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# Reservoir Water Density

Under standard conditions, the density of formation water can be calculated from the following
correlation developed by McCain (1991) based on laboratory experiments:

Where
wst = formation water density at standard conditions, lb/ft3
S = water salinity, weight %
The density at reservoir conditions (
) can then be calculated by dividing the calculated value at
standard conditions by the water formation volume factor (Bw) at the desired pressure and
temperature.

Water Compressibility
The compressibility of formation water is dependent on its salinity. Osif (1984) obtained the
following relationship between compressibility, pressure, temperature and salinity from laboratory
measurements:
[

(WatCom2)

Where:
cw = water compressibility, psi-1
p = pressure, psia
[NaCl] = Salinity, g/L
T = Temperature, oF
With constants:
m1 = 7.033
m2 = 541.5
m3 = -537
m4 = 403.3 x 10-3
The correlation given is based on data for pressures between 1000 and 20,000 psi, salinities of 0 to
200g NaCl/L and temperatures from 200 to 270 oF.

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## Water Formation Volume Factor

The formation volume factor of saline water can be calculated from the following expression:
(WFVF1)
Where:
Bw = Formation volume factor, rb/stb
(WFVF2)

(WFVF3)
This correlation is based on data for the entire range of salinity, pressures up to 5000 psia and
temperatures up to 260oF.

## Formation Water Viscosity

The viscosity of formation water can be estimated from:
(WatVis1)
Where:
atm = Water viscosity at atmospheric pressure, cp
T = Reservoir Temperature, oF
The parameters A and B are defined by the following expressions:
(WatVis2)

(WatVis3)
Where:
S = Salinity, expressed as a weight percentage

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## The viscosity at atmospheric pressure is adjusted to the reservoir pressure with:

(WatVis4)
Where:
res = Water viscosity at reservoir pressure, cp
p = Reservoir pressure, psia
The above correlations are reported to fit viscosity data at temperatures from 86 to 167 oF
and pressures below 10,000 psia to within 4%, rising to 7% for pressures up to 15,000 psia.
Solution Gas Water Ratio of Formation Water
For pure water, the solution gas/water ratio can be calculated from:
(GWR1)
Where:
Rsw = Solution gas/water ratio, scf/stb
p = Reservoir pressure, psia
The parameters A,B and C are dependent on temperature and can be calculated as follows:
(GWR2)
(GWR3)
(GWR4)
Where:
T = Reservoir temperature, oF
These correlations are based on data for pressures ranging from 1,000 to 10,000 psia and
temperatures from 100 to 340oF
In order to account for the salinity of formation water, the calculated gas/water ratio of pure water
must be multiplied by a salinity adjustment factor F as follows:
(GWR5)
Where:
S = Salinity of the formation water, expressed as a percentage by mass
Hence:
(GWR6)
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References:
Reservoir Water Density /Water Formation Volume Factor/Formation Water Viscosity/ Solution
GWR:
McCain Jr., W.D., Cawley, Gillespie and Assocs. Inc., Reservoir-Fluid Property Correlations-State of
the Art (includes associated papers 23583 and 23594 ) SPE Reservoir Engineering
Volume 6, Number 2, May 1991, 266-272
Water Compressibility:
Osif T.L, The effects of salt, gas, temperature and pressure on the compressibility of water, paper
SPE 13174 presented at the 1984 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Sept 1619

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