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BEAM DESIGN FORMULAS

WITH SHEAR AND MOMENT


DIAGRAMS
2005 EDITION
ANSI/AF&PA NDS-2005
Approval Date: JANUARY 6, 2005

ASD/LRFD

N DS
®

NATIONAL DESIGN SPECIFICATION®


FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION

WITH COMMENTARY AND


SUPPLEMENT: DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION

American
ᐉ Forest &
x Paper
Association
wᐉ

American Wood Council

R R
ood Council

ᐉ ᐉ
2 2
V

Shear V
Wood
American W

Mmax

Moment

American
Forest &
Paper
DESIGN AID No. 6 Association
BEAM FORMULAS WITH
SHEAR AND MOMENT
DIAGRAMS

The American Wood Council (AWC) is part of the wood products group of the
American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA). AF&PA is the national trade
association of the forest, paper, and wood products industry, representing member
companies engaged in growing, harvesting, and processing wood and wood fiber,
manufacturing pulp, paper, and paperboard products from both virgin and recycled
fiber, and producing engineered and traditional wood products. For more information
see www.afandpa.org.

While every effort has been made to insure the accuracy


of the information presented, and special effort has been
made to assure that the information reflects the state-of-
the-art, neither the American Forest & Paper Association
nor its members assume any responsibility for any
particular design prepared from this publication. Those
using this document assume all liability from its use.

Copyright © 2007
American Forest & Paper Association, Inc.

American Wood Council


1111 19th St., NW, Suite 800
Washington, DC 20036
202-463-4713
awcinfo@afandpa.org
www.awc.org
AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
Introduction
Introduction Notations Relative to “Shear and Moment
Diagrams”
Figures 1 through 32 provide a series of shear
and moment diagrams with accompanying formulas E = modulus of elasticity, psi
for design of beams under various static loading I = moment of inertia, in.4
conditions. L = span length of the bending member, ft.
Shear and moment diagrams and formulas are R = span length of the bending member, in.
excerpted from the Western Woods Use Book, 4th M= maximum bending moment, in.-lbs.
edition, and are provided herein as a courtesy of P = total concentrated load, lbs.
Western Wood Products Association. R = reaction load at bearing point, lbs.
V = shear force, lbs.
W= total uniform load, lbs.
w = load per unit length, lbs./in.
Δ = deflection or deformation, in.
x = horizontal distance from reaction to point
on beam, in.
List of Figures
Figures
Figure 1 Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load ................................................................................................ 4
Figure 2 Simple Beam – Uniform Load Partially Distributed..................................................................................... 4
Figure 3 Simple Beam – Uniform Load Partially Distributed at One End .................................................................. 5
Figure 4 Simple Beam – Uniform Load Partially Distributed at Each End ................................................................ 5
Figure 5 Simple Beam – Load Increasing Uniformly to One End .............................................................................. 6
Figure 6 Simple Beam – Load Increasing Uniformly to Center .................................................................................. 6
Figure 7 Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center ............................................................................................... 7
Figure 8 Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Any Point.......................................................................................... 7
Figure 9 Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads Symmetrically Placed....................................................... 8
Figure 10 Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads Unsymmetrically Placed .................................................. 8
Figure 11 Simple Beam – Two Unequal Concentrated Loads Unsymmetrically Placed .............................................. 9
Figure 12 Cantilever Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load ........................................................................................... 9
Figure 13 Cantilever Beam – Concentrated Load at Free End .................................................................................... 10
Figure 14 Cantilever Beam – Concentrated Load at Any Point .................................................................................. 10
Figure 15 Beam Fixed at One End, Supported at Other – Uniformly Distributed Load ............................................. 11
Figure 16 Beam Fixed at One End, Supported at Other – Concentrated Load at Center ........................................... 11
Figure 17 Beam Fixed at One End, Supported at Other – Concentrated Load at Any Point ..................................... 12
Figure 18 Beam Overhanging One Support – Uniformly Distributed Load ............................................................... 12
Figure 19 Beam Overhanging One Support – Uniformly Distributed Load on Overhang ......................................... 13
Figure 20 Beam Overhanging One Support – Concentrated Load at End of Overhang ............................................. 13
Figure 21 Beam Overhanging One Support – Concentrated Load at Any Point Between Supports ........................... 14
Figure 22 Beam Overhanging Both Supports – Unequal Overhangs – Uniformly Distributed Load ......................... 14
Figure 23 Beam Fixed at Both Ends – Uniformly Distributed Load ........................................................................... 15
Figure 24 Beam Fixed at Both Ends – Concentrated Load at Center .......................................................................... 15
Figure 25 Beam Fixed at Both Ends – Concentrated Load at Any Point .................................................................... 16
Figure 26 Continuous Beam – Two Equal Spans – Uniform Load on One Span ....................................................... 16
Figure 27 Continuous Beam – Two Equal Spans – Concentrated Load at Center of One Span ................................. 17
Figure 28 Continuous Beam – Two Equal Spans – Concentrated Load at Any Point ................................................ 17
Figure 29 Continuous Beam – Two Equal Spans – Uniformly Distributed Load ....................................................... 18
Figure 30 Continuous Beam – Two Equal Spans – Two Equal Concentrated Loads Symmetrically Placed ............. 18
Figure 31 Continuous Beam – Two Unequal Spans – Uniformly Distributed Load ................................................... 19
Figure 32 Continuous Beam – Two Unequal Spans – Concentrated Load on Each Span Symmetrically Placed ..... 19

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Figure 1 Simple Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load


x
wᐉ

R R

ᐉ ᐉ
2 2
V

Shear V

Mmax

Moment

7-36 A
Figure 2 Simple Beam – Uniform Load Partially Distributed


a b c
wb

R1 R2

V1
Shear
V2

R
a + —1
w

Mmax

Moment

7-36 B

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Figure 3 Simple Beam – Uniform Load Partially Distributed at One End


a
wa

R1 R2

x
V1
Shear

V2

R
—1
w

Mmax

Moment

Figure 4 7-37 ASimple Beam – Uniform Load Partially Distributed at Each End


a b c
w1a
w2c

R1 R2

V1

V2
Shear

R1

w1

Mmax

Moment

7-37 B

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Figure 5 Simple Beam – Load Increasing Uniformly to One End

x
W

R1 R2

.57741

V1
Shear
V2

Mmax

Moment

Figure 6 Simple Beam – Load Increasing Uniformly to Center


7-38 A


x
W

R R
ᐉ ᐉ
2 2

V
Shear
V

Mmax

Moment

7-38 B

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Figure 7 Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Center

x P

R R

ᐉ ᐉ
2 2

V
Shear
V

Mmax

Moment

Figure 8 Simple Beam – Concentrated Load at Any Point


7-39 A

x P

R1 R2

a b

V1
V2
Shear

Mmax

Moment

7-39-b AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Figure 9 Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads Symmetrically Placed

x P P

R R

a a

V
Shear V

Mmax

Moment

Figure 10 7-40 A Simple Beam – Two Equal Concentrated Loads Unsymmetrically


Placed

x P P

R1 R2

a b

V1

Shear V2

M2
M1

Moment

7-40 B AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Figure 11 Simple Beam – Two Unequal Concentrated Loads Unsymmetrically
Placed


P1 P2
x

R1 R2

a b

V1
Shear V2

M1 M2

Moment

Figure 12 Cantilever Beam – Uniformly Distributed Load

7-41-a
wᐉ

V
Shear

Mmax
Moment

7-41- B

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Figure 13 Cantilever Beam – Concentrated Load at Free End

Shear

Mmax
Moment

Figure 14 7-42 A
Cantilever Beam – Concentrated Load at Any Point

x P

a b

Shear V

Mmax
Moment

7-42-b
AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
Figure 15 Beam Fixed at One End, Supported at Other – Uniformly Distributed
Load

wᐉ

R2
R1

V1
Shear
V2

3

8


4
M1

Mmax

Figure 16 Beam Fixed at One End, Supported at Other – Concentrated Load at


Center
7-43 A

x P
R2
R1

ᐉ ᐉ
2 2

V1
Shear V2

M1

M2

3
—ᐉ
11

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


7-43 B
Figure 17 Beam Fixed at One End, Supported at Other – Concentrated Load at
Any Point

x P

R2
R1

a b

V1
Shear V2

M1

Moment M2
Pa

R2

Figure 18 Beam Overhanging One Support – Uniformly Distributed Load

ᐉ 7-44 A a

x x1
w(ᐉ+ a)

R1 R2

ᐉ (1 – a 2 )
2 ᐉ2

V1 V2

V3
Shear

M1
Moment
M2
a2 )
ᐉ (1 –
ᐉ2

7-44 B
AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
Figure 19 Beam Overhanging One Support – Uniformly Distributed Load on
Overhang

ᐉ a

x x1
wa

R1 R2

V2

V1
Shear

Mmax
Moment

7-45 A

Figure 20 Beam Overhanging One Support – Concentrated Load at End of


Overhang

ᐉ a
x x1
P

R1 R2

V2

V1
Shear

Mmax
Moment

7-45 B

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Figure 21 Beam Overhanging One Support – Concentrated Load at Any Point
Between Supports

x x1

R1 R2

a b

V1

V2
Shear

Mmax

Moment

Figure 22 Beam
7-46 A Overhanging Both Supports – Unequal Overhangs – Uniformly
Distributed Load

wᐉ

R1 R2

a b c

V2 V4
V1 V3
X
X1
M3
Mx 1
M1
M2

7-46 B

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Figure 23 Beam Fixed at Both Ends – Uniformly Distributed Load


x
wᐉ

R R

ᐉ ᐉ
2 2

V
Shear
V

.2113 ᐉ

M1
Moment Mmax

7-47 A
Figure 24 Beam Fixed at Both Ends – Concentrated Load at Center


x
P

R R

ᐉ ᐉ
2 2

V
Shear
V


4

Mmax
Moment Mmax

7-47 B

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Figure 25 Beam Fixed at Both Ends – Concentrated Load at Any Point


x
P

R1 R2

a b

V1

Shear V2

Ma

M1 Moment
M2

7-48 A
Figure 26 Continuous Beam – Two Equal Spans – Uniform Load on One Span

wᐉ

R1 R2 R3

ᐉ ᐉ
V1
V2 Shear V3
7ᐉ
16

Mmax

M1
Moment

7-48 B

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Figure 27 Continuous Beam – Two Equal Spans – Concentrated Load at Center
of One Span

ᐉ ᐉ
2 2
P

R1 R2 R3

ᐉ ᐉ
V1 V3
V2 Shear

Mmax

M1
Moment

7-49 A

Figure 28 Continuous Beam – Two Equal Spans – Concentrated Load at Any


Point

a b

R1 R2 R3

ᐉ ᐉ

V1
V3
V2 Shear

Mmax
Moment
M1

7-49 B

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Figure 29 Continuous Beam – Two Equal Spans – Uniformly Distributed Load

wl wl

R1 R2 R3
l l

V1 V2
V2 V3
3l/8 3l/8

M2

M1

Δ max
0.4215 l 0.4215 l

7-50 A

Figure 30 Continuous Beam – Two Equal Spans – Two Equal Concentrated Loads
Symmetrically Placed

P P

R1 R2 R3

a a a a

V1 V2
V3 V2

x
Mx M2

M1

l l

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Figure 31 Continuous Beam – Two Unequal Spans – Uniformly Distributed Load

w l1 w l2

R1 R2 R3

l l
1 2

V1 V3
V4
V2

x1 x2

Mx1 Mx2

M1

Figure 32 Continuous Beam – Two Unequal Spans – Concentrated Load on Each


Span Symmetrically Placed

P1 P2

R1 R2 R3
l l
1 2

a a b b

V3
V1
V2 V4

Mm
1 Mm
2
M1

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


American FForest
orest & P aper Association
Paper A F & P A®
American W ood Council
Wood
1111 19th S tree
Stree t, NW
treet,
Suite 800
Suite
Washingt on, DC 20036
ashington,
Phone: 202-463-4 713
202-463-47
Fax: 202-463-279
202-463-279
7911
awcinf o@afandpa.org
cinfo@afandpa.org
www
www.a.awc.org
.aw 11-07