M. J. Laubitz
Metrologia 9, Publication Year: 1973, Pages: 103-106.
New NBS measurement of the absolute Farad and Ohm.
Cutkosky, R. D.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-23, Publication year: 1974, Pages: 305-309.
Thermal current converters for accurate AC current measurement
Williams, Earl S.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-25, Issue: 4, Publication Year: 1976, Page(s): 519-523.
An investigation of multijunction thermal converters.
Hermach, F. L., Flach, D. R.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-25, Issue: 4, Publication Year: 1976, Page(s): 524-528.
A differential thermal wattmeter for the AC/DC transfer of power.
Cox, L.G. ; Kusters, N.L.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-25, Issue: 4,Publication Year: 1976, Page(s): 553-557.
Transient Characteristics of Vacuo-Thermojunctions for Step Current
Takeishi, Taisuke
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 27, Issue: 4, Publication Year: 1978, Page(s): 456-460.
A Method for the Determination of AC - DC Transfer Errors in Thermoelements.
Inglis, B. D.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-27, Publication Year: 1978, Page(s): 440-444.
An RMS Digital Voltmeter/Calibrator for Very - Low Frequencies.
Schoenwetter, H. K.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-27, Publication Year: 1978, Page(s): 259-268.

Method for Reduction of AC-DC Transfer Error caused by the Thomson Effect for the Multijunction Ther
Zhang Deh-Shi, Zhang Zhong-Hua
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-29, Publication Year: 1980, Page(s): 412-415.
Multijunction Thermal Converter with Adjustable Output Voltage/Current Characteristics.
Klonz, M., Wilkins. F. J.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-29, Publication Year: 1980, Page(s): 409-412.
Thermal Instrument for Measurement of Voltage, Current, Power and Energy at Power Frequencies.
Schuster, G.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-28, Publication Year: 1980, Page(s): 153-157.
A Thermoelement Comparator for Automatic AC-DC Difference Measurements
Williams, Earl S.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 29, Issue: 4, Publication Year: 1980, Page(s): 405-409.
Components and Systems for AC/DC Transfer at the ppm Level
Martin, P. ; Knight, R.B.D.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 32, Issue: 1, Publication Year: 1983, Page(s): 63-72.
High - precision thermal emf comparator for automatic ac - dc trnansfer measurements.
Cabiati, F., U. Pogliano.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-32, Publication Year: 1983, Page(s): 57-62.

Characteristics of Vacuo-Thermojunctions at Ultra-Low Frequency


Takeishi, Taisuke
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-34, Issue: 1, Publication Year: 1985, Page(s): 34-41.
Current - Independent AC - DC Transfer Error Components in Single Junction Thermal Converters.
Inglis, B. D., Franchimon, C. C.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-34, Publication Year: 1985, Page(s): 294-301.
AC-DC transfer standards-present status and future directions.
Inglis, Barry D.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-34, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1985, Page(s): 285-290.
The NBS Absolute Ampere Experiment.
Olsen, P. T., Bower, V. E.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-34, Publication Year: 1985, Page(s): 175-181.
Structural and Electrical Properties of Stable Ni/Cr Thin Films
Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1987
A parts-per-million accuracy instrument for AC voltage measurements.
Arseneau, R. ; Zelle, J.J.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-36, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1987, Page(s): 330-332.

AC-DC transfer difference of the PTB multijunction thermal converter in the frequency range from 10 H
Klonz, M.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: IM-36, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1987, Page(s): 320-329.
Tuning of the Multijunction Thermal Converter for Low Temperature Coefficient of the Output Voltage.
Klonz, M.
Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 1988. Publication Year: 1988, Page(s): 217-218.
A proposal for a multijunction thermal converter.
Yonezaki, Genta ; Shida, Katsunori ; Yamazaki, T.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 38, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1989, Page(s): 338-341.
Determination of AC-DC difference in the 0.1-100 MHz frequency range
Kinard, J.R. ; Cai, T.-X.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 38, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1989, Page(s): 360-367.

Matching of the temperature coefficient of the output voltage of a thin multijunction thermal converte
PTB
Congres International de Metrologie, 21-23 Novembre 1989, Paris
Accurate thin film multijunction thermal converter on a silicon chip.
Klonz, M. ; Weimann, T.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 38 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 335-337.
Improving speed and accuracy of AC-DC transfer using a fast reversed DC.
Klonz, M. ; Zirpel, R. ; Stojanovic, B.
Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 1990. Publication Year: 1990, Page(s): 68-69.

Increasing the time-constant of a thin film multijunction thermal converter for low frequency applicati
Klonz, M. ; Weimann, T.
Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 1990, Publication Year: 1990, Page(s): 134-1
AC-DC difference relationships for current shunt and thermal converter combinations
Kinard, J.R. ; Lipe, T.E. ; Childers, C.B.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 40 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1991, Page(s): 352-355.

Increasing the time constant of a thin film multijunction thermal converter for low frequency applicatio
Klonz, M. ; Weimann, T.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 40, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1991, Page(s): 350-351.

A 10 ppm accurate digital ac measurement algorithm.


Ronald L. Swerlein
Hewlett Packard Co, August 09, 1991.
A computerized model of vacuum thermocouple performance.
Levinson, H.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 40 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1991, Page(s): 356-359.

An accurate AC-DC voltage transfer standard test system using the differential and the dual-channel m
Takahashi, K. ; Sasaki, H. ; Klonz, M. ; Endo, T.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 42 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1993, Page(s): 630-634.
Very low frequency ac-dc transfer standard.
Budovsky, I.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 44, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1995, Page(s): 367-369.
AC-DC difference characteristics of high-voltage thermal converters.
Huang, D.X. ; Lipe, T.E. ; Kinard, J.R. ; Childers, C.B.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 44, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1995, Page(s): 387-390.
AC-DC transfer with improved precision.
Laiz, Hector ; Garcia, R. ; Cioffi, J. ; Iannone, C. ; Martinez, G.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 44, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1995, Page(s): 407-410.

Measuring thermoelectric effects in thermal converters with a fast reversed DC.


Klonz, M. ; Spiegel, T. ; Zirpel, R. ; Inglis, B.D. ; Hammond, G. ; Sasaki, H. ; Takahashi, K. ; Stojanovic, B
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 44, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1995, Page(s): 379-382.
Performance of multilayer thin-film multijunction thermal converters
Kinard, J.R. ; Huang, D.X. ; Novotny, D.B.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 44 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1995, Page(s): 383-386.
Current developments in accurate AC-DC transfer measurements
Klonz, M.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 44 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1995, Page(s): 363-366.

A reevaluation of the NIST low-frequency standards for AC-DC difference in the voltage range 0.6-100
Lipe, T.E.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 45, Issue: 6, Publication Year: 1996, Page(s): 913-917.

Development of thin-film multijunction thermal converters at NIST.


Kinard, J.R. ; Novotny, D.B. ; Lipe, T.E. ; De-Xiang Huang
Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements Digest, 1996, Publication Year: 1996, Page(s
High-current thin-film multijunction thermal converters and multiconverter modules.
Kinard, J.R. ; Lipe, T.E. ; Childers, C.B. ; Novotny, D.B. ; De-Xiang Huang .
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 46 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 391-394.
Evaluation of a voltage source with three calculable RMS outputs.
Lapuh, R. ; Svetik, Z.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 46 , Issue: 4, Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 784-788.
Precision measurement of AC voltage below 20 Hz at IEN.
Pogliano, U.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 46, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 369-372.

Exploring the low-frequency performance of thermal converters using circuit models and a digitally sy
Oldham, N.M. ; Avramov-Zamurovic, S. ; Parker, M.E.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 46 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 352-355.

Determination of the time constants of thermoelectric effects in thermal converters using a fast-rever
Sasaki, H. ; Inglis, B.D. ; Takahashi, K. ; Klonz, M.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 46, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 377-381.
Evaluation of the calculable high frequency AC-DC standard.
van Mullem, C.J. ; Janssen, W.J.G.D. ; de Vreede, J.P.M.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 46, Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 361-364.
Thin-film ac-dc converter with thermoresistive sensing.
Katzmann, Fred L. ; Klonz, M. ; Spiegel, T. ; Kessler, E.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 46 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 382-386 .
Low-frequency characteristics of thin-film multijunction thermal voltage converters.
Avramov-Zamurovic, S. ; Oldham, N.M. ; Parker, M.E. ; Waltrip, B.C.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 47 , Issue: 1, Publication Year: 1998, Page(s): 87-89.
A numerical simulation of thermoelectric effects in single-junction thermal converters.
Sasaki, H. ; Takahashi, K. ; Inglis, B.D. ; Klonz, M.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 48 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 1999, Page(s): 408-411.
A simulation tool for the AC-DC transfer difference of thermal converters at low frequencies.
Laiz, H. ; Klonz, M.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 48 , Issue: 6, Publication Year: 1999, Page(s): 1155-1160.
Comparison of three accurate methods to measure AC voltage at low frequencies
Kampik, M. ; Laiz, Hector ; Klonz, M.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 49 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 2000, Page(s): 429-433.
Development of thin-film multijunction thermal converters at PTB/IPHT.
Klonz, M. ; Laiz, Hector ; Kessler, E.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 50 , Issue: 6, Publication Year: 2001, Page(s): 1490-1498.

New thin-film multijunction thermal converters with negligible low frequency AC-DC transfer differenc
Laiz, H. ; Klonz, M. ; Kessler, E. ; Spiegel, T.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 50 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 2001, Page(s): 333-337.
Improved high-current thin-film multijunction thermal converters.
Kinard, J.R. ; Lipe, T.E. ; Wunsch, T.F.
Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 2002. Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 364-365.
1-A and-120 mA thin-film multijunction thermal converters.
Laiz, Hector ; Wunsch, T.F. ; Kinard, J.R. ; Lipe, T.E.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 54 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 2005, Page(s): 803-806.

Explanation for the ACDC Voltage Transfer Differences in Thin-Film Multijunction Thermal Converters
Frequencies.
Scarioni, L. ; Klonz, M. ; Kessler, E.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 56 , Issue: 2, Publication Year: 2007, Page(s): 567-570.
New Thin-Film Multijunction Thermal Converter Design for Improved High-Frequency Performance
Fujiki, H.
Sensors Journal, IEEE, Volume: 7 , Issue: 9, Publication Year: 2007, Page(s): 1243-1247.

Development of mjtcs on fused silica substrates at NIST


Lipe, T.E. ; Kinard, J.R. ; Scarioni, L.
2010 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), Publication Year: 2010, Page(

Thin film multijunction thermal current converter with increased rated current level.
Fujiki, H.
2012 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), Publication Year: 2012, Page(s

Development of Thin-Film Multijunction Thermal Current Converters With Increased Rated Current.
Fujiki, H.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 62 , Issue: 6, Publication Year: 2013, Page(s): 1853-1858.
Improved Electrothermal Simulation for Low-Frequency Characterization of a Single-Junction Thermal
Amagai, Y. ; Fujiki, H.
IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Volume: 63 , Issue: 12, Publication Year: 2014, Page(s): 3011-3018.

Resumen de lo

Este paper describe el alcance de medicin de tensin (0.2 V -750 V), de corriente (25 mA - 50 A) y de
Principalmente:
-Describe de donde surge la necesidad de disminuir incertidumbre de tensin y de corriente en un int
-Mensiona que las mediciones de tensin y corriente alterna dependen de patrones con el mismo com
-Describe como esta construido el termoconvertidor de union simple.
-Describe como se evaluaron los termoconvertidores en esa epoca y presenta resultados en tablas.
-Presenta detalladamente porque los errores por calentamiento debidos al efector Peltier y Thomson s
-Describe tambien como un gradiente en el elemento sensor dentro del convertidor no ve diferencia e
-Presenta tambien una tabla con materiales y su diferencia ac-dc esperada en el uso de termoconvert
constantan o aleaciones similares para el calefactor.
-Se describe el limite de la capacidad termica del elemento y se explica porque a baja frecuencia la te
proporcional al cuadrado de la frecuencia de la seal de entrada.
-Detalla las ecuaciones de los efectos Peltier y Thomson en los apendices.

Material
utiliado en
el calefactor