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NACATN

212

TECHNICAL
NATIONAL

ADV180RY

NOTES

Tim,,,
COl';li_,;1
'_" FOR AERONAUTIOS

'

No. 818

SI)fPLIFIED PROPELLER

DESIGN

By
_Llr ear

"

;::':._,:: .._

....

REPRODUCED

FOR LOW-POWERED

AiRPLA2_8.

Fred E. Weiok,
Aeronautics,
U.S.N.

BY

NATIONAL TECHNICAL ',_


INFORMATION SERVICE /
U: S. DEPARYMENT
SpR|NGF|ELD.

OF coMMERCE
VA. 22161

January.

" ,,

1925.

_;

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_\_a__IONALADVISORY

C0}_[ITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

TECHNICAL

SI_LIFiED

PROPELLER

NOTE NO. 212.

DESIGN

FOR LOW-PO%rERED AIRPLANES.

By Fred _. wJ_ck.

Summary

The object
er of
pellet

sm_ll airplanes
and the making

is used_
full

based

scale

by means

dimensions

given

of model

of charts

out and

operations

system

in flight.

drawing

by the use

in terms

An empirical

propellers

and

the desirer

and build-

for the designing

of the dravfng.

of proi?ellers

The laying

to simple

is to furnish

a simple

on tests

tests

accomplished
tion.

of this report

design

method

in a _,ind.tunnel
The actual

involves

very

of the propeller

of a basic

of the p_o-

designing

little
are

or _aster

and
is

calcula-

also

reduced

propeller

with

of the diameter,

Introduction

For
tain

every

aesl_

A slightly
diameter
peller
high

of airplane

of proi_elle_ vlhich will


different

will

design

showy the b_st

for sll-round

service

speed propeller

propeller
dealt

combination

and

is the type

v.rithin this

having

give

oerformance
_il!

report.

engine,

is a cer-

r_aximum speed,

and usually

in climb.

have

there

the highest

less pitch

the climbing

almost

and

The

characteristics

greater

best

pro-

between

the

_n_p.].!er.,.__,,_._
. As the Service

universally

used,

it is the only

one

N.A._^,A. Technical

In the case
the

slipstream,

pellet
the

Note No,

of a

alone.

size and form

considered
erage

_racoo_

the power

running

that

_I_

prooe!icr,

absorbed

The

amount

where

the fuselage

is greater

than

of this power

of the fuselage.

conditions

is operating

with which

depends

a propeller

primarily

will

these

are not correct

formanoe.

on the correctness

This

the propeller

report

_vi]..l
not

is _oased_on data

the design% of propellers

for airplanes

less

to airplanes

than one horsepower

Basis

The
brake

data

necessary

horsepower

propeller

of

shaft,

for
tne

and

performance

peller.

A non-dimensional
_

p n_,

of

of

0he

engine,

the

required

is

depends

of design,

in front

fit

figures_ (HP., R.P._. , and. Speed)_ of the airplane

increase

on

it is

of an av-

fuselage.
The accuracy

that of the pro-

In this method

a ,.tractor propeller

is in

the

and

of about

of

revolutions
the

of

coefficient

Airspeed

Power

Revolutions

Density

power

perfor

moaelo

of

horsepower.

a propeller
),per

in ft.!b.
per

sec.

-oer sec.
se
in mass

units.

are

minute

These

airplane,

involving

in ft- per

of air

accurate

fifty

_There
=

If

the desired

from

airplane.

combination

engine.

sufficiently

de_.lg_mng

of

of the performance

give

ranging

operating

Design

the

speed

certain

of

the

comprise
engine,

the

the

above

the
and

factors

pro-

N.A.C.A-

Technical

This

Note

relation

for

_tanaard

q,

_t,:,

is developed

186 by _J_/alterS" Diehl.


o

_" O

No.

in N.A.C.A.

U oln_
_" _ en_ineering
_

atmosphere,

the relation

Technica.l Report
units

and

No,

the value

of

becomes
/"

Performance
where

This
in Fig.

A_rsp<-_tm.in _,_l_s per hour

HP.

Brake

Revolb_o_ons

equation

airspeed,

where

Any

of engine
minute

solved

by means

at which

Fig.

of the nomogram

v :
nd

the oropel!er
coefficient

called

Propeller

diameter

in inches.

of pitch
a definite

p,

and diame,ter

_ _
ooe_-_._o

at its maximum

2 is a, curve

These

are

I056V
_,,TD
in feet

it should

.by the

J.

diameter

governed

dl_me_er.

Propeller

traveling

_hen

or pitch-diameter

It also has

of

at maximum

plotted

a value

it is an all-round

made up of a series

pitch-d_,=,,,,eterratios,

D,

or value

efficiency.

be operating

on an airplane

for varying

and

are

d. =

has

it works

of any propeller

dimensionless

propeller

p/D,

propeller

conditions

the revolutions

which

per

can be readily

operating

into another

rkatio

horsepower

I.

The

put

_
/
V_
.3,_0_ HP. N _

coefficient

at
of

service

speed.

of these
against
,J P n 2

values
their

of

correspond-

|
N.A.C.A.

Technical

The data
but

are

under
Most

Note

for

entirely

this

curve

is for

average
giving

however,
service

directly

ratio

tests,

regular

working

of

and

the nomogram

is then given

_odel

at Langley

Tests,
made

Field.,

performancetests.

in front

The

Navy

a few of "_Thichwere

propeller

and propo_tzons.
_,
_

diameter

on Durand's

E. P. Lesley

propellers

from

diameter

are

the values

ficient<obtained

The pitch

by flight

of Professor

resistance

The

curve _are based

modified

the direction
of them,

No. 2,12

of a fuselage

use of the

p/D

for

The

curve

of

is simp!e_

the performance

coef-

(Fig. I).

by the

relation

iO_bV
NJ

is found
found

by multiplying

in Fig.

2, or


I. e
the alameo_r

by the pitch-

p/D D.

Efficiency

The
operating
shown

approximate
conditiou

in Fig. Z.

hi_her
C7)

efficiency

values

or value
The value

of

cient,

other

The
from

propeller

working

at the

sm _ne__, is
for _Thich it _as de.._$

operates

drive

is higher

for

the

at a higher

propeller_

and

value

of

than

more

effi-

is therefore

.o_mng
_
_
1 equal
efficiency

.87 to .9S of that for


With

when

direct

things

of

of the efficiency

A geared-doyen propeller
a corresponding

of the propeller

the efficiency,

at the speed
high

HPo

for best

soe._c_.

and

speed

know,n,

climb

is usually

N.A.C-A-

Technical

Note

Thrust

No-. 212

in lb.

375

x HP,

efficienc.y
V

St rength

The
square

stresses

in a propeller

of the tip

speed.

Practically,

diameter

and

the revolutions

olutions

and

the diameter

the
port

stresses
will

210,000

very

in inches

over

used,

and

ND

a thicker

is less

birch

or hickory

exceeds

240,000,
will

as the

varies

with

the

of the rev-

than 170]000,

of propeller

can safely

blade

vary

If the product

(ND)

design

speed

used

be used.

oak _vill be sufficiently

this figure,

happens,

proportions

the tip

minute.

be so low that spruce

rarely

safely

per

in the particular

.,_Inut or white

anything

of given

in this

If it is under

strong,

should

re-

but

for

be used.

this design

be necessary,

If, as

cannot

be

entailing

a loss

of efficiency.

Layout

The layout
mensions
the

necessary

diameter

seotions.

with

propeller

for drawing
the

A drawing

The blade
any

of the basic

and Drawing

the propeller

exception

are based

section

on uniform

in Fig.

are

of the blade

of the master

angles

is shorn

4.

All di-

showni<_in terms of

angles

and

the airfoil

is sho_vn in Fig.

5.

geometric

so for

pitch,

section
tan blade

w_here

is the radius

F_g. 6 is a series

angle

of the

section

of curves

_wr

showing

in terms of the_diameter

the blade

angles

p_otted

N.A_C.A.

against

_T

Note

Technical

i,_o._!2

the Pitch-diameter

of the basic

ratio

p/D,

for each of the six

sections

propeller.

It v/ill be _oticed
lie on a line which
line

that

the centers

is determined

(Figs 4 and 7)

of gravity

by offsets

from

m,
is
for the purpose
_]is

of the

the

sections

rs,_la_"
I center-

of reducing

the

stresses.
Care must
rotation

and

clockwise
Fig.

be taken

left-hand

when

to distin_ish
rotation.

vie_ied from

4 is right -_
.- _
n_n_._and

Actual

Given:
per

hour,
I.

Brake

engine

lutions
ence

The basic

in Fig,

in Design

(_

scale,

in

7 is ].eft-hand.

per

minute,

speed

in miles

of rotation.

the given HP.

corresponding

and

propeller

I)

edge is run tbzough


the

turns

and Layout

revolutions

Coe-r_icient

right-hand

the point

value
v/bere

of

on the horse-

on the

it crosses

the

revorefer-

is .....
_c_:._
l_rl
........

'b) The

and

Steps

through

per minute

line

reference

and

the example

between

propeller

hub dimens'1o_-_r_,
....and direction

Performance

scale

A right-hand
siipstrcam.

horsepo_Ter,

(a) A _alght
power

the

correctly

straight

line through

the value

edge

is then run

the given

-_s read where

the

from

the above

sp_ed on the miles


straigh%

edge

cuts

point

per

hour

on the
scale,

the Performance

Co effic'ient scale.

s. j and p/D
(a)

The

poin$

(Fig.
for

the

value

of

the

Performance

Coefficient

is

_,_. C.A

Tec!_nic_l Note No.

projected

of

(c) The vs_iue of

(a) D

is rea_3_on scale

p//D

!056V
NJ

5.

Efficiency

(Fi_Ob

Dimensions

by the above

for

to laying

of the

the maximum

the value

out

of

found

tl_e propeller

on the basic

with

blade

the division

are

propeller

fouled

<F_.g. 4)

nearest

as if they were
but

blade

thickness

by

sectlons

nearest

sections

are

the ordinates
_r
_._ divided

the leading

found
shown

into

edge

ten

subdi-

end quarters.

two sections

to face,

individual

_...._
,_e_t._on
(__,m_,!5). The

divisions

fiq_red

face

necessary

_h__ di mensions

viG_ed into halves

are

_s determined

diameter.

in the master

The

3)

the d
._mmensions _iven

by multiplying

equal

is read on scale or_ the our%-e itse%f.

2.

by multi!_lyin_

6,

at ]]eft.

inches.

(a) The ef_'iciency


in Fig.

to curve.

(b) The value

a_Q

_i_

ne_ radii

the hub are

t_o

double

,,_inglecambered

are drawn

cambered.
airfoils

in at the Icsding

These

placed
and

trailing

edges.
7,
for

The blade

the various
8.

The

centerlmneo
shown

an_les

in Fig 4.

found

for

the above

p/D

on Fig,

6_

drawing

the

sections.

layout
and

are

is made

full

scale

or lar_e_,_
_., first

limes

of the

centerso<

gravity

The

oe_ono
o -_

o are drawn

of the

in aroun_

sections

their

as

resoective

N.A.c.A.

Technical

Note

No.

2i_

cen%ers
up

tO

of
_et

"scale"

gravity
the

side

in Fig.

corresponding
The
7).

outside
ing

that

This

is

measured

may

single

be

%he

propeller
on

Given"

to

20

,N

2000

'V

60

I"

the

are

projected
marked

C_1
_q]enoo lens
.....

and

shown

checked

in

thick,

same

should

and

vJi!l be

Exampl

_ HP.

as

dimensions

The

vie_vs

lines

fair

They

by

'the

sections.

having

the

views

these

1/4"

lamination

check

__

an_ies.

drav_Tn in

from

is

plan

the

are

propeller

The

cod

on

lines

blade

and

measurements

ones.

correct

elevation

lamination

in

the

4, are

Laminations

tions

at

the

all

of

thickness,

without

the

(Fig.

lamina-

except

be smooth

and

example

the

curves_
bumps

or

showv;aves.

drawing,

revolutions

miles

RotationHub
I.

2.

For

Diameter_

Pitch,
4.

dimensions

a value

From

p
Fig.

of

as

hour

the

I056V_
NJ

p/D

p/D

x D
J

=
I056
SO00

in

Fig.

7.

=
1.0!
(Fig. I)
shov.Tn on the figure.)

performance

and

for

shown

is

.48z_

Z,

minute

Left-hand

Performance
Coefficient
(The solution
of this

J
3o

per

per

.560
,484

coefficient
.560

from

x 60
.484
x 65..5
the

of
Fig.

1.01,

655

2.

inches.

efficiency

36.7

inches.
is

.71

or

N.A C.A.

5.

Technical

The

propeller

and

be checked
8.

Note

_,_ 3.].2
_,Jo.

dimensions
the

necessary

master

blade

on the drawing

The blade

angles

for

layout

_
o_on

are

(Figs

. 4 and

of this example,
for

p/D

found

Fig.

.560

5).

from

the

basic

(These

may

7.)

are found

from Fig.

6_

as follows:
Section

7.
is sho_n
8.
in inches

The

,15

30.7

.225D

21.6

.30 D

16.5

.37 5D

13.4

.45 D

ll.Z

layout

and vTorking drawing

of the propeller

of the revolutions

per minmte

and

the diameter

is

is less than

propeller.

5o.o,

7.

The mroduct

IID
This

.o75D

comr,lete

in Fig.

Angle

2000

!70,000,

x 65.5
so that

13],000
spruce

may be used

in r_aking the

N.A..C-A- Technical

Note

No. 212_

I0

References

I.

W. S. Diehl

2.

W. F. Durand
Experimental
Research on Air Propellers.
and
: N.A.C.A. Technical Reports Nos. 14, 30,
E. P. Lesley
64, 10.9 and 141.

Z.

H. C. Watts:

The Application
of Pro_eller
.
T eoo
_ Data
Design and Perforr_nce
Calculation.
N.A.C.A. Technical Report No. 186.

The Design

of Screw

Propellers

to

for Aircraft.

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N,A.C.A.

Technical

Note

No._12,

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