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BIO 103 Final Exam Guide Version

2 100% Correct Answers


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BIO 103 Final Exam Guide Version 2 100% Correct Answers

1.

What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?

Make observations and ask a question

Analyze the data


Develop a hypothesis
Share the results with other scientists
Design and perform an experiment to test the hypothesis

a)

I>II > III > IV > V

b)

III > I > V > II > IV

c)

V> IV > III > II > I

d)

I> III > V >II > IV

e)

V > II > I > III > IV

2. You have formulated a hypothesis: Apples contain more vitamin C than oranges.

To test your hypothesis you measure vitamin C levels in 20 oranges and 20 apples
from trees that were grown in the same orchard under the same environmental
conditions (temperature, rain, sunlight). This experiment was conducted twice. The
control in the experiment is__________________________________.

a)

type of soil, temperature, amount of rain and sunlight in the orchard

b)

vitamin C levels

c)

d)

e)

oranges

apples

a large sample size and repeated experiment

***Use the following information to answer questions 3, 4,5 & 6 below***:

A group of medical researchers investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering


cholesterol levels in a group of men between the ages of 50 and 70 years old. The
researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results: One
group of 150 men took a tablet containing Drug X for 3 weeks 95 of these men
decreased their cholesterol levels by at least 10% (three men from this group
dropped out of the study). Another group of 150 men was given a tablet with no
added Drug X for 3 weeks 10 of these men decreased their cholesterol levels by at
least 10% (two men from this group dropped out of the study).

3.

Which of the following is the best hypothesis for this experiment?

a)

Will drug X lower cholesterol levels in men between the age of 50 and 70
years?

b)

Drug X will lower cholesterol levels in men.

c)

Since high cholesterol levels significantly increases several health risks for men,
drug X is most likely beneficial.

d)

Men between the age of 50 and 70 years will have reduced cholesterol levels if
they take drug X over a 3 week period.

e)

There is no significant difference in cholesterol levels between men that take


drug X and those that dont take it.

4.

Which of the following was the control group in this experiment?

a)

b)

The number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment

c)

d)

The amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

The group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X

The group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X

e)

The number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

5. Which of the following is a dependent variable in this experiment?

a)

b)

The amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

Participants that received tablets containing Drug X

c)

d)

The average age of the participants

Number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

e)

6.

Blood pressure

Which of the following is anindependent variable in this experiment?

a)

The amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

b)

Participants that received tablets containing Drug X

c)

d)

The average age of the participants

Number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

e)

Blood pressure

7. A chemotherapy drug affects the enzyme DNA polymerase. In which part of the
cell cycle does it inhibit cell division?

a)

Metaphase

b)

S phase

c)

d)

e)

G1

Cytokinesis

Prophase

A researcher planted seeds from four types of tomatoes (Roma, Cherry, Big Boy
and Early Girl) in a greenhouse to determine which type of tomatoproduce the
largest number of tomatoes per plant. The plants were grown for 70 days under the
same temperature and light conditions. The average results for 20 plants of each
type are shown below. Choose the data set that demonstrates that Cherry
tomatoes produce the largest number of tomatoes per plant.

a)

Roma: 20 tomatoes, Cherry: 18 tomatoes, Big Boy: 30 tomatoes, Early Girl: 10


tomatoes

b)

e)

Roma: 1.8lbs, Cherry: 2.8lbs, Big Boy: 2.7lbs, Early Girl: 1.0 lbs

c)

Roma: 3 cm, Cherry: 1 cm, Big Boy: 10cm, Early Girl: 7 cm

d)

Roma: 2 cm, Cherry: 10 cm, Big Boy: 7 cm, Early Girl: 6 cm

Roma: 23 tomatoes, Cherry: 28 tomatoes, Big Boy: 10 tomatoes, Early Girl: 27


tomatoes

9.

The majority of climate scientists believe that the current change in climate
is caused predominantly by ________.

a)

b)

an enhancement of the greenhouse effect

a decreased reliance on fossil fuels for energy

c)

d)

e)

a thinning of the ozone layer

a melting of the polar ice caps

an increase in solar radiation

10. Based on the following phylogenetic tree, which of the following conclusions
are *NOT* correct? Each letter represents a hypothetical species.

a)

A and E share a common ancestor

b)

c)

B is one of As ancestors

E and D are more closely related to each other than to C

d)

C is more closely related to E than to B

e)

A and B are closely related

11. You are taking a cruise from California to Hawaii. About halfway there the
ship begins to sink. You are able to board a lifeboat, but now you are floating in the
ocean waiting to be rescued. After several days you are so thirsty that you bend
over the side of the boat and drink lots of salty seawater. What happens to your
body?

a)

You throw up because sea salt is toxic to humans.

b)

c)

d)

You get thirstier because of osmosis.

Salt diffuses into your cells, water follows, your cells start to expand and you
feel bloated.

Since sea water consist of 96.5% fresh water (and only 3.5% salt) you will feel
much better.

e)

You get dehydrated because water is unable to cross the semi-permeable


membranes of your cells.

12. You are spraying your garden with a pesticide and you accidentally swallow a
small amount. You read on the package that this pesticide inhibits ATP synthase.
Should you be worried?

a)

b)

ATP synthase is part of the light dependent reaction in photosynthesis; this


pesticide will therefore not affect humans. So dont worry!

ATP synthase is an enzyme involved in the citric acid cycle so all animals,
humans included, will be affected. Call the doctor.

c)

ATP synthase found in the pesticide is a very toxic compound. Call the doctor.

d)

ATP synthase is involved in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Call


the doctor.

e) ATP synthase inhibitors will not affect humans, but there might be other toxic
ingredients in the pesticide, so it is best to call the doctor to be on the safe side.

13. In the following chemical reaction, what is carbon dioxide (CO2)?

12 H20 + 6 CO2

->

a)

1 glucose molecule + 6 O2

Substrate

b)

Product

c)

Enzyme

d)

e)

Activation factor

Independent variable

14. Which of the following is NOTa feature of DNA?

a)

Adenine (A) forms a base pair with thymine (T)

b)

Complimentary strands are anti-parallel, running in opposite directions

c)

Complimentary strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between


phosphate groups

d)

Nucleotides within a single strand are connected by covalent bonds

e)

All of the above are features of DNA

15. A man who carries a harmful sex-linked gene on his X chromosome, will pass
the gene on to _______________________.

a)

all of his daughters

b)

half of his daughters

c)

d)

e)

all of his sons

half of his sons

all of his children

16. A double-stranded DNA molecule that has 22% guanine will have __________.

a)

28% thymine

b)

22% cytosine

c)

d)

e)

44% adenine

26% uracil

both A and B are correct

17. Which of the following variations could be subject to natural selection?

a)

b)

c)

A dog with short legs due to malnutrition is able to crawl into holes better than
his litter mates

A tree is not infested by a ground-dwelling beetle when the homeowner cuts


the lower branches

A hyena is born with a spotted fur pattern that allows it to hide in the grass
better than his litter mates

d)

e)

A pigeon learns than when its keeper comes near it will be fed

All of these variations may be acted on by natural selection

18. The ability of fireflies and angler fish to produce light is an example of
convergent evolution. What can you conclude about these two animals based on
this information?

a)

b)

They share a recent common ancestor

They are both adapted to environments low in light

c)

The ability to produce light is an ancient trait

d)

They are found in the same location

e)

All of the above

19. You observe the following outside your window: A grasshopper is munching
away on a leaf when a hawk swoops down and eats the grasshopper. What is the
grasshopper in this situation?

a)

Secondary consumer

b)

Prey

c)

d)

e)

Herbivore

Predator

Both b, c and d

20. Which of the following statements is *NOT* true?

a)

The cells resulting from meiosis are diploid and the cells resulting from mitosis
are haploid.

b)

Meiosis and meiosis both starts with one cell, but meiosis ends with four and
mitosis with two.

c)

Mitosis produces new cells for growth and repair, meiosis produces gametes.

d)

Mitosis goes through cytokinesis once, meiosis goes through cytokinesis twice.

e)

Cross over happens in meiosis, but not in mitosis.

21. In the scientific method, a hypothesis ____________.

a)

b)

is a statement of fact

is a proposed explanation based on observations

c)

is usually proven to be correct

d)

can only be tested once

e)

all of the above

22. To test a hypothesis about a given variable, experimental and control groups
are tested in parallel. Which of the following best explains the dual experiments?

a) In the experimental group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the


control group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.

b) In the control group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the


experimental group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be
made.

c) In the experimental group, a chosen variable plus all other variables are
altered. In the control group, the chosen variable is altered; however, all other
variables are held constant.

d)

e)

In the experimental and control groups, two different variables are altered.

Experimental and control group experiments are identical and run in parallel to
get repeatable results.

23. Which of the following can be considered definitions of theory?

a)

b)

A theory can be an explanation of scientific laws

A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported


by a large body of observations and experiments

c)

A theory is a condensation and simplification of many data that previously


appeared unrelated

d)

A theory is a prediction for new data suggesting new relationships among a


range of natural phenomena

e)

All of the above

24. You have formulated a hypothesis that light is necessary for seed
germination. To test your hypothesis, one set of lettuce seeds are placed in light
with warm temperatures and adequate moisture. Another set of identical seeds are
placed in the dark under the same set of conditions. The control in the experiment
is ___________.

a)

seeds in the dark

b)

seeds in the light

c)

warm temperature

d)

adequate moisture

e)

germination rate

25. The sexually transmissible disease gonorrhea has become increasingly


resistant to treatment with antibiotics. What is the most likely scientific
explanation?

a)

The gonorrhea bacteria learned to avoid antibiotics

b)

The gonorrhea bacteria changed their genes when they sensed antibiotics

c)

Antibiotic-sensitive gonorrhea bacteria died out, but antibiotic-resistant


gonorrhea bacteria have flourished and persisted

d)

The antibiotic increased the mutation rate in the gonorrhea bacteria

e)

Both b and d

26. Which statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals
on earth?

a)

b)

c)

d)

Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2

Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2

Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O

Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2

27. Think of the cell as a factory, in which the organelles are specialized sites of
production. All cells have a power plant, the mitochondrion. Plant cells have an
additional reactor for the production of usable energy. It is called the ________.

a)

b)

golgi body

rough endoplasmic reticulum

c)

central vacuole

d)

e)

vesicle

chloroplast

28. What is biology?

a)

b)

The study of life

The study of the environment

c)

The study of DNA

d)

The study of genetics

e)

The study of the earth

29. Which of the following groups would contain the largest number of
organisms?

a)

class

b)

order

c)

d)

e)

species

kingdom

family

30. All living organisms _____________.

a)

b)

c)

reproduce

evolve

respond to environmental stimuli

d)

have all three characteristics

31. Meiosis results in ______________.

a)

2 haploid daughter cells

b)

2 diploid daughter cells

c)

4 haploid daughter cells

d)

4 diploid daughter cells

e)

6 haploid daughter cells

32. The plasma membrane __________________.

a)

is the control center of the cell

b)

functions in protein synthesis

c)

d)

functions in fat synthesis

regulates the passage of material into and out of the cell

33. In a comparison of two solutions, the solution with the higher solute
concentration is _________________.

a)

dynamic

b)

hypertonic

c)

hypotonic

d)

isotonic

e)

osmotic

34. Catalase is an enzyme found in plant and animal cells. Hydrogen peroxide is
a harmful substance found in cells. Catalase causes hydrogen peroxide to
breakdown into water and oxygen. What type of molecule is catalase?

a)

b)

c)

d)

A lipid

A protein

A nucleic acid

A carbohydrate

e)

A sugar

35. The pigment molecule that catches the energy of the sunlight is ____________.

a)

chlorophyll

b)

pyruvic acid

c)

d)

glucose

carbon dioxide

36. The energy of the sun is converted into usable energy for the cell in the form
of _________.

a)

ADP

b)

ATP

c)

CO2

d)

glucose

37. The innermost electron shell of an atom holds a maximum of ______


electrons.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

10

38. The pH of the fluid in your stomach is around pH 2. The fluid is ____________.

a)

acidic

b)

basic

c)

neutral

39. The chemical bond that results in the transfer of electrons is a _______ bond.

a)

hydrogen

b)

covalent

c)

polar

d)

ionic

40. If an acid is added to water, the pH will ______________.

a)

b)

stay the same

c)

d)

decrease

increase

sometimes increase and sometimes decrease

e)

become neutral

41. Organisms in the Plantae kingdom are ____________.

a)

multi-cellular and autotrophic

b)

multi-cellular and heterotrophic

c)

d)

e)

unicellular and autotrophic

unicellular and heterotrophic

both unicellular and multi-cellular

42. You examine a cell under a microscope and you do not see a well defined
nucleus. You conclude the cell must be a(n) _____________ cell.

a)

prokaryotic

b)

eukaryotic

c)

plant

d)

animal

43. The smallest unit of life is the _________.

a)

b)

c)

cell

organelle

macromolecule

d)

atom

44. A dichotomous key is used to ___________________.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

locate organisms

identify organisms

divide organisms

interbreed species

describe plants

45. The control in an experiment _______________________________________.

a)

b)

c)

reduces the experimental errors

minimizes experimental inaccuracy

allows standard comparison for the experimental group

d)

is an additional replicate for statistical purposes

e)

makes the experiment invalid

46. The hydrophilic surface of a membrane faces:

a) The interior of the cell

b) The interior of the membrane

c) The exterior of the cell


d) Both a) and b) are correct

e) Both a) and c) are correct

47. Plant cell walls are made of:

a) Lipids

b) Cellulose

c) Proteins

d) Chitin

e) Glycogen

48. Cyanobacteria possess:

a) A nucleus

b) Chlorophyll

c) A flagellum

d) No ribosomes

e) All of the above are true

49. The following can be found on the surface of bacteria:

a) A slime layer (capsule)

b) Fimbriae

c) Both a) and b) are true

d) Both a) and b) are false

49. Energy is defined as:

a) ability to work

b) ability to sleep

c) ability to cook

d) ability to do nothing

e) all of the above are correct

50. What can be found in only eukaryotic cells?

a) ribosomes

b) plasma membrane

c) centrioles

d) DNA
e) all of the above are true

51. What can be found in only prokaryotic cells?

a) ribosomes

b) plasma membrane

c) cell wall

d) DNA

e) nucleoid

52. A nucleus would not be found in:

a) Fungi

b) Cyanobacteria

c) Humans

d) Tulips

e) fish

53. The presence of a nucleus, lysosome, and chlorophyll indicates the cell is a:

a) prokaryote

b) plant

c) animal

d) bacteria

e) either plant or animal

54. The word that is defined by The ability of an organism to maintain relatively
constant internal conditions is:

a) evolution

b) homeostasis

c) metabolism

d) energy

e) behavior

55. The electrons of an atom are:

A. always equal to the number of neutrons in an atom

B. found in the nucleus


C. used to determine atomic number

D. positively charged
E. moving in pathways called orbitals.

56. All of the following pertain to the atom except it:

A. has 6 protons

B. has 6 electrons

C. has 14 neutrons
D. is an isotope of carbon

E. has a mass number of 14

57. The subatomic particles that surround the nucleus are the:

A. electrons

B. protons

C. neutrons

D. protons and neutrons

E. protons and electrons

58. Which of the following is not one of waters life supporting properties?

A. Cohesive behavior

B. Ability to moderate temperature

C. Expansion upon freezing

D. Versatility as a solvent
E. All the above are correct

59. Cations are:

A. subatomic particles

B. atoms that have gained electrons


C. radioactive isotopes

D. capable of forming ionic bonds with anions


E. atoms without protons

60. What is the maximum number of electrons in the second energy shell of an
atom?

A. 2

B. 4

C. 8

D. 18

E. 32

61. What would be the valence number of electrons in the sulfur atom?

A. 2

B. 6

C. 8

D. 16

E. 32

62.An acid:

A. is neutral

B. releases hydroxide ions in solution

C. releases hydrogen ions in solution

D. basic

E. non-polar

63. Which term does not belong in this list?

A. Lactic acid

B. Vinegar (pH 3)

C. Hydrogen ion donor


D. pH 10

E. Acidic

64. A solution of pH 3 compared to a solution of pH 9

A. is more basic

B. has no OH- ions

C. has more H+ ions


D. None of the above is correct

E. All of the choices are correct.

65. The building blocks of an enzyme are:

A. nucleotides

B. glycerol and fatty acids

C. monosaccharides

D. phosphate, glycerol, fatty acids

E. amino acids

66. All of the following are monosaccharides except

A. glucose

B. glycogen

C. fructose
D. ribose

E. deoxyribose
67. All of the following are lipids except

A. cholesterol

B. starch

C. phospholipid
D. wax

E. triglyceride

68. A monosaccharide with 5 carbon atoms will have _____ hydrogen atoms and
_____ oxygen atoms

A. 10, 5

B. 5, 10

C. 5, 5

D. 10, 10

E. 2, 1

69. One nucleotide contains

A. one phosphate

B. one pentose

C. one nitrogen base

D. All of the choices are correct

E. None of the choices are correct

70. Which of the following would have glycosidic bonds?

A. Triglycerides

B. Monosaccharides

C. Polypeptides

D. Polysaccharides

E. ATP

71. All of the chemical reactions of the cell are called:

A. catabolism

B. redox reactions

C. phosphorylation
D. metabolism

E. cellular respiration

72. All of the following pertain to glycolysis except it:

A. occurs without oxygen

B. ends with formation of pyruvic acid


C. occurs during fermentation

D. it produces glucose
E. involves reduction of NAD

73. The formation of citric acid from oxaloacetic acid and an acetyl group begins:

A. glycolysis

B. electron transport system


C. Krebs cycle

D. fermentation
E. oxidative phosphorylation

74. Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to build a polypeptide would
be called:

A. anabolism

B. phosphorylation

C. fermentation
D. exergonic

E. glycolysis

*************************************************************************************
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MATCHING SECTION #1

MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all
questions. Each question is worth 1 point. The Matching section (1 and 2) is worth
20 points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select from the right
column as the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

Term or Concept

Water molecule

Carbon

Homeostasis

Ionic Bonding

Covalent Bonding

Carbohydrate

Enzyme

Acid

Base

Lipid

Definition/Association

energy source
two atoms sharing electrons
electron donated/received
hydrophobic
element found in all living organisms
catalyst
OH-> H+
polar
characteristic of all living organisms
H+> OH-

MATCHING SECTION #2

Term or Concept

Ribosome

Mitochondria

Nucleus

Golgi apparatus

Smooth Endoplasmatic Reticulum

Membrane

Cell Wall

Lysosome

Chloroplast

Cilia

Definition or Association

packaging and transport


digestion
genetic material storage

protein assembly
structural support
lipid production
glucose breakdown
movement
oxygen production
contain transport proteins and receptors

ESSAY SECTION

Complete all of the questions in this Essay Section

INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth 5 points.The total points for this section is35
points. Use complete sentences and cite resources. Make sure you provide a
comprehensive answer for full credit.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet
provided by your instructor.

You scoop up a water sample from a local pond nearby, because you are curious
about the possible microbes that might live there. After looking at several slides
that held drops of the sample, you noticed two different kinds of cells: One kind was
very small and had no separate internal structures; the other kind was much larger,
and it contained several kinds of internal structures that were physically different
from each other. Please name each cell and briefly describe their overall similarities
and differences.

The first cell that is described is more than likely going to be a basic plant cell like
an algae or similar cell. The second cell that is described will more than likely be an
animal cell, it could perhaps be a skin cell of a fish or frog. There are many
differences between these two cells, but there are also many similarities. One of the
seemingly very big differences is the irregular shape of the larger animal cell; it also
seems to not have a cell wall. Some of the similarities are things like the cytoplasm,
ER, Ribosomes, and Mitochondria.

PKU (phenylketonuria) is an enzyme deficiency disease that only develops in


individuals who are homozygous recessive for that gene. An individual with PKU has
parents that do not have this disease. What is the parents genotype for the gene
responsible for PKU? What is the probability that they may have another child with
PKU? How many future children of the affected individual will be carriers? Explain
your answers.

Heterozygous Dominant

One child will be a non carrier, one in four will have PKU and 2 children will carry the
gene without expression of the disease. This can be viewed in a basic pungent
square.

RR

Rr

Rr

rr

Humans share 99% of their genes with chimpanzees, 90% with mice, 50% with
fruit flies, and 37% with celery. Please explain the evolutionary significance of these
data.

Given an evolutionist theory that we all evolved from the first form of life it would
make sense that we would all share some type of DNA similarities. If Humans are
simply just mice which have evolved, we must still have some of the mouses DNA.
It would only make sense that as you progress down the chain that you would find
similarities between the two parties as you go down the line. If Fruit flies started
before mice, then it would make sense for them to share a large percentage of their
DNA together.

Describe the major land biome where you live. How have human activities
changed the landscape and how has this affected native species? Include specific
examples.

Chaparral biome (Southern Calfornia)(my home). Native vegetation would be scrub


brush and scrub oak. Most of the wilderness has been replaced with urban
savanna pavement with some lawns and whatever people have in their yards.
Some of the not-yet-urbanized areas have been replaced with nonnative grass, and
maintained that way by fires. There are also long time vacant lots. Most of these
have eucalyptus (from Australia) and palm trees (that are also not native
here).Introduced animal species have displaced many native animal species. The
introduced species include people, dogs, cats, red-masked Conures, Argentine ants,
peacocks The displaced include birds of prey, bats, deer, bears, cougars. Some
animals can coexist with people. These include coyotes, opossums, skunks, pocket
gophers.

The habitat of one species of tropical fish is red coral reefs. The large majority of
the fish in this population are red. A few individual fish carry a mutation that

prevents the production of the red pigment; as a result these individual fish are
white. The temperature of the ocean where these fish live gets warmer and warmer
over a 10 year period, and as a result the coral is bleached and turns white. Use
what you have learned about natural selection to explain how this bleaching event
may have affected the evolution this fish population (not including possible direct
effects of warmer temperatures on the fish). Include the following terms in your
explanation: differential reproduction, beneficial trait, allele frequency, selection
pressure, evolution.

5.Alternati