strip footing, bearing capacity, slope, resistance, passive resistance, setback distance

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strip footing, bearing capacity, slope, resistance, passive resistance, setback distance

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- Army Tm 5-818-1 Air Force Afm 88-3, Chap. 7
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Rajesh Prasad Shukla, Research Scholar, Dept. of EQ Engg., IIT Roorkee, shuklarajesh4687@gmail.com.

Ravi Sankar Jakka, Assistant Professor, Deptt. of Earthquake Engg., IIT Roorkee, jakkafeq@iitr.ac.in

ABSTRACT: Sloping ground near the footings have an adverse effect on their performance. Slope increases the

settlements of the footings and while it reduces their bearing capacity. In the present paper, a footing with rough base

has been considered for the analysis. The bearing capacity factors have been determined with the consideration of

resistance of soil above the foundation level. A simple limit equilibrium method has been used to evaluate bearing

capacity. The parameters considered for the analysis include the distance between edge of slope and centre of footing,

slope angle and foundation depth. It is observed from the analysis that bearing capacity reduces as distance between

footing and the edge of the slope decreases. Increase in slope angle causes the reduction in the bearing capacity.

INTRODUCTION

A foundation is a part of the structure which

transmits the load of the structure and substructure

onto the underlying soil. Foundations are commonly

divided into two categories; shallow and deep

foundations. Shallow foundations are most

commonly used foundation which are having depth

to with ratio less than one. In general, shallow

foundations are more economical to construct

compared to deep foundations and generally used

when underlying strata having sufficient bearing

capacity and structure having low weight [1].

Analysis and design of a shallow foundation is

simple compared to deep foundation design. Failure

of a shallow foundation may occur in two ways; first

by shear failure of the soil supporting the

foundation, and second by excessive settlement of

foundation [2]. Shallow foundation passes some

disadvantages like excessive settlements, limited

capacity, and design problems in irregular and

sloping ground. Moreover it cannot perform well

under pull-out, torsion and moment loading.

Quite often, structures are built near the slopes or on

the slopes due to either land limitation or due to any

other specific reason, such as construction of

bridges, for architectural purposes. Ultimate bearing

capacity of the foundations is significantly affected

by the presence of the slope [3]. The bearing

capacity of the foundation is a primary concern in

the field of foundation engineering and accurate

determination of bearing capacity on slopping

ground is a challenging task for an engineer [4]. The

geotechnical design of foundations near the crest or

various factors such as slope angle, depth ratio,

angle of internal friction and crest distance between

foundation and slope edge. There are different

methods available for estimation of bearing capacity

of foundation on slopes. Bearing capacity analysis

of foundations can be made by using four

approaches; slip-line methods, limit equilibrium

methods, limits analysis methods and numerical

methods. [4-19] have determined the bearing

capacity of foundation on slopping ground using

various methods.

Limit equilibrium analysis are very popular in

foundation engineering to determine the bearing

capacity. Limit equilibrium method has been used

in present study.

ANALYSIS METHOD

A rigid footing with rough base is placed on sloping

ground having width B and depth D. Soil has been

assumed as a homogenous and isotropic material. It

is assumed that soil is elasticplastic material and

failure is governed by MohrCoulomb failure

criterion and principle of superposition is valid.

A limit equilibrium method has been used in for

evaluation of bearing capacity of strip footing on

sloping ground. The failure mechanism consists of

three zones - a triangular active wedge (ABC), a logspiral radial shear zone (ACD) and a triangular

passive wedge (ADE). Soil above the AE has treated

as overburden pressure.

1993

opposite to slope site is not utilized perfectly and a

mobilization factor m has been introduced to use

the mobilized shear strength for consideration.

Value of mobilization factors were adopted from

[5]. For determination of Nc, soil is assumed to be

weightless and without surcharge load. N values

are determined by assuming soil as a cohesionless

material and without surcharge loading. Similarly

Nq is determined by assuming soil as a weightless

and cohesionless material. The shear resistance on

flat side (BCJ) is assumed to be given by

m cm ' tan m

A

K

Pp2 Pp1

Pp3

mobilised internal friction angle respectively.

qu

A

bearing capacity factor.

(I) First length of FA, AE, DK and IL has been

determined,

(II) Passive resistance acting on DK and IL is

determined (Fig. 2)

(III) Moment of all forces about point A is

determined by considering equilibrium of all force.

(IV) Passive resistances acting on wedge ABC are

determined by considering all equilibrium of all

forces acting on wedge ABC (Fig. 3).

(V) NC, Nq and N value were determined for

different value of friction angle, slope angle and

offset distance between foundation and slope edge.

m m

PP2

PPc2+ PPq2

Fig. 3 Force acting on wedge ABC

PPc1+ PPq1

PP1

bearing capacity factors are determined. Bearing

capacity factors are theoretically similar to [5] but

magnitudes are different.

Values of bearing

capacity factors Nc, Nq and N are given by Eq. 1,

Eq. 2 and Eq. 3 respectively.

Nc

Nq

N

Ppc1 Ppc 2

cB

(1 m) sin sin m

sin( m )

Ppq1 Ppq 2

DB

2 Pp 1 2 Pp 2

B2

(1)

(2)

(3)

Parametric studies have been performed to

determine the effect of slope angle, offset distance

between slope crest and foundation, depth ratio of

footing on bearing capacity factors.

For parametric study, constant values of angle of

internal friction have been assumed. Results for a

1994

presented and discussed here.

Effect of slope

Bearing capacity factors are reduced with increase

in the slope angle. Effect of slope on bearing

capacity factors are shown in Fig. 4-6.For higher

slope angle the rate of reduction in bearing capacity

is high and same time it depends on offset distance

as well. At the low slope angle the effect of offset is

very less compared to higher slope angle. Effect of

slope angle is more prominent in N value compared

to other two bearing capacity factors.

With increase in offset distance bearing capacity

factors have been increased. Effect of offset distance

on bearing capacity factors are shown in Fig. 4-6.

On interesting observation in present analysis is that

the effect of slope angle becomes negligible when

B/B approaches approximately equal to or more

than 5.

35.00

B'/B=0

20.00

B'/B=2

15.00

B'/B=3

B'/B=2

10.00

B'/B=4

B'/B=3

5.00

B'/B=5

B'/B=4

0.00

10.00

B'/B=0

B'/B=1

B'/B=5

20.00

30.00

Slope angle (degree)

Nq

40.00

Nc value for =300 and D/B=0.5

14.00

12.00

B/B=0

10.00

B'/B=1

8.00

B'/B=2

6.00

B'/B=3

4.00

B'/B=4

2.00

B'/B=5

20.00

30.00

Slope angle (degree)

20.00

30.00

Slope angle (degree)

40.00

N value for =300 and D/B=0.5

0.00

10.00

B'/B=1

25.00

Nc

18.00

16.00

14.00

12.00

10.00

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

10.00

Bearing capacity factors are increased with increase

in depth ratio. The effect of depth ratio is very

prominent at a lower slope angle compared to high

value of inclination. Effect of depth ratio on Nq

value is shown in a Fig. 7. Similar observations are

made for other bearing capacity factors, N and Nc.

25

B/D=0.5

B/D=1.0

20

Nq

30.00

40.00

15

10

5

0

Nq value for =300 and D/B=0.5

10

1995

20

30

Slope angle

40

50

CONCLUSIONS

Effect of slopping ground on bearing capacity is

influenced by various factors such as depth ratio of

footing, offset distance between footing and slope

edge as well. Bearing capacity factors have been

increased with increase in depth of foundation.

Effect of slope angles becomes negligible when

B/B approaches approximately equal to or more

than 5. At the low slope angle value, the effect of

offset is very less as compared to higher slope angle.

The effect of depth ratio is very prominent at a lower

slope angle compared to high value of inclination.

REFERENCES

1. Karl Terzaghi, Ralph B. Peck and Gholamreza

Mesri (1996), A Soil Mechanics in Engineering

Practice, Wiley-Interscience Publication, USA.

2. Rao Kameswara N. S. V. (2011), Foundation

Design: Theory and Practice John Wiley &

Sons (Asia) Private Ltd.

3. Sarma & chen(1995), Seismic bearing capacity

of shallow strip footings near sloping ground" in

European Seismic Design Practice, Research

and Application. Ed Elnashai, The 5th SECED

Conf., October 1995, Chester, UK, AA

Balkema, Rotterdam, 505-512.

4. Takaaki, M., Tokumitsu, Y., and Kawakami, H.,

(1960), Bearing Capacity of a Slope on

Cohesionless Soil. Japanese Society of Soil

Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 1(2),

30-37.

5. Saran, S., Sud, V.K. and Handa, S.C., (1989),

Bearing Capacity of Footings Adjacent to

Slopes. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,

ASCE, 115(4), 553-573.

6. Sud, V.K., Saran, Swami, and Handa, S.C.,

(1985), An Experimental Study of Shallow

Foundations Adjacent to Slopes. Indian

Geotechnical Conference, 1, 151-155.

7. Kusakabe, O, Kimura, T., and Yamaguchi, H.,

(1981), Bearing Capacity of Slopes under Strip

Loads on the Top Surfaces. Japanese Society of

Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering,

21(4), 29-40.

8. Kai Wing Ip (2005), Bearing Capacity for

Foundation near Slope, Post Graduate Thesis,

The Department of Building, Civil and

Environment

Engineering,

Concordia

University Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

9. Azzouz, A.S. and Baligh, M.M., 1983. Loaded

Areas on Cohesive Slopes. Journal of

Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 109(9), 724729.

10. Dembicki, E. and Zadroga, B., 1974. Model

Tests on Bearing Capacity of Foundation on

Slopes. Proc. of the 4th Danube-European

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11. Graham, J. Andrews, M. and Sheilds, D.H.,

1988. Stress Characteristics for Shallow

Footings in Cohesionless Slopes. Canadian

Geotechnical Journal, 25(2), 238-249.

12. Kusakabe, O., Kimura, T. and Yamaguchi, H.,

1981. Bearing Capacity of Slopes under Strip

Loads on the Top Surfaces. Soils and

Foundations, 21(4), 29-40.

13. Michalowski, R.L., 1991. Discussion of Bearing

Capacity of Footings Adjacent to Slopes.

Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE,

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14. Mizuno, T., Takumitsu, Y. and Kavakami, H.,

1960. On the Bearing Capacity of a Slope of

Cohesionless Soil. Soils and Foundations, 1(2),

30-37.

15. Narita, K. and Yamaguchi, H., 1990. Bearing

Capacity Analysis of Foundations on Slopes by

Use of Log-Spiral Sliding Surfaces. Soils and

Foundations, 30(3), 144-152.

16. Saran, S. and Reddy, B.S., 1990. Bearing

Capacity of Eccentrically Loaded Footings

Adjacent to Cohesionless Slopes. Indian

Geotechnical Journal, 20(2), 119-142.

17. Shields, D.H., Chandler, N. and Garnier, J.,

1990. Bearing Capacity of Foundation in

Slopes. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,

116(3), 528-537.

18. Keskin, M.H. and Laman,H. (2012), Model

studies of bearing capacity of strip footing on

sand slope, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering,

17(4), 699-711.

19. Siva Reddy, A. and Mogaliah, G., 1976.

Stability of Slopes under Foundation Load.

Indian Geotechnical Journal, 6(2), 91-111.

1996

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