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Welded connections.

The calculation is intended for the geometrical design and strength control of statically loaded
welded connections of machine structures manufactured from carbon steels. The program
enables you to design over 50 of the most common types of welded connections stressed by
various combinations of load. The calculation deals with the following tasks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Design of connections with butt welds.


Design of connections with fillet welds.
Design of connections with plug and slot welds.
Design of connections with spot (resistance) welds.
Strength control of designed connections.
The program includes a table with approx. 700 carbon steels suitable for welding according
to the material standards ANSI, EN, JIS, ISO, DIN, BS, NF, UNI, UNE, SIS, CSA, NBN, NP, NS,
ON and CSN.
7. The program also includes a dimensional table of steel sections S, ST, W, WT, C, L according
to ASTM/AISI/AISC and T, I, U, L sections according to DIN/EN/ISO.
The calculation is based on data, procedures and algorithms from specialized literature and
standards AWS, AISC, ANSI, EN, ISO, DIN and others.
List of standards: prEN 1993-1-8, EN 10024, EN 10034, EN 10055, EN 10056, EN 10279, DS 952,
DIN 15018, DIN 18800, DIN 1024, DIN 1025, DIN 1026, DIN 1028, DIN 1029, CSN 050120
Note: This calculation is not intended for the design and control of some special welded structures subject to special
standards, regulations and provisions (e.g. pressure vessels, pipelines, cranes, ...).

Control, structure and syntax of calculations.


Information on the syntax and control of the calculation can be found in the document "Control,
structure and syntax of calculations".

Information on the project.


Information on the purpose, use and control of the paragraph "Information on the project" can be
found in the document "Information on the project".

Theory - Fundamentals.
The welded connections are solid, non-detachable connections based on the principle of local
melting of connected parts using heat or pressure. The joining of components proper may be
achieved technically using two methods:

Fusion welding (arc, flame, plasma, laser, thermite, electroslag, ... welding)
The weld is a result of local melting of the material of connected parts, and usually also
filler metal, without pressure.

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Pressure welding (resistance, induction, ultrasonic, friction, explosion, ... welding)


After melting in, the components join in the contact spot using mechanical pressure or
impacts.

An optimum result of the welding process should be a weld with mechanical properties similar as
far as possible to the properties of the basic material. According to their function, we can divide
welds into:

Force welds - load-bearing welds used to transfer external load


Tack welds - welds providing only compactness of the whole (with no or negligible external
load)
Caulk welds - welds providing staunchness of connected parts (vessels, pipelines, etc.)

This program is designed for the calculation of statically loaded welded connections of machinery
structures manufactured from carbon steels, for working temperatures ranging from -20 to 150C.
The program enables you to perform geometrical design and strength checks of force connections
with the most common types of fusion welds and connections with spot resistance welds. The
calculation does not consider the sudden formation of fragile fractures, change in material
properties due to temperature, impact of own tensions or concentration of stress in the weld.
An accurate theoretical solution to force and strength conditions is an extremely complicated
problem for welded connections, even for welds with simple shapes. That is why common
technical calculations are based on a range of conventions and simplified premises. In view of the
strength checks, welded parts are usually considered a single compact part with a dangerous spot
(section) in the welded area. On the grounds that there is an even distribution of stress in the
active weld section, only theoretical rated stress in the specified section is specified for the
respective load, regardless of the technological workmanship of the weld or potential internal
tension. For connections with multiple welds, an even load on individual welds is assumed.
The strength checks of the connection are performed by simple comparison of the calculated
rated stress with the permissible stress in the weld. Permissible weld stress "SwA" is usually
specified from the value of the yield strength of the basic material "Re" based on the required
safety.

When selecting the safety coefficient "FS", it is necessary to consider the specific factors of welded
connections in addition to the general principles used to specify the safety coefficients. The
required safety degree should respect all the facts that were not considered in the calculation of
rated stresses (technological workmanship of weld, weld quality, internal tension, weld
homogeneity, shape and finish of weld surface, weld reinforcement, ignites and penetrations,
etc.). Last but not least, the direction of stress and the anisotropic properties of material in the
weld must also be considered. Different weld material properties in the vertical and horizontal
direction result in differing values of the safety coefficient depending on the type, workmanship
and load type of the welded connection.
From the above mentioned, it is obvious that the most complicated task in strength checks of the
welded connection applies to the proper choice of safety coefficient. General procedures for
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setting safety coefficients can be found in the document "Coefficients of safety", while specific
recommendations regarding welded connections are given at the end of the chapter. The
procedures to specify the rated stress for individual types of welds are detailed in the following
paragraphs.

Butt welds.
Butt welds originate in the joint gap of connected parts and are usually used as load-bearing, force
welds. In order to achieve perfect workmanship of the welds, it is usually necessary to perform
modification of the contact surfaces of the connected parts. The method of welded surface
treatment is set by the workmanship of the connection, the thickness of the welded parts, the
welding method and the accessibility of the welded spot.

When designing and performing the strength checks of welded connections, the weldment with a
butt weld is considered as a solid component with a dangerous spot in the area of the weld. The
load-bearing weld section will be the basic characteristic of the connection for the assessment of
its load-bearing capacity.

In the calculation of butt welds, the type of welds (method of weld surface treatment) or potential
weld root reweldment are not considered. The load-bearing section of the butt weld is then
specified only by its thickness "a" and length "L".

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Note: This program is designed for the calculation of connections with uniform, fully penetrated
butt welds. The recommended procedures for handling special cases of connections (partly
welded welds, intermittent welds, combined welds) can be found at the end of this chapter.
Weld throat thickness:
In order to specify the load-bearing section, the thickness of the thinner of the welded parts is
considered as the butt weld throat thickness "a". Reinforcement of the weld surface and root is
not considered.

Effective weld length:


In a normal type of weld, so-called "end down-slopes" are formed. They result in weakening of the
section at the weld's beginning and end. The effective weld length will then be smaller than the
actual length (reduced by a worse-quality weld beginning and end). For more accurate
calculations, we therefore recommend controlling the load-bearing capacity of welds only for that
part (length) of the weld that has a rated section. The common method of setting the effective
length "L" for common weld execution (fig. a) and specially treated welds (fig. b) is described
schematically in the picture.

Hint: This program is provided with the function of automatic effective weld length calculation see the switch on line [2.6].
Strength solution of welds:
When performing strength checks of butt welds, the rated stress in the load-bearing weld section
must be specified first. Depending on the respective load, the individual stress components are
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specified in the direction normal to the weld (^) and in the direction parallel to the weld (ll). The
calculated rated stresses must not exceed the values for the permissible stress.

When specifying permissible stresses, the anisotropic properties of the material in the area of the
weld must be considered. Different properties of the material result in differing values of
permissible stress of the weld in the normal and parallel direction.
For connections stressed by combined load, the resulting "equivalent" stress in the weld is
specified from the relation:

which for sll= 0 can be adjusted as:

The following table specifies the relations used in the calculation of rated stresses (for respective
load and workmanship of the connection):
Load
Tensile/Press.

Rated stress [MPa, psi]

Shear

Bend

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Bend

Twist

Tensile

Tensile/Press.

Shear

Bend

Tensile/Press.

Shear

Bend

Twist

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where:

a .... weld throat thickness [mm, in]


Aw ... weld throat area [mm2, in2]
D .... tube diameter [mm, in]
d .... weld angle []
F .... acting force [N, lb]
Fn ... normal force [N, lb]
Fs ... shear force [N, lb]
L .... effective weld length [mm, in]
M .... bending moment [N mm, lb in]
s^ ... normal stress vertical to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
sll ... normal stress parallel to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
T .... torque [N mm, lb in]
t^ ... shear stress vertical to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
tll ... shear stress parallel to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
Zw ... module of weld section [mm3, in3]

Connections with partly welded welds:


Connections with partly welded butt welds are usually handled as fillet welds, with the weld throat
(effective) thickness "a".

The other, less appropriate solution method applies to the use of the normal calculation of butt
welds with the weld throat thickness "2a" and adequately increased safety degree.
Connections with combined welds:
Connections with a combined butt and fillet weld are usually handled as butt welds with the weld
throat (efficient) thickness "a".

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Weld throat thickness:

where for:

Connections with intermittent welds:


This program is not primarily modified to handle connections with intermittent weld. Therefore
use the following steps for their calculation:

1) Uncheck the switch on line [2.6]


2) For welds loaded only in one direction (subject to tension or shear), check the
connection for the effective weld length L=L''.
3) For connections stressed by bend, twist or combined load, check the connection
for full weld length L=L', while the required weld safety must be multiplied by the
ratio of lengths L'/L''.
Recommendation: We do not recommend the use of intermittent welds for
connections with butt welds.

Fillet welds.
Fillet welds are located along the wedge-shaped edge of connected parts and their basic crosssection includes an isosceles rectangular triangle. They are usually used for load-bearing, force
welds in T-shape connections, cross-butt connections, angle connections and for lap joints. The
welded parts do not need shape adjustment. For statically loaded connections, usually a flat weld
is used, while a concave weld is more appropriate for dynamically loaded connections, as it has
lower notch effects.

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In strength checks of fillet welds, the rectangle lying in the centre plane dividing the weld section
into two identical parts is considered the dangerous (load-bearing) weld section. The dimensions
of the load-bearing section of a fillet weld are specified by its thickness "a" and length "L".

Note: This program is designed for the calculation of welds with uniform fillet welds. The
recommended methods of handling connections with intermittent welds or with combined welds
can be found at the end of this chapter.
Weld throat thickness:
The fillet weld throat thickness "a" is defined as the height of the biggest isosceles triangle
inscribed into a weld section without penetration.

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Recommendation: The fillet weld thickness is chosen depending on the used material and
thickness of the welded parts. As the information regarding the recommended weld thickness
given in the literature differs significantly, follow the company procedures in choosing the weld
thickness. In order to specify the approximate minimum thickness of the fillet weld, the following
informative relation can be used for the steel strength Rm370..420 MPa:

with tmin for thickness of the thinner of the connected materials. For steels with higher strength
(Rm520 MPa), the weld thickness should be approx. 1 to 2 mm higher.
Effective weld length:
In a normal type of weld, so-called "end down-slopes" are formed. They result in weakening of the
section at the weld's beginning and end. The effective weld length will then be smaller than the
actual length (reduced by a worse-quality weld beginning and end). For more accurate
calculations, we therefore recommend controlling the load-bearing capacity of welds only for that
part (length) of the weld that has a rated section. A common method of specifying the effective
length "L" depending on the weld workmanship is shown schematically in the picture.

Hint: This program is provided with a function of automatic effective weld length calculation - see
the switch on line [3.12] or [4.12].
Recommendation: The length of the fillet weld should range between 5a< L< 70a. For longer
welds, it is more practical to use an intermittent weld. For very long welds (150a<L<400a) stressed
in the weld direction, it is necessary, for the sake of calculation, to perform correction of the
effective weld length using the coefficient:

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Strength solution of welds:


The rated stress specification in the load-bearing section of the fillet weld is an extraordinarily
complicated task due to the combined load and more jagged weld. Therefore, a simplified method
is used in the calculation for handling fillet welds that reclines the load-bearing weld section into
the plane of connection of the parts. Depending on the respective load, the individual stress
components are specified in such reclined section, in the direction normal to the weld (^) and in
the direction parallel to the weld (ll). This convention also includes an assumption that all
components specified like that will actually have a character of the shear stress. The calculated
rated stresses must not exceed the values of permissible material stress in shear.

When specifying permissible stresses, the anisotropic properties of the material in the area of the
weld must be considered. Different properties of the material result in differing values of
permissible stress of the weld in the normal and parallel direction.
A common method of handling welds with fillet welds is further presented in a typical example of
connecting a beam using a double-sided fillet weld.

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Depending on the acting load, we can use the following relations to specify the individual
components of stress at point "A" of the weld:

load with normal force Fz:

load with bending moment M:

load with shear force Fx:

load with shear force Fy:

load with torque T:

where:

Aw ... weld throat area [mm2, in2]


Iw ... moment of inertia of the weld [mm4, in4]
Jw ... polar moment of inertia of the weld [mm4, in4]
s^ ... normal stress vertical to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
sll ... normal stress parallel to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
t^ ... shear stress vertical to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
tll ... shear stress parallel to the weld direction [MPa, psi]

For connections stressed by combined load, the resulting "equivalent" stress in the weld is
specified from the relation:

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which for sll= 0 can be adjusted as:

The sectional properties for the selected basic shapes of weld groups can be found in the following
table. In order to specify the polar moment of inertia of the weld, you can use the following
relation:

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where:

a .... weld throat thickness [mm, in]


B .... width of weld group [mm, in]
D .... weld diameter [mm, in]
H .... height of weld group [mm, in]
L .... weld length [mm, in]
s .... flange thickness [mm, in]
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t .... web thickness [mm, in]

Connections with combined welds:


Connections with a combined butt and fillet weld are usually handled as butt welds with the weld
throat (efficient) thickness "a".

Weld throat thickness:

where for:

Connections with intermittent welds:


This program is not primarily modified to handle connections with intermittent weld. Therefore
use the following steps for their calculation:

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1) Uncheck the switch on line [3.12, 4.12]


2) ) For welds loaded only in one direction (subject to tension or shear), check the connection
for the effective weld length L=L''.
3) For connections stressed by bend, twist or combined load, check the connection for full
weld length L=L', while the required weld safety must be multiplied by the ratio of lengths
L'/L''.

Plug and slot welds.


Plug and slot welds are usually used for lap joints. They are not suitable for the transfer of high
forces and are especially not suitable for dynamically loaded connections. The connection is
formed by the weld on walls of circular or oval openings and in the contact surface of the
adjoining part. Plugs and slots of small dimensions are usually fully filled with the weld.

These welds are not suitable for the joining of thicker plates and are usually used for thinner
plates up to approx. 15 mm thick. In view of the stress, slot welds are more preferable due to the
better quality of penetration of the weld root. A better quality of the weld, i.e. better strength
characteristic of the joint, can be achieved by sloped walls of openings.

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Recommended weld dimensions:

Hole diameter ... d 2s


Slot width ... d 2s
Slot length ... L 2d

Strength solution of welds:


Two types of damage appear in plug and slot welds:
1) shear in the weld base surface
2) tear in the weld circumferential surface
During strength checks, both possible types of damage must be assessed. We can specify the
resulting rated stress from the relation:

Shear stress in the base surface of the weld:

Shear stress in the circumferential surface of the weld:

The sizes of calculated weld surfaces Aw are specified for both weld types in the table:
Plug welds
Base area
[mm2, in2]

of

weld

Circumferential
[mm2, in2]

area

Slot welds

where:

F .... acting force [N, lb]


d .... plug weld diameter, or slot weld width [mm, in]
i ..... number of welds
L .... slot weld length [mm, in]
s .... plate thickness [mm, in]
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Spot (resistance) welds.


Spot resistance welds are usually used to connect thin plates and thin-walled parts. They are
especially very useful in lot production. The connections with spot welds are not very appropriate
for transferring high forces. In view of the type of stress, we distinguish two basic types of
connections with spot welds:

connections with welds stressed in shear (lap joints)


connections with welds stressed in tear (by tension)

In technical practice, not more than 3 parts with maximum total thickness up to approx. 15 mm
are allowed to be joined for connections with resistance welds. The thickness ratio for individual
parts should not exceed 1:3. The welds should be positioned towards the external force so that
they are always only stressed in shear. Spot welds stressed in tension have significantly lower
load-bearing capacity, which is why their use is not recommended. Lap welds can be made as
single-shear or double-shear. A minimum of 2 and maximum of 5 spot connections should be
located in the direction of acting force.

Recommended weld dimensions:

Spot weld diameter ... d 5 s0.5


Pitch between adjacent welds ... t1 (2..3) d
Weld distance from edge of plate ... t2 2d

Strength solution of welds:


During strength checks, the following checks are carried out for spot welds:
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1) Check of weld against tear in cylindrical area


2) Check of weld against shear (for lap joints)
3) Check of weld against separation (for welds stressed in tension)
The calculation is based on the assumption of evenly distributed force F on all welds. We can
specify the resulting rated stress from the relation:

Shear stress in the cylindrical area of the weld:

Shear stress in the weld throat area:

Normal stress in the weld throat area:

where:

Awa ... area of the spot weld section [mm2, in2]


Awc ... cylindrical area of the weld [mm2, in2]
F .... acting force [N, lb]
d .... spot weld diameter [mm, in]
i ..... number of welds
s .... plate thickness [mm, in]

Safety of welded connections, used calculation methods.


An accurate theoretical solution to force and strength conditions is an extremely complicated
problem for welded connections, even for welds with simple shapes. That is why common
technical calculations are based on a range of conventions and simplified premises. That logically
results in certain disagreement between the solution models commonly used in practice. That is
why the program is provided with an option to select from three different calculation methods.
Although all three specified methods use almost a similar way of theoretical handling of tension in
the examined spot of the weld, they differ in the method of evaluating the total load-bearing
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capacity of the designed connection. That is why each calculation method operates with its own
safety rate differing in quality. The choice of an appropriate method will then depend on the user's
specific requirements and experience.
The following paragraphs provide a detailed description of individual calculation methods.
1. Basic calculation method.
This method represents a general method of handling welded connections and is based on the
most frequent calculation methods for welded connections of machinery equipment mentioned in
the literature.
Depending on the respective type, workmanship and load of the welded connection, this method
calculates the respective theoretical rated stress in the load-bearing weld section (normal, shear,
or equivalent) in the first step. The strength checks of the weld are then performed by simple
comparison of the calculated stress to the yield strength of the basic material. With respect to the
type of calculated stress, we can describe the conditions of the load-bearing capacity of the weld
using the following relations:

The required safety of the weld stress is then the ratio between the value of the yield strength of
the basic material and the value of the maximum admissible stress of the specific weld.
This method is disadvantageous due to the rather complicated procedure in specifying the suitable
safety rate minimum value. In addition to the common (qualitative) criteria, specific factors of the
specific welded connection (type, workmanship and the way of connection load) must be
considered when choosing the required safety. The required safety for the yield strength "FSy" is
then defined as the product of two safety coefficients FSy = FS1 * FS2.
Safety coefficient FS1:
Depends on the direction of the acting stress and the anisotropic properties of the material in the
examined weld spot. Its value should also consider the technological weld parameters. With
respect to the type, workmanship and the way of connection load, it is chosen from the range 1 to
2.
Safety coefficient FS2:
It considers qualitative parameters. With respect to the accuracy and value of input information,
connection importance, production quality, operating conditions and calculation accuracy, it is
usually chosen from 1.1 to 2.
Hint 1: You can find the informative values for the choice of safety coefficients FS1 and FS2 in chapter [1.3] of the
Help.
Hint 2: This method is suitable for experienced users who are able to perform a sound design of the required safety
degree depending on the specific type, workmanship and load of the welded joint.
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2. Method of conversion coefficients.


This method expands the basic calculation method and brings certain simplification to the area of
considering the designed joint load-bearing capacity. As in the previous method, the respective
theoretical rated stresses in the load-bearing weld section are calculated first. In the next step, the
resulting comparative stress is defined based on these rated stresses using the predefined
empirically set conversion coefficients. These coefficients consider the anisotropic properties of
weld material in the direction of the acting stresses and their size will therefore depend on the
type, workmanship and the way of load of the welded joint.
Depending on the acting stress, the resulting comparative stress will be specified for the
respective
conversion
coefficients
"a"
from
the
following
relations:
- in linear state of stress

- in multi-axial stress of butt welds

- in multi-axial stress of fillet welds

The strength checks of the weld are then performed by comparison of the calculated comparative
stress to the yield strength of the basic material. Regardless of the type, workmanship or the way
of load of the welded joint, we can describe the condition of load-bearing capacity using a single
relation:

The required safety against the yields point "FSy" will consider only the qualitative parameters of
the welded connection for this method. With respect to the accuracy and value of input
information, connection importance, production quality, operating conditions and calculation
accuracy, it is usually chosen from 1.1 to 2.
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Hint 1: You can find the informative values for the choice of safety coefficient FSy in chapter [1.5] of the Help. The
values of the predefined conversion coefficient may be adjusted in paragraph [3.1] on the sheet "Options".
Hint 2: This method is especially suitable for less experienced users. Its use may be advantageous in case of a
comparative calculation when several designed solutions with a different type of weld need to be compared.

3. Method of permissible stresses.


The most complicated task in the strength checks of welded connections usually applies to
defining the correct value of the permissible weld stress. The logical result is therefore the fact
that it is this area of specifying the permissible stresses where the most noticeable differences
between various recommended procedures used in technical practice appear.
The previous calculation methods control the load-bearing capacity of the joint by simple
comparison of calculated stresses to the yield strength of the basic material. They do not provide
for direct handling of the requirement of strength checks for the known values of permissible weld
stress prescribed by the standards or company procedures. This method therefore obliges users
who want to use this program to design the joint and at the same time comply with the prescribed
procedures for the strength checks.
Unlike the previous method, this method uses the comparison of calculated stresses to the value
of permissible stress "SwA" defined directly by the user for strength checks. The condition of load
bearing capacity of the welded connection may then be described using the relation:

As the required safety level is usually already included in the value of the prescribed permissible
stress, the applied safety degree "FS" is used as an auxiliary quantity and only describes a certain
degree of "over-dimensioning" of the designed connection. The safety value "FS" will then depend
on the procedure applied by the user in order to define the permissible stress, and it is usually
FS1.
Hint 1: Some values of permissible stresses that are specified in professional literature are derived for a different
methodology of comparative stresses calculation. That is why this method enables variable behaviour of the
calculation. Set the basic parameters for the calculation of comparative stresses in paragraph [3.10] on the sheet
"Options".
Hint 2: Use this method if you need to check the load-bearing capacity of the welded connection for known (rated)
permissible connection stress.

Process of calculation.
A typical calculation / connection design includes the following steps:
1. Set the required calculation units (SI / Imperial). [1.1]
2. Choose the proper calculation method and set the required safety level [1.2].
3. Choose the material for the connected parts [1.9].
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4. Select the chapter with the respective type of welded connection.


5. On the first line of the chapter [X.1] select the required workmanship (shape) of the
connection.
6. In paragraph [X.2] set the dimensions of the connected parts.
7. Check the respective check boxes in the paragraph "Loading of the connection" to select
the appropriate load combination. Specify the size of the selected loads.
8. Check the calculated safety of the designed connection in the paragraph "Strength checks
of the connection".
9. Save the workbook with the satisfactory solution with a new name.

Basic parameters of the calculation, connection material. [1]


Use this paragraph to set the control parameters for the calculation (calculation method and
calculation units) and choose the appropriate material for the connected parts.

1.1 Calculation units.


In the selection list, choose the desired calculation unit system. All values will be recalculated
immediately after switching to other units.

1.2 Used calculation method.


An accurate theoretical solution to force and strength conditions is an extremely complicated
problem for welded connections, even for welds with simple shapes. That is why common
technical calculations are based on a range of conventions and simplified premises. That logically
results in certain disagreement between the solution models commonly used in practice. That is
why the program is provided with an option to select from three different calculation methods.
Although all three specified methods use almost a similar way of theoretical handling of tension in
the examined spot of the weld, they differ in the method of evaluating the total load-bearing
capacity of the designed connection. That is why each calculation method operates with its own
safety rate differing in quality. The choice of an appropriate method will then depend on the user's
specific requirements and experience.
Select the appropriate calculation method using the appropriate switch. Define the required
connection safety for the selected method.
Hint 1: You can find a description of individual calculation methods and recommended safety values in the
respective notes or in the theoretical part of the Help.
Hint 2: General procedures of determination of safety coefficients can be found in the document "Coefficients of
safety".

1.3 Basic calculation method.


This method represents a general method of handling welded connections and is based on the
most frequent calculation methods for welded connections of machinery equipment mentioned in
the literature.

Page 23 of 60

Depending on the respective type, workmanship and load of the welded connection, this method
calculates the respective theoretical rated stress in the load-bearing weld section (normal, shear,
or equivalent) in the first step. The strength checks of the weld are then performed by simple
comparison of the calculated stress to the yield strength of the basic material. The required safety
of the weld stress is then the ratio between the value of the yield strength of the basic material
and the value of the maximum admissible stress of the specific weld.
This method is disadvantageous due to the rather complicated procedure in specifying the suitable
safety rate minimum value. In addition to the common (qualitative) criteria, specific factors of the
specific welded connection (type, workmanship and the way of connection load) must be
considered when choosing the required safety. The required safety for the yield strength "FSy" is
then defined as the product of two safety coefficients FSy = FS1 * FS2.
Safety coefficient FS1:
Depends on the direction of the acting stress and the anisotropic properties of the material in the
examined weld spot. Its value should also consider the technological weld parameters.
Information values for the choice of safety coefficient FS1:

Butt welds
- subject to compression
1
- subject to tension / bending
1 ... 1.2
- subject to shear
1.4 ... 1.5
* higher values - one-sided welded welds, unworked welds, manual arc or flame welding
* lower values - double-sided welded welds, worked welds and welds with rewelded root,
automatic welding in CO2 or under welding flux, electroslag welding
Fillet welds
- end welds
1.2 ... 1.5
- side welds
1.3 ... 1.6
* higher values - flat welds, unfinished welds, welds without penetration, thicker welds,
manual welding
* lower values - concave welds, penetrated welds, lower-thickness welds, automatic welding
in CO2 or under welding flux
Plug and slot welds
- subject to shear
1.5 ... 2
* higher values - welds with vertical walls, manual arc welding
* lower values - welds with sloped walls, welding in CO2 or under welding flux
Spot resistance welds
- subject to shear
- subject to tear

1.5
2

Safety coefficient FS2:


It considers qualitative parameters. With respect to the accuracy and value of input information,
connection importance, production quality, operating conditions and calculation accuracy, it is
usually chosen from 1.1 to 2.
Page 24 of 60

Information values for the choice of safety coefficient FS2:

- very accurate input information


- perfect knowledge of material characteristics
- high quality and exact observance of production technology
- high-quality welds without internal tensions
1.1 ... 1.3
- welding is performed only by very experienced, certified welders
- weld quality guaranteed by a detailed output control (radioscopy,
magnetic tests, ultrasonic, ..)
- insignificant connections without serious impacts in case of damage
- less accurate calculation without experimental verification
- lower accuracy in production technology
- standard-quality welds
1.3 ... 1.6
- welding performed by qualified welders
- welds with a standard output control
- less important connections
- reduced accuracy of calculations
- approximate specification of material characteristics
- inaccurate knowledge of actual action of external load
1.6 ... 2.0 - welds with increased risk of existence of internal tensions
- welds with unguaranteed quality
- very important connections with danger to life or high material
losses in case of damage
Note: For connections operating in a corrosive environment or at high temperatures, higher values
for safety coefficient FS2 are also used.
Hint 1: A detailed description of the calculation for rated stresses for various types of welded connections can be
found in the theoretical part of the Help.
Hint 2: This method is suitable for experienced users who are able to perform a sound design of the required safety
degree depending on the specific type, workmanship and load of the welded joint.

1.5 Method of conversion coefficients.


This method expands the basic calculation method and brings certain simplification to the area of
considering the designed joint load-bearing capacity. As in the previous method, the respective
theoretical rated stresses in the load-bearing weld section are calculated first. In the next step, the
resulting comparative stress is defined based on these rated stresses using the predefined
empirically set conversion coefficients. These coefficients consider the anisotropic properties of
weld material in the direction of the acting stresses and their size will therefore depend on the
type, workmanship and the way of load of the welded joint.
The strength checks of the weld are then performed by comparison of the calculated comparative
stress to the yield strength of the basic material. The required safety against the yields point "FSy"
will consider only the qualitative parameters of the welded connection for this method. With
respect to the accuracy and value of input information, connection importance, production
quality, operating conditions and calculation accuracy, it is usually chosen from 1.1 to 2.

Page 25 of 60

Information values for the choice of safety coefficient FSy:

- very accurate input information


- perfect knowledge of material characteristics
- high quality and exact observance of production technology
- high-quality welds without internal tensions
1.1 ... 1.3
- welding is performed only by very experienced, certified welders
- weld quality guaranteed by a detailed output control (radioscopy,
magnetic tests, ultrasonic, ..)
- insignificant connections without serious impacts in case of damage
- less accurate calculation without experimental verification
- lower accuracy in production technology
- standard-quality welds
1.3 ... 1.6
- welding performed by qualified welders
- welds with a standard output control
- less important connections
- reduced accuracy of calculations
- approximate specification of material characteristics
- inaccurate knowledge of actual action of external load
1.6 ... 2.0 - welds with increased risk of existence of internal tensions
- welds with unguaranteed quality
- very important connections with danger to life or high material
losses in case of damage
Note: For connections operating in a corrosive environment or at high temperatures, higher values
for safety coefficient FSy are also used.
Hint 1: The values of the predefined conversion coefficient may be adjusted in paragraph [3.1] on the sheet
"Options".
Hint 2: This method is especially suitable for less experienced users. Its use may be advantageous in case of a
comparative calculation when several designed solutions with a different type of weld need to be compared.

1.7 Method of permissible stresses.


The most complicated task in the strength checks of welded connections usually applies to
defining the correct value of the permissible weld stress. The logical result is therefore the fact
that it is this area of specifying the permissible stresses where the most noticeable differences
between various recommended procedures used in technical practice appear.
The previous calculation methods control the load-bearing capacity of the joint by simple
comparison of calculated stresses to the yield strength of the basic material. They do not provide
for direct handling of the requirement of strength checks for the known values of permissible weld
stress prescribed by the standards or company procedures. This method therefore obliges users
who want to use this program to design the joint and at the same time comply with the prescribed
procedures for the strength checks.
Unlike the previous method, this method uses the comparison of calculated stresses to the value
of permissible stress "SwA" defined directly by the user for strength checks. As the required safety
level is usually already included in the value of the prescribed permissible stress, the applied safety
Page 26 of 60

degree "FS" is used as an auxiliary quantity and only describes a certain degree of "overdimensioning" of the designed connection. The safety value "FS" will then depend on the
procedure applied by the user in order to define the permissible stress, and it is usually FS1.
Hint 1: Some values of permissible stresses that are specified in professional literature are derived for a different
methodology of comparative stresses calculation. That is why this method enables variable behaviour of the
calculation. Set the basic parameters for the calculation of comparative stresses in paragraph [3.10] on the sheet
"Options".
Hint 2: Use this method if you need to check the load-bearing capacity of the welded connection for known (rated)
permissible connection stress.

1.9 Material of the connected parts.


This paragraph is used for the selection of suitable material for the connected parts.
The list on line [1.10] is used for selection of the required material standard. Choose the material
for the connected parts proper from the list [1.11]. The first five rows of the list is reserved for
materials defined by the user. Information and settings of proper materials can be found in the
document "Workbook (calculation) modifications". Other rows of the list include a selection of
materials for the actually specified standard [1.10].
Note: In case the checkbox to the right of the selection list is enabled, the necessary parameters for the chosen
material are determined automatically. Otherwise, fill in the material characteristics manually.

1.10 Material standard.


Select the required national standard from the list to determine the joint material.
Recommendation: Most European countries are currently substituting or have already substituted the local
material standards (DIN, BS, UNI, UNE, ...) with corresponding equivalents of standards EN. Therefore we
recommend using only the appropriate European norms EN.

Butt welds. [2]


This paragraph is intended for the geometrical design and strength checks of connections with
butt welds.

Page 27 of 60

Butt welds originate in the joint gap of connected parts and are usually used as load-bearing, force
welds. In order to achieve perfect workmanship of the welds, it is usually necessary to perform
modification of the contact surfaces of the connected parts. The method of welded surface
treatment is set by the workmanship of the connection, the thickness of the welded parts, the
welding method and the accessibility of the welded spot.
Warning: This program is designed for the calculation of connections with uniform, fully penetrated butt welds. The
recommended procedures for handling special cases of connections (partly penetrated welds, intermittent welds,
combined welds) can be found in the theoretical part of the Help.

Designing procedure for the connection:


1. On line [2.1] choose the required connection type.
2. In paragraph [2.2] set all required connection dimensions.
3. On line [2.6] select whether the connection is to be controlled only for the effective weld
length.
4. Check the appropriate check boxes in paragraph [2.7] to set the respective load
combination. Specify the values of selected loads.
5. If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used, set the permissible stress value on
line [2.15].
6. Check the calculated safety of the designed connection on line [2.17].
7. If you want to optimize the connection dimensions or the designed connection does not
comply with the strength checks, use the "min" buttons in paragraph [2.2] to find the
suitable connection dimensions.
8. If you want to establish the maximum admissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button in paragraph [2.7].
Hint: Detailed information on the butt weld calculation can be found in the theoretical part of the Help.

2.1 Connection type.


Check the switch with the respective image to select the required connection type.

2.2 Dimensions of the connection.


Use this paragraph to set all required connection dimensions.
Hint: After any of the "min" buttons located to the right of the input fields are pressed, the program will find the
minimum suitable value of the respective dimension for the respective load, selected material and required
connection safety.

2.6 Effective weld length.


In a normal type of weld, so-called "end down-slopes" are formed. They result in weakening of the
section at the weld's beginning and end. The effective weld length will then be smaller than the
actual length (reduced by a worse-quality weld beginning and end). For more accurate
calculations, we therefore recommend controlling the load-bearing capacity of welds only for that
part (length) of the weld that has a rated section.
Check this switch in order to consider only the effective weld length during the strength checks of
the connection. The program will set the effective length automatically from the specified
Page 28 of 60

dimensions. If the check box is unchecked, the load-bearing capacity of the weld will be calculated
directly for the dimensions of the connection set in paragraph [2.2].
Recommendation: The calculations using the effective length for the weld control err to the side of safety.
Therefore, the switch should preferably be on constantly. Exceptions include cases when the weld is provided with
special treatment (see the figure) or if it is impossible to use the automatic calculation for the effective length
setting (e.g. for intermittent welds).

Note: This parameter is insignificant for connections with circumferential welds.

2.7 Loading of the connection.


Check the appropriate check boxes to the left of this paragraph to set the respective weld load
combination. Specify the size for the selected loads.
Note: For some types of connection [2.1], the program enables the calculation using only one type of loading.
Hint: If you want to establish the maximum permissible load for the respective connection, use the "max" button
located to the right of the respective input field.

2.13 Strength checks of the connection.


If "Basic calculation method" or "Method of conversion coefficients" (see [1.3] or [1.5]) is used,
the strength checks of the connection are performed by comparison of the calculated theoretical
stress in the weld [2.16] to the yield strength of the selected material of the connection [2.14]. If
the connection is to conform, the resulting safety against yield point [2.17] must be higher than
the safety required ([1.4] or [1.6]).
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see [1.7]) is used for calculation, the strength checks of the
connection will be performed by comparison of the calculated theoretical stress [2.16] to the
permissible stress [2.15]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety rate [2.17] must be
higher than the safety required [1.8].
Hint 1: You can find the minimum safety values in the respective notes for paragraph [1.2] or in the theoretical part
of the Help.
Hint 2: If the designed connection does not conform to the strength checks, you can use the respective "min"
button in paragraph [2.2] to find the suitable connection dimension.

2.15 Permissible stress.

Page 29 of 60

If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used for the calculation, set the value for the
permissible stress of the connection material on this line. This value is then used for defining the
safety rate [2.17] of the designed connection.
Note: For the remaining two calculation methods (see [1.3], [1.5]), this line is only informative and the value of the
permissible stress is set automatically based on the required safety and the yield strength of the selected material.

Fillet welds loaded in the connection plane (Lap joints). [3]


Fillet welds are located along the wedge-shaped edge of connected parts and their basic crosssection includes an isosceles rectangular triangle. They are usually used for load-bearing, force
welds in T-shape connections, cross-butt connections, angle connections and for lap joints. The
welded parts do not need shape adjustment. For statically loaded connections, usually a flat weld
is used, while a concave weld is more appropriate for dynamically loaded connections, as it has
lower notch effects.
This part of the calculation is used for the geometrical design and strength checks of fillet weld
connections loaded in the connection plane. Typical examples of such connections include lap
joints and double-sided connections of short rigid beams.

Warning: This program is designed for the calculation of welds with uniform fillet welds. The recommended
methods of handling connections with intermittent welds or with combined welds can be found in the theoretical
part of the Help.

Designing procedure for the connection:


1.
2.
3.
4.

1. On line [3.1] choose the required connection type (form of weld group).
In paragraph [3.2] set all required connection dimensions.
In paragraph [3.11] set the respective parameters for the connection and calculation.
Check the appropriate check boxes in paragraph [3.15] to set the respective load
combination. Specify the values of selected loads.
5. If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used, set the permissible stress value on
line [3.26].
6. Check the calculated safety of the designed connection on line [3.31].
7. If you want to optimize the connection dimensions or the designed connection does not
comply with the strength checks, use the "min" buttons in paragraph [3.2] to find the
suitable connection dimensions.

Page 30 of 60

8. If you want to establish the maximum admissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button in paragraph [3.15].
Hint: Detailed information on the fillet weld calculation can be found in the theoretical part of the Help.

3.1 Form of weld group.


Use a switch with the respective picture to choose the required type of connection (form of weld
group).
Note: The switches marked with a blue weld in the picture (connections no. 17, 18 and 36) are used for the
calculation of connections without closer details regarding the form of weld group. For a connection with a form of
weld group that is not axial symmetric (connection no. 18) we recommend performing the check of stress in the
respective weld area (the most distant from the centre of gravity) gradually in all four quadrants.

3.2 Dimensions of the connection.


Use this paragraph to set all required connection dimensions.
Hint 1: You can find the recommended procedures to choose the appropriate weld dimensions in the theoretical
part of the Help.
Hint 2: After any of the "min" buttons located to the right of the input fields are pressed, the program will find the
minimum suitable value of the respective dimension for the respective load, selected material and required
connection safety.

3.3 Weld throat thickness.


The fillet weld throat thickness is defined as the height of the biggest isosceles triangle inscribed
into a weld section without penetration.

Hint: The minimum fillet weld thickness is usually chosen depending on the used material and the thickness of the
welded parts. You can find the recommended procedures to choose the appropriate weld thickness in the
theoretical part of the Help.

3.8 Standard profiles.


This paragraph is used to enable the setting (automatic completion) of the respective dimensions
of the connection [3.2] for connections with welded on beams with standardized profiles.
When choosing the profile, proceed as follows:
1. Choose the required profile type (standard) from the drop-down menu [3.9].
Page 31 of 60

2. Choose the respective profile dimension from list [3.10].


3. Press the "<" button in the left part of the list to transfer the dimensions of the selected
profile to the input fields of paragraph [3.2].
Note: This paragraph is only functional for the selected forms of weld groups matching the standardized profiles.

3.12 Effective weld length.


In a normal type of weld, so-called "end down-slopes" are formed. They result in weakening of the
section at the weld's beginning and end. The effective weld length will then be smaller than the
actual length (reduced by a worse-quality weld beginning and end). For more accurate
calculations, we therefore recommend controlling the load-bearing capacity of welds only for that
part (length) of the weld that has a rated section.
Check this switch in order to consider only the effective weld length during the strength checks of
the connection. The program will set the effective length automatically from the specified
dimensions. If the check box is unchecked, the load-bearing capacity of the weld will be calculated
directly for the dimensions of the connection set in paragraph [3.2].
Recommendation: The calculations using the effective length for the weld control err to the side of safety.
Therefore, the switch should preferably be on constantly. Exceptions include cases when the weld is provided with
special treatment (see the figure) or if it is impossible to use the automatic calculation for the effective length
setting (e.g. for intermittent welds).

Note: This parameter is insignificant for connections with circumferential welds.

3.13 Internal weld.


Only check this check box if the connection is formed by the fillet weld made on the inside
circumference of one of the parts connected.
Note: This parameter is only significant for some selected connections with circumferential welds.

3.14 Joint design.


Choose the required joint design from the drop-down menu.

Page 32 of 60

Single-shear connection:

Double-shear connection:

3.15 Loading of the connection.


Check the appropriate check boxes to the left of this paragraph to set the respective weld load
combination. Specify the size for the selected loads.
Note: For some forms of weld groups [3.1], the program enables the calculation using only one type of loading.
Hint: If you want to establish the maximum permissible load for the respective connection, use the "max" button
located to the right of the respective input field.

3.24 Strength checks of the connection.


If "Basic calculation method" or "Method of conversion coefficients" (see [1.3] or [1.5]) is used,
the strength checks of the connection are performed by comparison of the maximum calculated
theoretical stresses [3.27 - 3.30] to the yield strength of the selected material of the connection
[3.25]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety against yield point [3.31] must be
higher than the safety required ([1.4] or [1.6]).
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see [1.7]) is used for calculation, the strength checks of the
connection will be performed by comparison of the maximum calculated theoretical stresses [3.27
- 3.30] to the permissible stress [3.26]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety rate
[3.31] must be higher than the safety required [1.8].
Hint 1: You can find the minimum safety values in the respective notes for paragraph [1.2] or in the theoretical part
of the Help.
Page 33 of 60

Hint 2: If the designed connection does not conform to the strength checks, you can use the respective "min"
button in paragraph [3.2] to find the suitable connection dimension.

3.26 Permissible stress.


If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used for the calculation, set the value for the
permissible stress of the connection material on this line. This value is then used for defining the
safety rate [3.31] of the designed connection.
Note: For the remaining two calculation methods (see [1.3], [1.5]), this line is only informative and the value of the
permissible stress is set automatically based on the required safety and the yield strength of the selected material.

Fillet welds loaded in the plane perpendicular to the connection


plane (T-joints). [4]
Fillet welds are located along the wedge-shaped edge of connected parts and their basic crosssection includes an isosceles rectangular triangle. They are usually used for load-bearing, force
welds in T-shape connections, cross-butt connections, angle connections and for lap joints. The
welded parts do not need shape adjustment. For statically loaded connections, usually a flat weld
is used, while a concave weld is more appropriate for dynamically loaded connections, as it has
lower notch effects.
This part of the calculation is used for the geometrical design and strength checks of fillet weld
connections loaded in the plane perpendicular to the connection plane. A typical example of such
connections is the connection of beams to the base plate (T-connection).

Warning: This program is designed for the calculation of welds with uniform fillet welds. The recommended
methods of handling connections with intermittent welds or with combined welds can be found in the theoretical
part of the Help.

Designing procedure for the connection:


1.
2.
3.
4.

1. On line [4.1] choose the required connection type (form of weld group).
In paragraph [4.2] set all required connection dimensions.
In paragraph [4.11] set the respective parameters for the connection and calculation.
Check the appropriate check boxes in paragraph [4.14] to set the respective load
combination. Specify the values of selected loads.
Page 34 of 60

5. If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used, set the permissible stress value on
line [4.26].
6. Check the calculated safety of the designed connection on line [4.29].
7. If you want to optimize the connection dimensions or the designed connection does not
comply with the strength checks, use the "min" buttons in paragraph [4.2] to find the
suitable connection dimensions.
8. If you want to establish the maximum admissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button in paragraph [4.14].
Hint: Detailed information on the fillet weld calculation can be found in the theoretical part of the Help.

4.1 Form of weld group.


Use a switch with the respective picture to choose the required type of connection (form of weld
group).
Note: The switches marked with a blue weld in the picture (connections no. 25 and 26) are used for the calculation
of connections without closer details regarding the form of weld group.

4.2 Dimensions of the connection.


Use this paragraph to set all required connection dimensions.
Hint 1: You can find the recommended procedures to choose the appropriate weld dimensions in the theoretical
part of the Help.
Hint 2: After any of the "min" buttons located to the right of the input fields are pressed, the program will find the
minimum suitable value of the respective dimension for the respective load, selected material and required
connection safety.

4.3 Weld throat thickness.


The fillet weld throat thickness is defined as the height of the biggest isosceles triangle inscribed
into a weld section without penetration.

Hint: The minimum fillet weld thickness is usually chosen depending on the used material and the thickness of the
welded parts. You can find the recommended procedures to choose the appropriate weld thickness in the
theoretical part of the Help.

4.8 Standard profiles.


This paragraph is used to enable the setting (automatic completion) of the respective dimensions
of the connection [4.2] for connections with welded on beams with standardized profiles.
Page 35 of 60

When choosing the profile, proceed as follows:


1. Choose the required profile type (standard) from the drop-down menu [4.9].
2. Choose the respective profile dimension from list [4.10].
3. Press the "<" button in the left part of the list to transfer the dimensions of the selected
profile to the input fields of paragraph [4.2].
Note: This paragraph is only functional for the selected forms of weld groups matching the standardized profiles.

4.12 Effective weld length.


In a normal type of weld, so-called "end down-slopes" are formed. They result in weakening of the
section at the weld's beginning and end. The effective weld length will then be smaller than the
actual length (reduced by a worse-quality weld beginning and end). For more accurate
calculations, we therefore recommend controlling the load-bearing capacity of welds only for that
part (length) of the weld that has a rated section.
Check this switch in order to consider only the effective weld length during the strength checks of
the connection. The program will set the effective length automatically from the specified
dimensions. If the check box is unchecked, the load-bearing capacity of the weld will be calculated
directly for the dimensions of the connection set in paragraph [4.2].
Recommendation: The calculations using the effective length for the weld control err to the side of safety.
Therefore, the switch should preferably be on constantly. Exceptions include cases when the weld is provided with
special treatment (see the figure) or if it is impossible to use the automatic calculation for the effective length
setting (e.g. for intermittent welds).

Note: This parameter is insignificant for connections with circumferential welds.

4.13 Tensile /compression stress.


In welded-on beams loaded by bending moment, the normal stress with the shape described in
the picture is formed in the weld. The maximum stress then acts in the extreme points of the weld
group that are most distant from the neutral axis.

Page 36 of 60

As is obvious from the picture, the stress in the upper weld acts in the direction of the tear of the
beam and has the character of tensile stress. The stress in the lower weld will then have the
character of compression stress. In the welds symmetrical along the neutral axis, the value of both
stresses will be the same; in the asymmetrical welds, the values of compression stress may be
higher. In view of the load-bearing capacity of the welded connection, however, the tensile stress
is usually more important for beams connected in that way.
In normal calculation, the program assesses the maximum calculated stress regardless of its
direction during the strength checks. By checking this switch, you will suppress the check of
compression (negative) stresses. During the strength checks, the program will assess only the
tensile (positive) stress.
Note: This parameter is insignificant for welds symmetrical along the neutral axis.

4.14 Loading of the connection.


Check the appropriate check boxes to the left of this paragraph to set the respective weld load
combination. Specify the size for the selected loads.
Hint: If you want to establish the maximum permissible load for the respective connection, use the "max" button
located to the right of the respective input field.

4.24 Strength checks of the connection.


If "Basic calculation method" or "Method of conversion coefficients" (see [1.3] or [1.5]) is used,
the strength checks of the connection are performed by comparison of the maximum calculated
theoretical stresses [4.27, 4.28] to the yield strength of the selected material of the connection
[4.25]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety against yield point [4.29] must be
higher than the safety required ([1.4] or [1.6]).
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see [1.7]) is used for calculation, the strength checks of the
connection will be performed by comparison of the maximum calculated theoretical stresses
[4.27, 4.28] to the permissible stress [4.26]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety
rate [4.29] must be higher than the safety required [1.8].
Hint 1: You can find the minimum safety values in the respective notes for paragraph [1.2] or in the theoretical part
of the Help.

Page 37 of 60

Hint 2: If the designed connection does not conform to the strength checks, you can use the respective "min"
button in paragraph [4.2] to find the suitable connection dimension.

4.26 Permissible stress.


If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used for the calculation, set the value for the
permissible stress of the connection material on this line. This value is then used for defining the
safety rate [4.29] of the designed connection.
Note: For the remaining two calculation methods (see [1.3], [1.5]), this line is only informative and the value of the
permissible stress is set automatically based on the required safety and the yield strength of the selected material.

Plug and slot welds. [5]


This paragraph is intended for the geometrical design and strength checks of connections with
plug and slot welds.

Plug and slot welds are usually used for lap joints. They are not suitable for the transfer of high
forces and are especially not suitable for dynamically loaded connections. The connection is
formed by the weld on walls of circular or oval openings and in the contact surface of the
adjoining part. Plugs and slots of small dimensions are usually fully filled with the weld.
These welds are not suitable for the joining of thicker plates and are usually used for thinner
plates up to approx. 15 mm thick. In view of the stress, slot welds are more preferable due to the
better quality of penetration of the weld root. A better quality of the weld, i.e. better strength
characteristic of the joint, can be achieved by sloped walls of openings.
Designing procedure for the connection:
1.
2.
3.
4.

On line [5.1] choose the required connection type.


In paragraph [5.2] set all required connection dimensions.
Set the appropriate value for the connection loading on line [5.8].
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used, set the permissible stress value on
line [5.11].
5. Check the calculated safety of the designed connection on line [5.14].
6. If you want to optimize the connection dimensions or the designed connection does not
comply with the strength checks, use the "min" buttons in paragraph [5.2] to find the
suitable connection dimensions.
Page 38 of 60

7. If you want to establish the maximum admissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button on line [5.8].
Hint: Detailed information on the plug weld calculation can be found in the theoretical part of the Help.

5.1 Connection type.


Choose the required type of connection from the drop-down menu.

5.2 Dimensions of the connection.


Use this paragraph to set all required connection dimensions.
Hint 1: You can find the recommended procedures to choose the appropriate weld dimensions in the theoretical
part of the Help.
Hint 2: After any of the "min" buttons located to the right of the input fields are pressed, the program will find the
minimum suitable value of the respective dimension for the respective load, selected material and required
connection safety.

5.7 Loading of the connection.


Set the appropriate value for the connection loading on line [5.8].
Hint: If you want to establish the maximum permissible load for the respective connection, use the "max" button
located to the right of the input field.

5.9 Strength checks of the connection.


If "Basic calculation method" or "Method of conversion coefficients" (see [1.3] or [1.5]) is used,
the strength checks of the connection are performed by comparison of the maximum calculated
theoretical stresses [5.12, 5.13] to the yield strength of the selected material of the connection
[5.10]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety against yield point [5.14] must be
higher than the safety required ([1.4] or [1.6]).
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see [1.7]) is used for calculation, the strength checks of the
connection will be performed by comparison of the maximum calculated theoretical stresses
[5.12, 5.13] to the permissible stress [5.11]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety
rate [5.14] must be higher than the safety required [1.8].
Hint 1: You can find the minimum safety values in the respective notes for paragraph [1.2] or in the theoretical part
of the Help.
Hint 2: If the designed connection does not conform to the strength checks, you can use the respective "min"
button in paragraph [5.2] to find the suitable connection dimension.

5.11 Permissible stress.


If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used for the calculation, set the value for the
permissible stress of the connection material on this line. This value is then used for defining the
safety rate [5.14] of the designed connection.
Page 39 of 60

Note: For the remaining two calculation methods (see [1.3], [1.5]), this line is only informative and the value of the
permissible stress is set automatically based on the required safety and the yield strength of the selected material.

Spot (resistance) welds. [6]


This paragraph is intended for the geometrical design and strength checks of connections with
spot welds.

Spot resistance welds are usually used to connect thin plates and thin-walled parts. They are
especially very useful in lot production. The connections with spot welds are not very appropriate
for transferring high forces. In view of the type of stress, we distinguish two basic types of
connections with spot welds:

connections with welds stressed in shear (lap joints)


connections with welds stressed in tear (by tension)

In technical practice, not more than 3 parts with maximum total thickness up to approx. 15 mm
are allowed to be joined for connections with resistance welds. The thickness ratio for individual
parts should not exceed 1:3. The welds should be positioned towards the external force so that
they are always only stressed in shear. Spot welds stressed in tension have significantly lower
load-bearing capacity, which is why their use is not recommended. Lap welds can be made as
single-shear or double-shear. A minimum of 2 and maximum of 5 spot connections should be
located in the direction of acting force.
Designing procedure for the connection:
1.
2.
3.
4.

On line [6.1] choose the required connection type.


In paragraph [6.2] set all required connection dimensions.
Set the appropriate value for the connection loading on line [6.7].
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used, set the permissible stress value on
line [6.10].
5. Check the calculated safety of the designed connection on line [6.13].
6. If you want to optimize the connection dimensions or the designed connection does not
comply with the strength checks, use the "min" buttons in paragraph [6.2] to find the
suitable connection dimensions.
7. If you want to establish the maximum admissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button on line [6.7].
Page 40 of 60

Hint: Detailed information on the spot weld calculation can be found in the theoretical part of the Help.

6.1 Connection type.


Check the switch with the respective image to select the required connection type.

6.2 Dimensions of the connection.


Use this paragraph to set all required connection dimensions.
Hint 1: You can find the recommended procedures to choose the appropriate weld dimensions in the theoretical
part of the Help.
Hint 2: After any of the "min" buttons located to the right of the input fields are pressed, the program will find the
minimum suitable value of the respective dimension for the respective load, selected material and required
connection safety.

6.6 Loading of the connection.


Set the appropriate value for the connection loading on line [6.7].
Hint: If you want to establish the maximum permissible load for the respective connection, use the "max" button
located to the right of the input field.

6.8 Strength checks of the connection.


If "Basic calculation method" or "Method of conversion coefficients" (see [1.3] or [1.5]) is used,
the strength checks of the connection are performed by comparison of the maximum calculated
theoretical stresses [6.11, 6.12] to the yield strength of the selected material of the connection
[6.9]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety against yield point [6.13] must be higher
than the safety required ([1.4] or [1.6]).
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see [1.7]) is used for calculation, the strength checks of the
connection will be performed by comparison of the maximum calculated theoretical stresses
[6.11, 6.12] to the permissible stress [6.10]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety
rate [6.13] must be higher than the safety required [1.8].
Hint 1: You can find the minimum safety values in the respective notes for paragraph [1.2] or in the theoretical part
of the Help.
Hint 2: If the designed connection does not conform to the strength checks, you can use the respective "min"
button in paragraph [6.2] to find the suitable connection dimension.

6.10 Permissible stress.


If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used for the calculation, set the value for the
permissible stress of the connection material on this line. This value is then used for defining the
safety rate [6.13] of the designed connection.
Note: For the remaining two calculation methods (see [1.3], [1.5]), this line is only informative and the value of the
permissible stress is set automatically based on the required safety and the yield strength of the selected material.

Page 41 of 60

Setting calculations, change the language.


Information on setting of calculation parameters and setting of the language can be found in the document

"Setting

calculations, change the language".

Supplements - This calculation:


3.0 User setting of calculation parameters.
Depending on the applied calculation method (see the main calculation [1.2]) you can use this part
to set some parameters affecting the calculation of the welded connections proper. In paragraph
[3.1] you can set the required value of the coefficients used for "Method of conversion
coefficients". Paragraph [3.10] is used to set the basic calculation parameters for "Method of
permissible stresses".
Hint: Detailed information on the used calculation methods can be found in the theoretical part of the Help.

3.2 Setting the weld anisotropic coefficients.


Use this paragraph to set the values of conversion coefficients used by the program in the
calculation of comparative stresses for "Method of conversion coefficients".
Recommended values of conversion coefficients:

Weld type, way of load


Butt welds subject to compression
Butt welds subject to tension
- manual arc or flame welding
- contact resistance welding
- manual welding, connections after slotting with rewelded
root
- automatic welding under welding flux or in CO2 , doublesided welded connections
- electroslag welding
Butt welds subject to shear
End fillet welds
- manual welding, weld without penetration
- manual arc welding, electrodes with higher strength (min.
20% more)
- automatic welding under welding flux or in CO2 , weld
thickness > 8mm, penetration depth 0.2a
- automatic welding under welding flux, single-layer welds
less than 8mm thick, penetration depth 0.4a
Side fillet welds
- manual welding, weld without penetration
- manual arc welding, electrodes with higher strength (min.
20% more)
Page 42 of 60

Coefficient
1.00
0.85 ... 1.00
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.00

0.70
0.75 ... 1.00
0.75
0.85
0.90
1.00

0.65 ... 0.90


0.65
0.75
0.80

- automatic welding under welding flux or in CO2 , weld


thickness > 8mm, penetration depth 0.2a
- automatic welding under welding flux, single-layer welds
less than 8mm thick, penetration depth 0.4a
Plug and slot welds
- manual arc welding, welds with vertical walls
- welding under welding flux or in CO2 , welds with sloped
walls
Spot resistance welds subject to shear
Spot resistance welds subject to tension

0.90

0.50 ... 0.65


0.50
0.65
0.65
0.50

3.11 Method of comparative stress calculation for butt welds.


Use the appropriate switch to select the required relation that will be further used in the
calculation of comparative stress.
For butt-welded connections, technical calculations most frequently use the second relation,

which is also applied by the program in "Basic calculation method". If this relation is used, the
permissible tensile stress of the basic material is usually used to define the permissible stress in
the weld section.
The first relation

is used to define the rated stresses in a butt weld section less frequently. This method is used e.g.
in DIN 18800, or for a simplified calculation method according to prEN 1993-1-8. Generally, we can
say that if used, the value of the permissible stress should be derived based on the permissible
stress of the material in shear.

3.12 Method of comparative stress calculation for fillet welds.


Use the appropriate switch to select the required relation that will be further used in the
calculation of comparative stress.
For fillet-welded connections, the technical calculations almost solely use the first relation,

Page 43 of 60

which is also applied by the program in "Basic calculation method". When this relation is used, the
permissible stress in shear of the basic material is usually used to define the permissible stress in
the weld section.
With respect to the established calculation convention (for the sake of the calculation, the loadbearing weld section is reclined into the plane of connecting the parts), the literature mentions
the second relation for fillet welds only very rarely.

If you still use it, the value of the permissible stress should be derived based on the permissible
tension stress of the material.
3.13 Calculation with distribution of shear stress.
In some technical calculations, the theory of shear stress distribution is used for strength checks of
fillet welds subject to shear force in the plane of connection of parts. According to this theory, the
shear stresses in the loaded section are transferred only by the welds parallel to the stress
direction. When checking this switch, the program will use the reduced load-bearing section of the
weld group in calculation of shear stresses.

Recommendation: This switch should not be used for cases when the total length of the welds perpendicular to the
stress direction is significantly greater than the total length of the welds parallel to the weld direction. For such
welded connections, the calculation will produce misleading results if the switch is on.
Note: This switch has no meaning for connections with welds located in only one direction.

Workbook modifications (calculation).


General information on how to modify and extend calculation workbooks is mentioned in the document

(calculation) modifications".

Page 44 of 60

"Workbook

Control, structure and syntax.


This chapter provides information on the basic structure of a calculation (workbook and sheets). It
explains how to control the calculation, how to enter input values, where and how to get help
immediately, how to get a correct solution and what to avoid during the calculation. Some rules
for work with the calculation workbooks and calculated data can be found at the end.
All the calculations are produced as workbooks in MS Excel. One calculation = one workbook. It is,
therefore, good (however, not necessary) to have basic knowledge of MS Excel (or a similar table
calculator) and how to work with this program. Knowledge of MS Excel enables you to more easily
understand the method of control, entry of input data and a number of other standard operations
such as saving, printing documents, formatting or sharing them with others.

Structure of the calculation workbook.


Most calculation workbooks consist of the following sheets:

Calculation - The most important sheet of each workbook. It contains algorithms, input
fields of the calculation and the results of the solution. Everything is arranged in a logical
structure in the direction of flow of the solution of the task. If it is used commonly, it
should be the only sheet with which you will work.
Materials- if some material data is necessary for the solved task, this sheet with tables of
materials is available in the workbook.
Tables - Data for calculation can be found in this sheet. Tables of values, lists of
parameters, coefficients, etc.
Options - Options for the language and other parameters, if they are necessary for setting
the behavior of the calculation to meet your specific (company) conditions.
DXF (DXF) - Parameters and definitions for the output of the drawing into a .DXF file or 2D
CAD systems.
Dictionary - Table of language equivalents, translation dictionaries.
Data1,Data2... - Tables for plotting diagrams, tables of solutions.

If it is necessary for the algorithm and solution of the task, some sheets may be omitted in the
workbook or, on the contrary, other sheets may be present with auxiliary inputs, auxiliary
algorithms, etc.

Start of calculation.
The calculation can be started in several ways. The description can be found in the chapter
"Installation, HW and SW requirements, starting". After starting, a "Calculation" sheet is displayed
in MS Excel. This sheet contains everything for the immediate solution of the problem.
Warning: If you save a workbook with a calculation with another active sheet, the state of the last saving is
displayed at startup.

Description of the "Calculation" sheet.


Page 45 of 60

The "Calculation" sheet is the most important sheet of the workbook. It contains formulas, input
and output cells and usually includes the algorithm of the calculation as well.

Sheet division.
The sheet is divided horizontally into two differently sized parts. The upper, narrower part is a
header, which contains the name of the calculation and the basic control and information
elements. The header is anchored and always visible, even if you roll the lower part of the sheet
upwards. On the illustration below, the extent of the header is marked with the number [1].
The lower part of the sheet is divided into three chapters, while the division is based on the
natural procedure of the solution of the majority of technical tasks.

Chapter of input parameters (green) - This chapter is designed for specification of the task.
Working conditions, loading, material options and other marginal conditions can be
entered here. In this chapter, you can control the calculation itself.
Chapter of results (yellow)- Each more complex and complicated calculation has a number
of solutions that may be more or less useful. Sometimes it is necessary to make the price
more favorable, other times the weight, sometimes the method of production or other
parameters. All these parameters, allowing you to make a qualified decision, can be found
in this chapter.
Chapter of supplements (orange) - Includes a number of auxiliary calculations or solutions
of partial problems that must often be carried out when finding input parameters and
evaluating results.

Individual chapters consist of numbered paragraphs and rows. Each paragraph associates
parameters that are connected logically or parameters of similar character (for example: power,
dimension, strength, etc.) so that the structure of the task is well arranged and logical.
Note: If the chapter includes only 2 to 3 paragraphs, the title of the chapter is omitted and the meaning of the
paragraphs (relative to the respective chapter) is marked in its color (light green, light yellow, light red) to simplify
the appearance.

Control elements.
Control elements are explained in the following illustration.

Page 46 of 60

A. Header - The first row of the header shows (from left): The button for starting the
"Integrated environment", the button for displaying "Help" and the name of the
calculation. The right part of the row in some calculations includes the buttons that initiate
the solution implemented in VBA language.
B. Header - The second row of the header is the state row. It displays the calculation state. If
a result is outside of the recommended values, a list of problematic rows is displayed here.
C. Project - Help on the "Project" is given in a separate chapter.
D. Chapter - The row specifying the chapter. Pressing the "[+]/[ - ]"button in this row
displays/hides all the rows in all the paragraphs of the given chapter.
E. Paragraph - The row specifying the paragraph. Enabling/disabling the check box
displays/hides all the rows of the respective paragraph.
F. Comment - Comments can be displayed by positioning the cursor onto the cell marked by a
small red triangle in the upper right corner. The comment contains important information
on the respective row (instructions, recommended values).
G. Selection list - Clicking on the selection list rolls it up and the desired value or option can
be set by selecting the respective row.
H. Input cell - Numerical values are entered into cells with a white background. The values are
entered with the keyboard.
I. Automatic filling - If the check box is located next to the input cell, enabling it causes the
input cell to be automatically filled with the recommended value. Enabling the check box
also causes a change in color of the input cell to light blue. The recommended value is
usually located next to the input cell, in a green cell.
J. Name of the sheet - The lower edge contains the names of the sheets included in the
workbook. Clicking on the respective folder toggles between the sheets.
Page 47 of 60

Meaning of the color of cells.

White cells - input fields (with preset ranges of input values)


Green cells - recommended values, recommended ranges of values
Blue cells (standard background) - output values, results
Grey digit in the cell - the change of color means that the value has no meaning for the
calculation at this moment.
Red digit in the cell - the change of color from black means that the recommended value
was exceeded. However, this does not mean that the solution is automatically insufficient.
It is only a warning that it is necessary to consider all relationships, the causes leading to
excess of the recommended values and the possible consequences.
Red cell -A red background on the cell indicates a critical excess of the recommended
values; this might cause a breakdown, make the assembly impossible or create a critical
reduction in the service life or safety.

Entering values.
Enter the numerical values from the keyboard into the respective white field and confirm them
using the "ENTER" key. A majority of input fields are provided with preset ranges of valid values. If
you try to enter a value outside the permitted range, a warning message is displayed. In such case,
repeat the entry of a correct value. Ranges and recommended values can be found in the on-line
help - in the commentary next to the row number.
Warning: Never copy another cell into the input cell (Command Ctrl+C, Ctrl+V). This might cause the preset values
of input cells to be deleted (formatting, conditioned format, range verification). If you need to copy a value into the
input cell, copy the content (value) of the cell only. Command: Editing->Paste new->Paste values.

Types of calculations.
In view of the control, two basic types of calculations are distinguished.

Automatic calculation.
These are the calculations, in which the algorithm of the solved task is written directly into the
"Calculation" sheet using the formulas and functions of MS Excel. The calculation then behaves as
a common table in MS Excel. After a change in any input value, the complete result displays
immediately. (Example: Calculation of gearing, belt or chain transmissions, etc.).
Note: Automatic calculations usually do not include auxiliary functions (algorithms) that optimize or help entry of
some input parameters to give the calculation as natural a structure as possible. However, these functions will be
initiated using a button located inside the respective paragraph.

Calculation on request.
It is a type of calculation where it is necessary to perform a series of iterations and the algorithm
of the task is written in VBA language. Enter and set all the input parameters in the calculation.
Results are then displayed/refreshed after running through the calculation, which can be initiated
by clicking on the button. The button is located on the upper anchored edge of the "Calculation"
sheet
so
that
it
is
easily
available
anytime.
(Example: Calculation of beams, shafts and profiles)
Page 48 of 60

Note: The calculation on request is also usually solved using MS Excel formulas and functions. Therefore, certain
parts (paragraphs) of the calculation reflect the changes in the entered values. However, the solution to the task
MUST/b> always be started to recalculate it completely.

From the aspect of the bearing of the calculation, it is distinguished:

Design calculation.
Design calculations are the calculations that provide a design of some part(s) of particular
dimensions based on the input parameters.
Examples of a design calculation:

Spur gear - Input: transmitted power, speed, loading specifications, safety, etc.; Result:
dimensions of the gearing...
Calculation of a spring - Input: forces, working lengths, loading specifications, safety, etc.;
Result: wire diameter, spring dimensions, etc.

Check calculation.
Check calculations are the calculations where the calculation finds deformations and the levels of
safety of a particular loaded part.
Examples of a check calculation:

Beam - Input: Loading, distance of supports, profile of the beam, etc.; Result: Deflection,
stress, safety, etc.
Shaft - Input: Loading, distance of supports, profile of the beam, etc.; Result: Deflection,
stress, safety, etc.

Note: Even with the design calculation, it is certainly possible to check the existing parts and, on the contrary,
design a part with the correct dimensions using the check calculation. However, it is necessary to perform several
iterations or use some auxiliary calculations, which can be usually found in the third chapter - Chapter of
supplements.

Calculation procedure.
Because it is difficult to give a uniform procedure that is generally valid for all types of calculations,
this section gives a summary of rules, which, if followed, should lead to a suitable solution.

Take the calculation as a sequence of pages in your block, which is filled step-by-step with
formulas, entered values, checks of sub-results and searches of solutions to the task. The
same procedure is also applied with the use of these calculations.
Always proceed from the first paragraph of the first chapter downwards. Successively enter
the input values and extreme conditions. If you are not sure about the desired value, recall
the commentary (help) to the respective row or recall the complete help to the respective
calculation.
Each calculation is provided with an encapsulated sequence of the steps you should
perform - "Calculation procedure". This encapsulated instruction is given with the first
chapter "Chapter of input parameters" or in help.
Page 49 of 60

In the case of design calculations, the "Automatic design" process is usually available,
which goes through all the possible solutions under the given extreme conditions and
displays them in a well arranged table.

Units and standards.


Calculation module - workbooks are designed according to particular standards, generally
applicable procedures and the recommendations of producers, or a combination of these sources.
These can be further used for a particular unit system, or it is possible to specify the units directly
in the calculation.
Generally, you can encounter the following types of calculations and their characteristic features.
1. SI Calculations

The icon of the module contains the letter "M" in a yellow square
only in SI units (mm, N, kW)
Orientation, above all, is towards the standards of ISO, DIN, JIS, BS, etc.

2. Imperial Calculations
The icon of the module contains the letter "I" in a green squareOnly in Imperial
units (in, lbf, HP....)
Orientation, above all, is towards the standards (associations) of ANSI, AGMA,
ASME,
etc.
3. Calculations for both unit systems

- Icon without any special marking


- Toggling between the units inside the module
- Selection of a standard or a calculation procedure inside the module
- Basic documents of particular producers

4. Calculations independent of the unit

Icon without any special marking


Independent of the unit Containing mostly various recommendations and tables

Toggling between the units.


If the calculation - workbook supports both unit systems, toggling between the units can usually
be found on the "Calculation" sheet in the first paragraph on the first row [1.1]

Toggling between the standards (producers, procedures).

Page 50 of 60

If the module - workbook supports calculations according to various standards or procedures, this
option can usually be found on the "Settings" sheet or on a suitable place in the calculation.

Recommended values.
Recommended values (or their minimums/maximums) are given for most of the input parameters
in the calculation (comments) and in help. This data is based on common conditions and
experience, and these values can be exceeded in special and reasonable cases. Recommended
values can be found in green cells.
Excess of the recommended values is indicated by a change in color of the parameter to red.
Substantial excess of the recommended values, which may cause a breakdown, make the unit
impossible to assemble or create a critical decrease in the service life or level of safety, is indicated
by a change in color of the field to red.

Saving results.
After installation, the workbooks containing calculations are not protected against overwriting.
You can set your own input values, save the calculation and, if you just start up, the calculation will
contain your entered values. This procedure is suitable for setting the parameters common for
most of your tasks.
If you solve various tasks or calculate more alternatives in one task, it is advisable to save such
calculations under new names. This saves not only the task, but also the complete calculation,
including all results. If the calculation is saved under a new name, you can use the "Information on
the project" paragraph. For searching for a calculation, you can use the tool for "Retrieval of a
calculation", which is delivered in the MITCalc package.
Hint: The calculations that in the final version shall be provided with the "Read only" option (Menu: File -> Save as > Tools -> Options -> Setting of attribute "Read only"). This may avoid undesired changes in parameters.

Page 51 of 60

Information about the project.


Most of the calculations include a uniform header that:

Unifies the appearance and improves the orientation in printed outputs.


Maintains uniform information on the performed calculations and enables their effective
management.
Enables fast retrieval of any calculation (project) using the delivered tool "Search
calculation".

Why fill out the header.


The calculations that have to be performed will mostly relate to a particular problem or solve
several alternatives of the given problem. This increases the demand for orientation and data
retrieval. Therefore, the main sheet of the calculation includes a header - "Information about the
project", which contains a field for entering basic information on the solver, project and
performed calculation. These pieces of information can be then processed by your company's data
management system or the enclosed tool for retrieval of data / calculation called "Filesearch"
(filesearch.xls). The "Filesearch" application can sort data from headers of all the found
calculations into a well-arranged table and work with this table.
Hint: The delivered sample template can be used for particular calculation tables *.xls. This template contains a
header and all the necessary interconnections and settings.

Filling in data in the header.


Automatic filling - If the check box with the password is enabled, the values from the calculation
and attributes of properties of the document (Menu-> File -> Properties) are filled automatically.
Manual filling - If the check box is disabled, the color of the cell changes to white and you can
enter your own data.

Interconnection with the PDM system.


The calculation workbook has defined user attributes (Menu: File -> Properties->User). The names
of attributes begin with the prefix "MITCalc_" and continue with the particular English name. The
user attributes MITCalc_xxx are interconnected with information in the calculation header. This
means that if anything is changed in the calculation header, the particular user attribute is
changed immediately as well. These attributes can be uploaded into the data management
systems, then sorted and used for data retrieval accordingly.
Hint: If you have already been using some data management system, contact the responsible person about
interconnection possibilities.

Contents of MITCalc_xxx Attributes:


MITCalc_ProjectName

Project name
Page 52 of 60

MITCalc_ProjectDate
MITCalc_ProjectNumber
MITCalc_ProjectNotes
MITCalc_ProjectInfo
MITCalc_ProjectAuthorName
MITCalc_ProjectID

Date
Project number (documentation, drawing, etc.)
Project notes
Basic information (Loading, basic dimensions, standard)
Author's name
Internal identifier of the calculation with the form
NAME_XX (XX-version)

Page 53 of 60

Coefficient of safety
Determination of the corresponding coefficient of safety is a complicated and responsible task. A
high coefficient of safety usually results in a safer design, however with a higher weight and thus a
higher price and vice versa. It is the basic engineering compromise of "price vs.safety". Profession
organizations often specify minimum coefficients of safety for various systems; however, it is the
responsibility of the designer to determine such coefficient of safety that ensures corresponding
safety at an acceptable price. At the same time, the coefficient of safety can vary within a wide
range. A coefficient close to 1.0 (one-off use, short service life) may be sufficient for a military
missile; a coefficient at 1.2 for military aircraft (it is equipped with a parachute, it passes through
an inspection process); in civil aviation it is about 1.5 (inspection process, regular maintenance). A
dam with a coefficient of safety higher than 20 can be found at the other end of the range (service
life of many decades, faults have catastrophic consequences).
For a simple orientation we give here some models for determining the corresponding coefficient
of safety, which are published in specialized literature. . For thorough understanding of problems
of safety and reliability we recommend you study specialized literature.

Joseph P. Visodic.
In 1948 he published his recommendations for determining the minimum coefficient of safety,
which are mentioned in the table below. The coefficient of safety for tensile materials is based on
the yield strength. For fragile materials it is based on the ultimate strength and is double those
values given for tensile materials. The coefficient of safety for cyclical loading is based on the
fatigue limit. Shock loading requires min. coefficient of safety 2, multiplied by the coefficient of
shock - usually in the range from 1.1 to 2.0.
Recommended coefficient of safety for tensile materials based on the yield strength.
Coefficient Knowledge
of safety
of loading
1.2-1.5
1.5-2.0
2.0-2.5
2.5-3.0
3.0-4.0
3.0-4.0

exact
good
good
average
average
indefinite

Knowledge
of
Knowledge
Knowledge
properties
of permitted stress
of environment
of material
exact
very good
fully under control
good
very good
invariable
good
average
common
average
randomly tested common
average
not tested
common
indefinite
indefinite

Robert L. Norton.
The total value of the coefficient of safety is a combination of coefficients of safety based on
material properties, accuracy of the calculation model and knowledge of working environment.
Coefficient of safety SF

SF (tensile materials) = max (SF1, SF2, SF3) ; based on the yield strength
SF (fragile materials) = 2*[max (SF1, SF2, SF3)] ; based on yield point
Page 54 of 60

where SF1, SF2, SF3 are selections from the following table.
Coefficient SF1 - Material properties SF2 - Loading conditions SF3
Working
of safety (from tests)
(knowledge)
environment
Well
known
/
Same as material testing
1.3
Verified by testing
characteristic
conditions
Checked,
room
2
Well approximated
Well approximated
temperature
3
Fairly approximated
Fairly approximated
Slightly demanding
5+
Roughly approximated
Roughly approximated Extremely demanding

Pugsley, A.G.
He recommends determining the coefficient of safety as a product of two coefficients.
SF = SF1 * SF2
where:

SF1 is a function of parameters A, B, C from the first table


SF2 is a function of parameters D, E from the second table

Meaning of parameters:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Quality of material, level of processing, maintenance, service inspections


Control over possible overloading
Accuracy of analysis, knowledge of experimental data of experience with similar parts
Threat to people when a failure of the part occurs
Financial impact when a failure of the part occurs
Parameter A Parameter C

A=1

A=2

A=3

A=4

C=1
C=2
C=3
C=4
C=1
C=2
C=3
C=4
C=1
C=2
C=3
C=4
C=1
C=2
C=3
C=4

Parameter B
B=1
B=2
1.10
1.30
1.20
1.45
1.30
1.60
1.40
1.75
1.30
1.55
1.45
1.75
1.60
1.95
1.75
2.15
1.50
1.80
1.70
2.05
1.90
2.30
2.10
2.55
1.70
2.15
1.95
2.35
2.20
2.65
2.45
2.95
Page 55 of 60

B=3
1.50
1.70
1.90
2.10
1.80
2.05
2.30
2.55
2.10
2.40
2.70
3.00
2.40
2.75
3.10
3.45

B=4
1.70
1.95
2.20
2.45
2.05
2.35
2.65
2.95
2.40
2.75
3.10
3.45
2.75
3.15
3.55
3.95

Where the evaluation means: 1=Very good; 2=Good; 3=Sufficient; 4=Bad


Parameter D
D=1
D=2
D=3

Parameter E
E=1
1.0
1.2
1.4

E=2
1.0
1.3
1.5

Where the evaluation means: 1=Minimum; 2=Mean; 3=Very serious

List of specialized literature.

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E=3
1.2
1.4
1.6

Setting calculations, changing the language.


Setting the calculation language can be performed in the "Settings" sheet. If necessary for
calculation purposes, this sheet may display other parameters (standard, marginal conditions, etc.)
that can be used for modifications to the calculation behavior. Explanation of these calculationdependent setting parameters can be found in the help section of the respective calculation.
The upper edge of the sheet includes an "Authorization" button, which displays the
"Authorization dialog" if pressed.
The "Information" paragraph shows the help file name, the version number and the date of issue
of the current calculation. It is advisable to give the calculation version number together with your
request for technical support.
The "Settings" sheet is accessible by clicking on the folder with the sheet name on the bottom
edge of the workbook.

Changing the language.


After selecting a language from the list, all the names and comments of the cells are translated
into the chosen language in the current calculation workbook. The indicator in the displayed
window informs you about the course of the running translation.
If the language is changed in the installed calculation (not in the calculation copy) and the
calculation is saved, the global settings of the language is changed as well. Any other calculation
that is started will be then governed by this setting and starting it also initiates its translation. The
global settings of the language can also be performed from the MITCalc Integrated Environment.
If there is the option of another language and saving the calculation under a new name
(Command: Save as) or a changing the language in the calculation copy, the global settings remain
the same. The chosen settings of the language is then valid for the relevant workbook only.
Warning: The language marked with an asterisk is inactive, reserved for future translations. If chosen, the English
language will be used.

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Workbook (calculation) modifications.


The structure of the sheets in the workbook was described in the chapter "Control, structure and
syntax of calculations". A detailed description of the structure of some sheets (in views of the
applicable modifications) and the possible and permissible procedures with their modifications
and extensions are given in this chapter.
Recommendations: Modifications and extensions of the calculation shall be performed in a copy of the workbook
only.

Protection of the workbook and sheets.


State after installation of the product.

Protection at the workbook level - disabled.


Protection at the sheet level - Only the "Calculation" sheet is protected against changes in
the cells that contain formulas. The protection of other sheets is disabled. Protection can
be disabled in the MS Excel menu "Setting -> Protection -> Unlock sheet". No password
entered.
VBA protection - The code written in VBA language is locked, provided with a certificate
and protected by a password. Attempts to break the protection are illegal and considered
as a breach of the conditions of license.

Calculation formulas.
The formulas (algorithms) of the calculation are entered into the named cells and ranges (more on
the named ranges, see MS Excel Help). Entries of algorithms are much better arranged and easier
to understand. The formulas then include names of the cells instead of their numbers.
Example of an entry:

Named cells

=_TeethNumber2/_TeethNumber1

Normal entry

=P160/N160

Names of the variables used in the calculation are distinguished by their initial symbols as follows:

Underscore sign "_" - Names determined for common use in the calculation.
Letter "S_" - Names determined for naming the system variables.
Letter "T_" - Naming tables (ranges).
Letters "XC_", "XM_", "XS_" and "XV_" - Naming the cells whose contents is translated if
there is a change in the calculation language.

Hint: If you are going to name your own cells, it is advisable to choose your own prefix and use it.

How to modify.
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Knowledge of MS Excel and the respective engineering problems to an extent adequate to the
intended changes is necessary for extension of calculations, their modifications, changes or
formatting. When modifying the calculations, pay attention to the following recommendations:

Changes and modifications should be performed in a copy of the workbook.


Do not forget to unlock the "Calculation" sheet if you wish to modify it.
After modifications and changes, it is advisable to compare the results of the modified
calculation with the original calculation. This may prevent various errors.

Note: The names of auxiliary variables and coefficients in hidden ranges are in the English language only and are not
translated.
Hint: If the calculation is completed with separate algorithms, it is advisable to establish a new sheet and perform
all extensions in this sheet. These extensions can be transferred simply into a new version of our calculation.

"Calculation" sheet.
The "Calculation" sheet has rows 1-98, columns A-H and other hidden columns as necessary. The
following table shows a layout of the ranges and their meaning.
A

A. Range of hidden rows (1-100) - It is used for a communication with parametric CAD
systems. The description can be found in the help section to the supplement of connection
of the respective CAD system.
B. Range of hidden columns (A-H) - It is used for system functions (hiding rows, indexes of
selection sheets, state symptoms, transfer of values, etc.).
C. Visible range of calculation - The task is solved here.
D. Range of hidden columns - This range includes various intermediate calculations,
definitions of some constants, etc.
Displaying the marking of rows and columns is disabled to enlarge the desktop. It can be enabled
in the MS Excel menu "Setting -> Options -> Displaying".

Possible modifications.
Extension of calculation - The calculation can easily be extended by a solution of extreme
problems, the addition of various coefficients or indexes (requirements: basic knowledge of MS
Excel). Enter the new relations behind the existing calculation into the C range.
Modifications of the existing calculation - it is possible (after unlocking the sheet) to modify the
used formulas or coefficients both in C range and D range as well. (requirements: very good
knowledge of MS Excel, excellent knowledge of the solved problems).
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"Materials" sheet.
If the calculation includes material tables, these tables can be found on the "Materials" sheet. In
addition to pre-filled material values, it is possible to define new "user materials". A white
background on the cells differentiates the range of user materials. If you add your own materials,
fill out all values in the units that are given in the headers of the material tables.
Warning: If some values remain blank, the calculation will provide faulty results.

"Tables" sheet.
The "Tables" sheet, present with most calculations, contains data, coefficients, selection lists and
other basic materials necessary for the calculation. A white background on the cells differentiates
the ranges that can be changed. All the tables are given headers to provide clear information of
what is included inside. Despite this, it is advisable that only experienced users who know very
well the problems of the given calculation perform changes in the tables.
Note: The names of the tables are in the English language only and are not translated.

"Dictionary" sheet.
The "Dictionary" sheet contains a list of all translated terms. The first row of the sheet includes a
list of all languages, beginning with column "G" (Marking columns according to ISO 639-1). If you
wish to translate a calculation or its part, enter the corresponding equivalent of the password into
the respective column. If no translated term is found in the translation process, the English term
will be used automatically.
Hint: If the list does not include the desired language for the translation, use the last column marked "XX".

"DXF" sheet.
The "DXF" sheet contains definitions for the creation of 2D drawings and connections to 2D CAD
systems. Details can be found in the chapter "Graphic output, CAD systems".

Connection of calculations.
Interconnection on more calculations including your own tables can provide solutions of more
complex tasks. MS Excel Help provides information on how to interconnect workbooks. Some
recommendations are given below.

Copy the workbooks that have to be interconnected into a special directory.


It is good to create a new (superior) workbook, from which you will control the input cells
of the calculations and, at the same time, enter the input parameters into this workbook
that have to be monitored and evaluated. This improves the arrangement.
More interconnected workbooks can be opened simultaneously using a command from MS
Excel by saving the desktop in the "File" menu.

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