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Constitution of India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Constitution of india)

The Constitution of India is the supreme law
of India. It lays down the framework dening
fundamental political principles, establishes
the structure, procedures, powers, and duties
of government institutions, and sets out
fundamental rights, directive principles, and
the duties of citizens. It is the longest written
constitution of any sovereign country in the
world, containing 448[Note 1][2] articles in
25[Note 2] parts, 12[Note 3] schedules, 5
appendices and 98[Note 4] amendments (out of
120[3] Constitution Amendment Bills). Besides
the English version, there is an oicial Hindi
translation. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is
widely regarded as the father of the Indian
The Constitution follows parliamentary system
The original text of the Preamble,
of government and the executive is directly
before the 42nd Amendment) of
accountable to legislature. Article 74 provides
the Constitution
that there shall be a Prime Minister of India as
the head of government. It also states that
there shall be a President of India and a Vice-President of India under Articles 52
and 63. Unlike the Prime Minister, the President largely performs ceremonial
The Constitution of India is federal in nature. Each State and each Union territory
of India have their own government. Analogues to President and Prime Minister,
the Governor in case of States, Lieutenant Governor for Union territories and the
Chief Minister. The 73rd and 74th Amendment Act also introduced the system of
Panchayati Raj in rural areas and Municipality in urban areas. Also, Article 370 of
the Constitution gives special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Constitution was adopted by the India Constituent Assembly on 26 November
1949, and came into eect on 26 January 1950. The date of 26 January was
chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930.
With its adoption, the Union of India oicially became the modern and
contemporary Republic of India and it replaced the Government of India Act 1935
as the country's fundamental governing document. To ensure constitutional

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autochthony, the framers of constitution inserted Article 395 in the constitution

and by this Article the Indian Independence Act, 1947 was repealed. [5] The
Constitution declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic
republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty, and endeavors to
promote fraternity among them.[6] The words "socialist" and "secular" were added
to the denition in 1976 by constitutional amendment (mini constitution). [7] India
celebrates the adoption of the constitution on 26 January each year as Republic

1 Background
2 Previous Legislations as Source
2.1 Government of India Act 1858
2.2 Indian Councils Act 1861
2.3 Indian Councils Act 1892
2.4 Indian Councils Act 1909
2.5 Government of India Act 1919
2.6 Government of India Act 1935
2.7 Indian Independence Act 1947
3 Constituent Assembly
3.1 Drafting
4 Structure
4.1 Parts
4.2 Schedules
4.3 Appendices
5 Amendment
5.1 Limitations
6 Adoptions from other constitutions
6.1 Judicial review
7 See also
8 Notes
9 References
10 Bibliography

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11 External links

Main article: Indian independence movement
The major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1857 to
1947. The impact of economic, political and social development during this period
helped the gradual rise of the Indian independence movement to gain
independence from foreign rule. After the First Revolution of India, 1857, the
direct rule of the British crown was established. When the Constitution of India
came into force on 26 January 1950, it repealed the Indian Independence Act.
India ceased to be a dominion of the British Crown and became a sovereign
democratic republic. 26 November 1949 is also known as National Law Day. The
Indian constitution is the world's longest constitution. At the time of
commencement, the constitution had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. It
consists of almost 80,000 words and took 2 years 11 months and 18 days to build.
In the United Kingdom the oice of the Secretary of State for India was the
authority through whom Parliament exercised its rule (along with the Council of
India), and established the oice of Viceroy of India (along with an Executive
Council in India, consisting of high oicials of the British Government). The Indian
Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of
the Executive council and non-oicial members. The Indian Councils Act 1892
established provincial legislatures and increased the powers of the Legislative
Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the
government, their power still remained limited. The Indian Councils Act 1909 and
the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded participation of Indians in the

Previous Legislations as Source

The Constitution of Indian is drawn from many sources. Keeping in mind the
needs and conditions of India the framers of the Constitution of India borrowed
dierent features freely from previous legislation.

Government of India Act 1858

Main article: Government of India Act 1858
First Revolution of India, 1857 urged British Government to pass this Act. To calm
down the after eects of 1857 revolt, the Act of 1858 was introduced. This act
abolished East India Company and transferred powers towards the British crown
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to establish direct rule. The Provisions of the bill are:[9]

Provision for the creation of an Indian Civil Service under the control of the
Secretary of State.
The Crown was empowered to appoint a Governor-General and the
Governors of the Presidencies.
The Company's territories in India were to be vested in the Queen, the
Company ceasing to exercise its power and control over these territories.
India was to be governed in the Queen's name.
All the property of the East India Company was transferred to the Crown.
The Crown also assumed the responsibilities of the Company as they related
to treaties, contracts, and so forth.[10]
The Queen's Principal Secretary of State received the powers and duties of
the Company's Court of Directors. A council of fteen members was
appointed to assist the Secretary of State for India. The council became an
advisory body in India aairs. For all the communications between Britain
and India, the Secretary of State became the real channel.
Abolition of double government.

Indian Councils Act 1861

Main article: Indian Councils Act 1861
Indian Councils Act 1861 enacted by Parliament of the United Kingdom that
transformed the Viceroy of India's executive council into a cabinet run on the
portfolio system.[11] This cabinet had six "ordinary members" who each took
charge of a separate department in Calcutta's government: home, revenue,
military, law, nance, and (after 1874) public works.
Indian Councils Act 1861 is an essential landmark in the constitutional and
political good reputation for India. The 1861 Act restored the legislative power
taken away by the Charter Act of 1833. The legislative council at Calcutta was
given extensive authority to pass laws for British India as a whole, while the
legislative councils at Bombay and Madras were given the power to make laws for
the "Peace and good Government" of their respective presidencies.The Governor
General was given the power to create new provinces for legislative purposes. He
also could appoint Lt. Governors for the same.


Its features are:[9]

Indians were involved with law-making process. For this purpose, viceroy

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nominated the Raja of Benaras, the Maharaja of Patiala and Sir Dinkar Rao.
Decentralization of legislative powers.
Establishment of recent legislative councils in Bengal, NWFP and Punjab in
1862, 1866 and 1897 respectively.
Introduction of portfolio system.
It empowered the Viceroy to issue ordinances with no concurrence of the
legislative council throughout an emergency. The life of such an ordinance
was 6 months.

Indian Councils Act 1892

Main article: Indian Councils Act 1892
Enacted due to the demand of the Indian National Congress to expand legislative
council, the number of non-oicial members was increased both in central and
provincial legislative councils the non oicial members of Indian legislative
councils were henceforth to be nominated by Bengal chamber of commerce and
provincial legislative council. In 1892, the council consisted of 24 members, only
ve being where Indians.


Its features are:[9]

Power discussing budget to legislative councils.

It deliver to the nomination of some non oicial people in the central
legislative council through the viceroy on the recommendation of the
provincial legislative councils which of the provincial legislative councils
through the governors on the recommendations of the district boards,
municipalities, universities, trade associations, zamindars and chambers.

Indian Councils Act 1909

Main article: Indian Councils Act 1909
Indian Councils Act 1909 commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms, was an
Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase
in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India. The Act of 1909
was important for the following reasons:
It eectively allowed the election of Indians to the various legislative
councils in India for the rst time. Previously some Indians had been
appointed to legislative councils.

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The introduction of the electoral principle laid the groundwork for a

parliamentary system even though this was contrary to the intent of Morley.
Muslims had expressed serious concern that a rst past the post electoral
system, like that of Britain, would leave them permanently subject to Hindu
majority rule. The Act of 1909 stipulated, as demanded by the Muslim
The Act amended the Indian Councils Acts of 1861 and 1892.[14] Its features
1. The maximum number of nominated and elected members of the Legislative
Council at the Center was increased from 16 to 60. The number did not
include ex-oicio members.[15]
2. The right of separate electorate was given to the Muslims.
3. Oicial members were to form the majority but in provinces non-oicial
members would be in majority.
4. The members of the Legislative Councils were permitted to discuss the
budgets, suggest the amendments and even to vote on them; excluding those
items that were included as non-vote items. They were also entitled to ask
supplementary questions during the legislative proceedings.
5. The Secretary of State for India was empowered to increase the number of
the Executive Councils of Madras and Bombay from two to four.
6. Two Indians were nominated to the Council of the Secretary of State for
Indian Aairs.

Government of India Act 1919

Main article: Government of India Act 1919
After World War I, the British Government opened the door for Indians to public
oice and employment. The Provisions of the bill are:[9]
Relaxation of central treatments for the provinces by demarcating and
separating the central and provincial subjects.
It further divided the provincial subjects into two parts transferred (That
have been administered by governor by the help of ministers who are
responsible to legislative council) and reserved (that have been to be
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administered by the governor and the executive council without being

responsible towards the legislative council).
Introduction of diarchy, Bicameralism, direct elections and establishment of
central public service commission in 1926.
Franchise was granted to some limited people on foundation of property, tax
and education.
Separation of central budget from provisional budget.
Appointment of statutory commission.

Government of India Act 1935

Main article: Government of India Act 1935
The provisions of the Government of India Act 1935, though never implemented
fully, had a great impact on the Constitution of India. Many key features of the
constitution are directly taken from this Act. It is really a lengthy and detailed
document having 321 sections and 10 schedules. The majority of the today's
constitution has drawn from this. Its features are:
It deliver to the establishment of All India Federation. The previous names
transferred and reserved subjects are changed as federal and provincial lists
and concurrent list is denitely an addendum.
Abolition of Diarchy and introduced provincial autonomy.
Abolition of Council Asia.
Establishment of RBI, federal court, Provincial PSUs and Joint PSUs.
Extension of bicameralism, communal representation and franchise.
The federal structure of government, provincial autonomy, a bicameral central
legislature consisting of a federal assembly and a Council of States and the
separation of legislative powers between the centre and states are some of the
provisions of the Act which are present in the Constitution of India.

Indian Independence Act 1947

Main article: Indian Independence Act 1947
The legislation was formulated by the government of Prime Minister Clement
Attlee and the Governor General of India Lord Mountbatten, after representatives
of the Indian National Congress,[16] the Muslim League,[17] and the Sikh
community[18] came to an agreement with the Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten
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of Burma, on what has come to be known as the 3 June Plan or Mountbatten Plan.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom announced on 20 February 1947 that:
1. British Government would grant full self-government to British India by June
1948 at the latest,
2. Partition of India and Pakistan.
3. The future of Princely States would be decided after the date of nal transfer
is decided.[19]
4. Empowering of Constitution for the nations.
On 18 July 1947, British India divided into two new independent states, India and
Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Commonwealth of Nations until
they had each nished drafting and enacted a new constitution. The Constituent
Assembly was divided into two for the separate states, with each new Assembly
having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion. The Act
also terminated British suzerainty over the princely states, each of which was left
to decide whether to accede to one or other of the new dominions or to continue
as independent states in their own right.

Constituent Assembly
Main article: Constituent Assembly of India
The Constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was elected by
the elected members of the provincial assemblies.[20] Dr B.R. Ambedkar, Sanjay
Phakey, Jawaharlal Nehru, C. Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Sardar
Vallabhbhai Patel, Kanaiyalal Munshi, Purushottam Mavalankar, Sandipkumar
Patel, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Nalini Ranjan
Ghosh, and Balwantrai Mehta were some important gures in the Assembly.
There were more than 30 members of the scheduled classes. Frank Anthony
represented the Anglo-Indian community, and the Parsis were represented by H.
P. Modi. The Chairman of the Minorities Committee was Harendra Coomar
Mookerjee, a distinguished Christian who represented all Christians other than
Anglo-Indians. Ari Bahadur Gururng represented the Gorkha Community.
Prominent jurists like Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, Benegal Narsing Rau and K. M.
Munshi, Ganesh Mavlankar were also members of the Assembly. Sarojini Naidu,
Hansa Mehta, Durgabai Deshmukh, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur and Vijayalakshmi
Pandit were important women members.
The rst temporary 2-day president of the Constituent Assembly was Dr
Sachidanand Sinha. Later, Rajendra Prasad was elected president of the
Constituent Assembly.

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The members of the Constituent Assembly met for the

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rst time on 9 December 1946.[20]

On the 14 August 1947 meeting of the Assembly, a
proposal for forming various committees was
presented.[20] Such committees included a
Committee on Fundamental Rights, the Union
Powers Committee and Union Constitution
Committee. On 29 August 1947, the Drafting
Committee was appointed, with Dr B. R. Ambedkar
as the Chairman along with six other members
assisted by a constitutional advisor. These
members were Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant
Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi (K M Munshi, ExDr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
Home Minister, Bombay), Alladi Krishnaswamy
is hailed as the prime
Iyer (Ex- Advocate General, Madras State), N
architect of the Indian
Gopalaswami Ayengar (Ex-Prime Minister, J&K and
later member of Nehru Cabinet), B L Mitter
(Ex-Advocate General, India), Md. Saadullah (ExChief Minister of Assam, Muslim League member)
and D P Khaitan (Scion of Khaitan Business family and a renowned lawyer). The
constitutional advisor was Sir Benegal Narsing Rau (who became First Indian
Judge in International Court of Justice, 195054). Later B L Mitter resigned and
was replaced by Madhav Rao (Legal Advisor of Maharaja of Vadodara). Owing to
death of D P Khaitan, T T Krishnamachari was chosen to be included in the
drafting committee. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and
submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947. Draft constitution was debated
and over 2000 amendments were moved over a period of two years. Finally on 26
Nov. 1949, the process was completed and Constituent assembly adopted the
constitution. 284 members signed the document and the process of constitution
making was complete.


The Assembly met in sessions open to the public, for 166 days, spread over a
period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution, the
308 members of the Assembly signed two copies of the document (one each in
Hindi and English) on 24 January 1950. The original Constitution of India is
hand-written with beautiful calligraphy, each page beautied and decorated by
artists from Shantiniketan including Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal
Bose. Two days later, on 26 January 1950, the Constitution of India became the
law of all the States and territories of India. Rs.1,00,00,000 was oicial estimate
of expenditure on constituent assembly. The Constitution has undergone many
amendments since its enactment.

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The Constitution, in its current form (September 2012), consists of a preamble,
25[Note 2] parts containing 448 [Note 1] articles, 12[Note 3] schedules, 5
appendices[23] and 98 amendments to date.[22]

The individual Articles of the Constitution are grouped together into the following

Part XII Finance, Property,

Part I[24] Union and its

Contracts and Suits


Part XIII Trade and Commerce

Part II[25] Citizenship.

within the territory of India

Part III Fundamental Rights.

Part XIV Services Under the

Part IV[26] Directive Principles

Union, the States.

of State Policy.
Part IVA Fundamental Duties.
Part V[27] The Union.
Part VI[28] The States.
Part VII[29] States in the B
part of the First
Part VIII[30] The Union
Part IX


Part IXA

Part XIVA Tribunals.

Part XV Elections
Part XVI Special Provisions
Relating to certain Classes.
Part XVII Languages
Part XVIII Emergency
Part XIX Miscellaneous
Part XX Amendment of the

The Panchayats.



Part XXI Temporary,

Transitional and Special



Part IXB The Co-operative

Part XXII Short title, date of



Part X The scheduled and

commencement, Authoritative
text in Hindi and Repeals

Tribal Areas
Part XI Relations between the

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Union and the States.

Schedules are lists in the Constitution that categorize and tabulate bureaucratic
activity and policy of the Government.
First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4)- This lists the states and territories of
India, lists any changes to their borders and the laws used to make that
Second Schedule (Articles 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3),
164(5), 186 and 221)- This lists the salaries of oicials holding public oice,
judges, and Comptroller and Auditor General of India.
Third Schedule (Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and
219)Forms of Oaths This lists the oaths of oices for elected oicials and
Fourth Schedule (Articles 4(1) and 80(2)) This details the allocation of
seats in the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of Parliament) per State or Union
Fifth Schedule (Article 244(1)) This provides for the administration and
control of Scheduled Areas[Note 5] and Scheduled Tribes[Note 6] (areas and
tribes needing special protection due to disadvantageous conditions).
Sixth Schedule (Articles 244(2) and 275(1)) Provisions for the
administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.
Seventh Schedule (Article 246)The union (central government), state,
and concurrent lists of responsibilities.
Eighth Schedule (Articles 344(1) and 351)The oicial languages.
Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) Validation of certain Acts and
Tenth Schedule (Articles 102(2) and 191(2))"Anti-defection" provisions
for Members of Parliament and Members of the State Legislatures.
Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-D)Panchayat Raj (rural local
Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W)Municipalities (urban local government).

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Appendix IThe Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order,
Appendix II Re-statement, with reference to the present text of the
Constitution, of the exceptions and modications subject to which the
Constitution applies to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
Appendix IIIExtracts from the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act,
Appendix IVThe Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002.
Appendix V The Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003.

Main article: Amendment of the Constitution of India
See also: List of amendments of the Constitution of India
The process of re writing any part of the constitution is called amendment.
Amendments to the Constitution are made by the Parliament, the procedure for
which is laid out in Article 368. An amendment bill must be passed by both the
Houses of the Parliament by a two-thirds majority and voting. In addition to this,
certain amendments which pertain to the federal nature of the Constitution must
be ratied by a majority of state legislatures.
As of September 2013 there have been 120


amendment bills presented in the

Parliament, out of which 98 have been passed to become Amendment Acts. [35]
Most of these amendments address issues dealt with by statute in other
democracies. However, the Constitution is so specic in spelling out government
powers that many of these issues must be addressed by constitutional
amendment. As a result, the document is amended roughly twice a year.
In 2000 the National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution
(NCRWC) was set up to look into updating the constitution.


Main article: Basic structure doctrine
The Supreme Court has ruled in Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala case that
not every constitutional amendment is permissible, the amendment must respect
the "basic structure" of the constitution, which is immutable.
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Adoptions from other constitutions

The architects of Indian constitution were most heavily inuenced by the British
model of parliamentary democracy. In addition, a number of principles were
adopted from the Constitution of the United States of America, including the
separation of powers among the major branches of government and the
establishment of a supreme court. The principles adopted from Canada were
federal government with strong centre and also distribution of powers between
central government and state governments along with placing residuary powers
From Ireland, directive principle of state policy
with central government.
was adopted. From Germany, the principle of suspension of fundamental rights
during emergency was adopted. From Australia, the idea of having a Concurrent
list of shared powers was used as well and some of the terminology was utilized

for the preamble.


Judicial review
Judicial review is adopted in the Constitution of India from judicial review in the
United States (see[40]). In the Indian constitution, Judicial review is dealt with
under Article 13. Judicial Review refers that the Constitution is the supreme
power of the nation and all laws are under its supremacy. Article 13 states that:
1. All pre-constitutional laws, if in part or completely in conict with the
Constitution, shall have all conicting provisions deemed ineective until an
amendment to the Constitution ends the conict. In such situation the
provision of that law will again come into force, if it is compatible with the
constitution as amended. This is called the Doctrine of Eclipse. [41]
2. In a similar manner, laws made after adoption of the Constitution by the
Constituent Assembly must be compatible with the constitution, otherwise
the laws and amendments will be deemed to be void ab initio.
3. In such situations, the Supreme Court or High Court interprets the laws to
decide if they are in conformity with the Constitution. If such an
interpretation is not possible because of inconsistency, and where a
separation is possible, the provision that is inconsistent with constitution is
considered to be void. In addition to article 13, articles 32, 226 and 227
provide a constitutional basis to judicial review in India.[42]

See also
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Constitutional economics
History of democracy
List of national constitutions
Magna Carta
Rule according to higher law
Uniform civil code of India

1. ^

a b

Although the last article of the Constitution is Article 395, the total number, as

of March 2013 is 448. New articles added through amendments have been inserted in
the relevant location in the original constitution. In order not to disturb the original
numbering, the new articles are inserted with alpha numeric enumerations. For
example, Article 21A pertaining to Right to Education was inserted by the 86th
Amendment Act.
2. ^

a b

The Constitution was in 22 Parts originally. Part VII & IX (older) was repealed in

1956, whereas newly added Part IVA, IXA, IXB & XIVA by Amendments to the
Constitution in dierent times (lastly added IXB by the 97th Amendment).
3. ^

a b

By 73rd & 74th Amendment, the lists of administrative subjects of Panchayat raj

& Municipalty included in the Constitution as Schedule 11 & 12 respectively in the

year 1993.
4. ^ On 2 January 2013, by 98th Amendment, the Article 371J has been inserted to the
Constitution regarding to empower the Governor of Karnataka to take steps to
develop the Hyderabad-Karnataka Region.
5. ^ Scheduled Areas are autonomous areas within a state, administered federally,
usually populated by a predominant Scheduled Tribe.
6. ^ Scheduled Tribes are groups of indigenous people, identied in the Constitution,
struggling socioeconomically

1. ^ Pylee, M.V. (1997). India's

2. ^ "10 Facts You Should Know about

Constitution. S. Chand & Co. p. 3.

the Indian constitution"

ISBN 81-219-0403-X.

( Yahoo! Lifestyle.

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3. ^

a b

"Elders Clear bill to set up

9. ^

a b c d e f

"Indian Constitution

Judicial Appointment Commission"

historical Evolution"







commission/article5096598.ece). The


Hindu. 5 October 2013. Retrieved 12

October 2013.
4. ^ "Introduction to Constitution of
India" (

10. ^ "Oicial, India" (

/en/item/393/). World Digital Library.
18901923. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
11. ^ Encyclopdia Britannica article

/introd.htm). Ministry of Law and

concerning this Act

Justice of India. 29 July 2008.


Retrieved 2008-10-14.


5. ^ Swaminathan, Shivprasad (26

12. ^ "History of State Legislature"

January 2013). "Indias benign


constitutional revolution"

/history.htm). Tamil Nadu Legislative


Assembly, Government of Tamil Nadu,


Chennei. Retrieved 11 February 2010.

revolution/article4345212.ece). The

13. ^ The Government of India: Being a

Hindu: opinion. Retrieved 18 February

Digest of the Statute Law Relating


Thereto, by Sir Courtenay Ilbert, 1st

6. ^ "Preamble of the Constitution of

India" (

edition (1898), publ. Clarendon Press,

Oxford, p. 110
14. ^ Ilbert, Sir Courtenay Peregrine.


"Appendix I: Indian Councils Act,

29.pdf). Ministry of Law & Justice.

1909", in The Government of India.

Retrieved 29 March 2012.

Clarendon Press, 1907. pp. 427.

7. ^ "Forty-Second Amendment to the

15. ^ Ilbert, Sir Courtenay Peregrine.

Constitution" (

"Appendix I: Indian Councils Act,


1909", in The Government of India.

Ministry of Law and Justice of India. 28

Clarendon Press, 1907. p. 430.

August 1976. Retrieved 2008-10-14.

16. ^ represented by Jawaharlal Nehru,

8. ^ Das, Hari (2002). Political System of

Vallabhbhai Patel, and Acharya

India. Anmol Publications. p. 120.

ISBN 81-7488-690-7.

17. ^ represented by Muhammad Ali
Jinnah, Liaqat Ali Khan, and Sardar
Abdul Rab Nishtar
18. ^ represented by Sardar Baldev Singh

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19. ^ Ghose, Sankar (1993). Jawaharlal

22. ^

a b


Nehru : a biography





/amendment.htm). India Code


Information System. Ministry of Law,


Government of India. Retrieved 9


December 2013.


23. ^ "Constitution of india"




Ministry of Law and Justice, Govt. of




24. ^ Part I

(1. publ. ed.). New Delhi [u.a.]: Allied

25. ^ Part II

Publ. p. 151. ISBN 9788170233695.

26. ^ Part IV

20. ^

a b c d

"The Constituent Assembly

27. ^ Part V

Debates (Proceedings):(9th

28. ^ Part VI

December,1946 to 24 January 1950)"

29. ^ Part VII


30. ^ Part VIII

/ls/debates/debates.htm). The

31. ^ Part IX

Parliament of India Archive. Retrieved

32. ^ Part IXA


33. ^

21. ^ "Some Facts of Constituent


34. ^ Originally Articles mentioned here


were immune from judicial review on

/ls/debates/facts.htm). Parliament of

the ground that they violated

India. National Informatics Centre.

fundamental rights. but in a landmark

Archived (

judgement in 2007, the Supreme Court


of India held in I.R. Coelho v. State of


Tamil Nadu and others that laws

/facts.htm) from the original on 21 May

included in the 9th schedule can be

2013. Retrieved 2011-04-14. "On 29

subject to judicial review if they

August 1947, the Constituent

violated the fundamental rights

Assembly set up a Drafting Committee

guaranteed under Article 14, 15, 19,

under the Chairmanship of B. R.

21 or the basic structure of the

Ambedkar to prepare a Draft

Constitution {(ambiguous)} - I.R.

Constitution for India"

Coelho (dead) by L.Rs. v. State of Tamil

Nadu and others(2007) 2 S.C.C. 1
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36. ^ Kuri's blog: National Commission to

39. ^ [1] (

review the working of the


40. ^ V. Venkatesan - A fresh look at the


relevance of three early doctrines that


have dened the Indian Constitution


over the years.

(2011-02-23). Retrieved on



/20120323290507900.htm) Front-line

37. ^ "Borrowed features of Constitution"


(Vol. 29 - Issue 05 :: 10-23 Mar. 2012)

41. ^ Jain, M.P. (2010). Indian


Constitutional Law. LexisNexis

of-constitution.php). Retrieved 15

Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. p. 921.

February 2014.

ISBN 978-81-8038-621-3.

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Singh, Jindal Global Law School.

/constitution_of_india.html). Retrieved
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External links
Original Unamended version of the Constitution of India (
Ministry of Law and Justice of India The Constitution of India Page
Constitution of India as of 29 July 2008 (
Constitutional predilections (
Commonwealth Legal Information Institute Online Copy
Retrieved from "
Categories: Indian federal legislation 1949 in law Constitution of India
Indian historical documents Independent India

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