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BOILER

Definition
"machinery" includes steam boilers, unfired
pressure vessels, fired pressure vessels,
pipelines, prime movers, gas cylinders, gas
holders, hoisting machines and tackle,
transmission machinery, driven machinery,
materials handling equipment, amusement device
or any other similar machinery and any equipment
for the casting, cutting, welding or electrodeposition of materials and for the spraying by
means of compressed gas or air of materials or
other materials, but does not include

Definition
but does not include
(a) any machinery used for the propulsion of
vehicles other than steam boilers or steam
engines;
(b) any machinery driven by manual power other
than hoisting machines;
(c) any machinery used solely for private and
domestic purposes; or
(d) office machines;

Definition
"steam boiler" means any closed vessel in
which for any purpose steam is generated
under pressure greater than atmospheric
pressure, and includes any economiser
used to heat water being fed to the vessel,
and any superheater used for heating
steam, and any pipes and fittings

EXAMPLES OF STEAM BOILER


Electric Boiler
Fire Tube Boiler
Water Tube Boiler
Combi Boiler
Waste Heat Boiler

ELECTRIC BOILER

1.Pressure Vessel Is Built To ASME


Code
2. Electrical Control Panel Box
3. Electric Heating Elements
4. Low Water Cut Off Probe
5. Second (Auxiliary) Low Water Cut Off
Probe
6. Pump "On" Probe
7. Pump "Off" Probe
8. Sight Glass Assembly
9. Operating Pressure Control
10. High Limit Pressure Control w/
manual reset
11. Steam Outlet
12. Safety Valve
13. Steam Gauge Assembly
14. Steam Pressure Gauge
15. High Temperature Insulation
Surrounds The Pressure Vessel
16. Large (3" x 4") Easily Accessible
Handholes
17. Feedwater Shut Off Valve

FIRE TUBE BOILER

FIRE TUBE BOILER

WATER TUBE BOILER

COMBI BOILER

WASTE HEAT BOILER (HRSG)

STEAM BOILER

Every steam boiler before being put into


service for the first time, be subjected to
hydrostatic test for at least 20 minutes: Two

times the ASWP, if the boiler pressure is


< 100 psi

times the ASWP + 50 psi, if the boiler


pressure is > 100 psi

Note: If the boiler has been tested satisfactorily by the


manufacturer or if it is an old boiler, the
required H.T
pressure is 1 times the ASWP

STEAM BOILER

Every steam boiler inspected for the first


time or the ASWP has been altered shall be
tested under steaming condition to the
satisfaction of the Chief Inspector:-

Note: The boiler other than a water tube boiler shall be


tested
with the safety valves set at the ASWP firing
for at least
10 minutes with feed water & main stop
valve closed.
Where the accumulation of pressure
exceeds 10% of
ASWP, the area of the safety
valves are considered
insufficient

Person in charge according to boiler heating surface


Heating Surface (ft2)

Person-in-charge

HS 500

1st or 2nd grade Boilerman

500<HS2,000

1st grade Boilerman

2,000<HS< 5,000

1st grade Boilerman + Visiting Engineer

5,000<HS<10,000

1st or 2nd grade Engineer +1st grade Boilerman

10,000<HS<25,000

1st grade Engineer +1st or 2nd grade Engineer + 1st or 2nd


grade Boilerman/shift

25,000<HS< 50,000

1st grade Engineer + two 1st or 2nd grade Engineer + 1st or


2nd grade Boilerman/shift

HS>50,000

1st grade Engineer + 1st or 2nd grade Engineer /shift + 1st or


2nd grade Boilerman/shift

Note : Each boiler man should not be in charge of more than 2 boilers.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Furnace (1st gas pass)


Tubes (2nd gas pass)
Tubes (3rd gas pass)
10. Feed check valve
Combustion chamber
11. Water level control
16. Control panel
Front smoke box 12. Manhole
17. Burner
Rear outlet box 13. Spare connection (steam)
18. Forced draft fan
Water gauge glass14. Spare connection (water)
19. Fan inlet silencer
Safety valve
15. Feed pump
Main stop valve
PACKAGE BOILER

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS

NAME PLATE
REGISTRATION PLATE
SAFETY VALVE
GAUGE GLASS
PRESSURE GAUGE
INSPECTORS TEST PRESSURE GAUGE
ATTACHMENT
MAIN STOP VALVE
LOW WATER ALARM
LOW WATER FUEL CUT-OUT
FUSIBLE PLUG
FEED PUMP
FEED CHECK VALVE

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS


NAME PLATE

Function:

To provide important information

Every boiler shall be provided with: A name

plate which bears the following:-

Name

and address
Serial number
Design pressure
Design Code
Hydrostatic test pressure
Date of hydrostatic test

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS


REGISTRATION PLATE
Function: To display the registration number
allocated by
the Chief Inspector
(PMD No)

Every boiler shall be provided with: A registration

number

plate - which bears the registration

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS


SAFETY VALVE
Function:

To release the boiler pressure in the


event of high pressure exceeding the
ASWP
Every boiler shall be provided with: At

least two safety valves - one spring-loaded type

If

heating surface area < 100 sq ft - one springloaded type

Able

to discharge the steam and maintain


pressure not more than 10% of ASWP

Structure of safety valves

Common defects with safety valves

Broken spring or spring with crack or spring with


pittings.
Worn out seat or steam cut through the seat.
Bent spindle.

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS


GAUGE GLASS
Function:

To provide level indication for boiler water

Every boiler shall be provided with: Two

gauge glasses

If

evaporative capacity <300 lb/hr of steam from


and at 212 0F
- one gauge glass with two test cocks
The

lowest visible part shall not be lower


than the lowest safe working level

GAUGE GLASS

Common defects with water gauges

Both ends of the gauge worn out.


Inlet pipe chokes with scales.

WATER COLUMN

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS


PRESSURE GAUGE

Function:

To provide pressure indication for a boiler

Every boiler shall be provided with: A steam


Fitted

pressure gauge
above the highest part of the steam side

Provided
Dial

with a siphon

not less than 6 inches in diameter

from 0 to not < 11 3 times but


not > 2 times the ASWP

Graduation

Pressure gauges

Every steam boiler shall have a pressure gauge.


Every pressure gauge shall be connected to a
boiler above the highest water level with the dial
of the gauge in the vertical plane. It can be read
.
from the firing position. A dial shall
> 6 diameter
scale ranges from 0 PSI to between 1 to
2 times authorized working pressure.
Red mark to indicate max. authorized
working pressure.
Pressure gauges are connected to the steam
space of boiler usually have a ring type siphon
tub which fills with condensed steam and protect
the dial mechanism from high temperatures.

Pressure gauge with ring siphon

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS


INSPECTORS TEST PRESSURE GAUGE
ATTACHMENT
Function: To provide a connection for a reliable
pressure gauge of the Inspector and check the
accuracy and recalibration
Every boiler shall be provided with: An

Inspectors test pressure gauge attachment

Consists

of a valve or cock carrying


a socket fitted with a plug

Mounted

near the pressure gauge

PRESSURE GAUGE ATTACHMENT

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS


MAIN STOP VALVE

Function:

To put boiler into service and stop the


steam supply when the boiler is shut
down
Every boiler shall be provided with: A main

steam stop valve

Fitted
Bear

direct to the boiler shell

the manufacturers name,


design pressure and direction of flow

MAIN STOP VALVE

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS


LOW WATER ALARM

Function:

To provide an audible sound when the


water level is low
Every boiler shall be provided with: A low

water alarm - for boilers :-

Fired
Fired

with solid fuel & press > 250 psi or

with liquid/gaseous fuel not fitted


with low water fuel cut out

LOW WATER ALARM

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS


LOW WATER FUEL CUT-OUT

Function:

To stop the boiler immediately by shutting


off fuel and air supply in the event of very
low water level

Every boiler shall be provided with: A low

water fuel cut-out - boilers fired with liquid &


gaseous fuel
Connected

to burner control system

LOW WATER FUEL CUT-OUT

Common defects with water alarm

Mobrey float is water logged.


Mobrey float is dented.
Inlet pipe choked with scale.

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS


FUSIBLE PLUG
Function:

To give early protection from direct heat in


the event of loss of boiler water

Every boiler shall be provided with: A fusible


Fitted

plug - boilers fired with solid fuels only


2 to 3 inches above the highest tubes

Fusible alloy shall melt at a temp not


>150 0F greater than saturated steam

temp corresponding to the ASWP

LOCATION OF A FUSIBLE PLUG

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS


FEED PUMP
Function:

Draws water from the feed tank and


delivers it under pressure to the boiler

Every boiler shall be provided with: Two

feed pumps - heating surface area >150 sq ft

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS


FEED CHECK VALVE
Function:

Every

To control amount of feedwater to the


boiler and prevent back flow of feedwater
from the boiler

boiler shall be provided with:-

A feed

check valve

Clearly
Bear

marked with the flow direction

the manufacturers name and


design pressure

FEED CHECK VALVE

Common defects with check valve

Bent spring.
Seat worn out.

BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS


BLOWDOWN VALVE
Function:

To remove impurities and control water


level
Every boiler shall be provided with: A blowdown

valve

Attached

direct to the shell and at the lowest


point of the boiler

Bore

not < 1 inch in diameter

Clear

indication of open & close position

BLOWDOWN VALVE

Common defects with blow down valve

Seat with steam cutting.


90 turn gear worn out.
Seat surface worn out.
Handle broken.

BOILER DEFECTS

Crack of metal part or welding part nozzle


crack, shell crack, header crack etc.
Tube burst
Buldging or dented at furnace side or tubesheet
Pipe sagging
Pitting and corrosion
Hard scaling

Inspection of Foundation
To check the existence of any
cracks in the brick lying,
confirmation shall be done for
the expansion clearance and
condition of heat insulation.

Flue Gas System

Fire Side

ILLEGAL REPAIR

Superheater : 1 - 1.25 ton steam/tube

Violent rupture caused by scaling

This tube is bent almost to a right angle, caused by the severity of the burst

A rupture at a single bulge

The tube had experienced long-term overheating caused by scaling

Rupture Caused by Scaling

WATER SIDE
Scaling

WATER SIDE

Corrosion Pitting

Drums and Internal Parts

PRESSURE VESSEL

Definition
"unfired pressure vessel" means any
enclosed vessel under pressure greater than
atmospheric pressure by any gas or mixture
or combination of gases and includes any
vessel under pressure of steam external to
the steam boiler and any vessel which is
under pressure of a liquid or gas or both, and
any vessel subject internally to a pressure
less than atmospheric pressure but does not
include gas cylinders;

Definition

"fired pressure vessel" means an enclosed


vessel under pressure greater than
atmospheric pressure which is subjected
to direct firing, but does not include a
steam boiler;

Bekas Udara / Tangki LPG

Pengandung Di Loji Petrokimia / Loji


Penapisan Minyak

Inspection
External Inspection
Internal Inspection
Hydrostatic Test
Leak Test
Proof Test

Steam Receiver
ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
Pressure Gage

Stop Valve

Name Plate

Drain Cock
Inspection
Hole/Door

Air Receiver
ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
Pressure Gage

Name Plate

Inspection
Hole

Drain Cock

Other Vessels
ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
Safety Valve/
Rupture Disc

Pressure Gage

Name Plate

SAFETY RELIEF VALVE

Conventional
Metal Rupture Disc

CHOOSE
TYPE

Pressure gauge
(i) not be less than three inches in diameter across
the dial: Provided that where the external shell
diameter of the unfired pressure vessel is less
than twelve inches and the pressure in such
vessel is not more than one hundred and fifty
pounds per square inch, such gauge shall not be
less than two inches in diameter;
(ii) be graduated from zero to not less than one and
one-third times and not more than twice the
authorised safe working pressure of the pressure
vessel to which it is fitted;
(iii) have the authorised safe working pressure clearly
marked in red on the dial;
(iv) be provided with a single stop pin at the lowest
pressure reading;
(v) accurately show the pressure within a tolerance
of plus or minus two per centum of the authorised
safe working pressure of the pressure vessel to
which it is attached.

Name plat

Stop Valve

Drain Pits

External Inspection

External Inspection

Evident of Leakage

Any leakage of gas, vapour


or liquid should be
investigated. A leakage
coming from behind
insulation coverings,
supports or settings, or
evidence of a past leakage
should be thoroughly
investigated by removing
any covering necessary to
establish the source.

External Inspection

Structure Attachments

The mountings for an unfired


pressure vessel should be
checked for adequate allowance
for expansion and contraction,
such as that provided by slotted
bolt holes or unobstructed saddle
mountings. Attachments of legs,
saddles, skirts or other supports
should be examined for distortion
or cracks at welds.

External Inspection

Vessel Connections
Manholes, reinforcing plates, nozz1es
or other connections should be
examined for cracks, deformation or
other defects. Bolts and nuts should
be checked for corrosion or defects.
Tell tale holes in reinforcing plates
should remain open to provide visual
evidence of leakage as well as to
prevent pressure built up between the
vessel and reinforcing plate.
Accessible flange faces should be
examined for distortion and to
determine the condition of gasket
seating surfaces

External Inspection
Abrasives
Dents
Distortion
Cuts and Gouges
Surface Inspection
Weld Joints (New Vessel)

COMMON WELDING DEFECT

?? Reduced Inlet Piping


Reduced
Inlet Piping

Anything wrong
here?

Anything
Discharges
wrong Down
wrong
??Anything
Discharges
Pointing
Pointing
here?Down
here?

Long
Moment Arm

?? Long Moment Arm


Anything wrong
here?

?? Will
these bolts hold in a relief
Will these
bolts hold
event
in a
relief event?

Anything wrong
here?

Internal Inspection
A general visual inspection is the first
step in making an internal inspection. All
parts of the vessel should be inspected
for corrosion, erosion, hydrogen
blistering, deformation, cracking and
laminations

Internal Inspection

Uniform Corrosion

Pitting
Pitting Corrosion showing wormhole
attack pattern, where pits are
interconnected.

Corrosion Pitting

Narrow,deep

Shallow, wide

Elliptical

Undercutting

Galvanic Corrosion
Galvanic ringworm corrosion, often
occurring four to six inches from the upset,
where carbon particles have been
spheroidized.

Heat Affected Zone

Heat-affected zone (HAZ) corrosion is a


type of galvanic corrosion which occurs
along a weld seam.

Grooving Corrosion
Raindrop attack occurs in gas condensate
wells. In areas, water condenses on the
metal surface, causing deep pits with tails

Creep Corrosion

Mesa attack is a form of CO2 corrosion


that occurs in flowing environments, and
occurs where a protective iron carbonate
coating is worn away in areas.

Erosion Corrosion

Erosion Corrosion, or flow-enhanced


corrosion, usually occurs in areas where
the diameter of the pipe or direction of flow
is changing. Severe metal loss can quickly
occur.

Fatigue
Corrosion due to fatigue occurs in areas
of cyclic stresses. Here we see fatigue
corrosion in a drill pipe.

Crack

INSPECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGER

Pipeline Inspection
NDT is used to inspect pipelines to
prevent leaks that could damage the
environment. Visual inspection,
radiography and electromagnetic
testing are some of the NDT
methods used.

Remote visual inspection


using a robotic crawler.

Magnetic flux leakage inspection.


This device, known as a pig, is
placed in the pipeline and collects
data on the condition of the pipe as
it is pushed along by whatever is
being transported.

Radiography of weld joints.

Non Destructive Testing

Definition of NDT
The use of noninvasive
techniques to determine
the integrity of a material,
component or structure
or
quantitatively measure
some characteristic of
an object.
i.e. Inspect or measure without doing harm.

Six Most Common NDT


Methods
Visual

Liquid Penetrant
Magnetic
Ultrasonic
Eddy Current
X-ray

Visual Inspection
Most basic and common
inspection method.
Tools include fiberscopes,
borescopes, magnifying
glasses and mirrors.

Portable video inspection


unit with zoom allows
inspection of large tanks
and vessels, railroad tank
cars, sewer lines.
Robotic crawlers permit
observation in hazardous or
tight areas, such as air ducts,
reactors, pipelines.

DYE PENETRANT PROCESS


HAIRLINE
CRACK

STEP 1:
CLEAN THE SPECIMEN WITH
THE CLEANER

SPECIMEN

STEP 2:
WIPE DRY THE SURFACE AND
SPRAY THE PENETRANT
THOROUGHLY ON THE SURFACE
AND LET IT SETTLES, 15-20
MINUTES. WIPE CLEAN THE
SURFACE.

HAIRLINE
CRACK

SPECIMEN

HAIRLINE CRACK
APPEAR RED

SPECIMEN

DEVELOPER

STEP 3:
APPLY THE DEVELOPER (WHITE)
AND LET IT SETTLES FOR A FEW
MINUTES. RED LINE APPEARS ON
THE SURFACE WITH HAIR LINE
CRACK

Liquid Penetrant Inspection


A liquid with high surface wetting characteristics is
applied to the surface of the part and allowed time to
seep into surface breaking defects.
The excess liquid is removed from the surface of
the part.
A developer (powder) is applied to pull the
trapped penetrant out the defect and spread it on
the surface where it can be seen.
Visual inspection is the final step in the process.
The penetrant used is often loaded with a
fluorescent dye and the inspection is done under
UV light to increase test sensitivity.

Magnetic Particle
Inspection
The part is magnetized. Finely milled iron particles coated with a dye
pigment are then applied to the specimen. These particles are
attracted to magnetic flux leakage fields and will cluster to form an
indication directly over the discontinuity. This indication can be
visually detected under proper lighting conditions.

Magnetic Particle Crack


Indications

Radiography
The radiation used in radiography testing
is a higher energy (shorter wavelength)
version of the electromagnetic waves that
we
see as visible light. The radiation can
come from an X-ray generator or a
radioactive source.

High Electrical Potential


Electrons
+

X-ray Generator
or Radioactive
Source Creates
Radiation

Radiation
Penetrate
the Sample
Exposure Recording Device

Film Radiography
The part is placed between the radiation
source and a piece of film. The part will
stop some of the radiation. Thicker and
more dense area will stop more of the
radiation.

X-ray film

The film darkness


(density) will vary with
the amount of radiation
reaching the film through
the test object.

= less exposure
= more exposure
Top view of developed film

Cracks
Transverse
cracks
Welding defect: Transverse crack. A
fracture in the weld metal running
across the weld.

Longitudinal
cracks

Welding defect: Longitudinal root


crack. A fracture in the weld metal
at the edge of the root pass.

Cavities
Root pass aligned
porosity

Welding defect : Root pass aligned porosity.


Rounded and elongated voids in the bottom
of the weld aligned along the weld
centerline.

Solid inclusion
Tungsten inclusion

Welding defect : Tungsten inclusions.


Random bits of tungsten fused, but not
melted, into the weld metal.

Lack of fusion and penetration


Lack of sidewall fusion

Welding defect : Lack of sidewall fusion (LOF).


Elongated voids between the weld beads and
the joint surfaces to be welded.

Lack of inter-run fusion

Welding defect : Inter-pass slag inclusions.


Usually nonmetallic impurities that solidified
on the weld surface and were not removed
between weld passes.

Lack of fusion and penetration

Incomplete root penetration

Welding defect : Incomplete or lack of penetration


(LOP). The edges of the pieces have not been
welded together, usually at the bottom of single
V-groove welds.

Radiographic image : A darker density band, with very straight parallel edges, in the
center of the width of the weld image.

Eddy Current Testing


Coil

Coil's
magnetic field

Eddy current's
magnetic field
Eddy
currents

Conductive
material

Eddy Current Testing


Eddy current testing is particularly well suited for detecting surface
cracks but can also be used to make electrical conductivity and
coating thickness measurements. Here a small surface probe is
scanned over the part surface in a attempt to detect a crack

Power Plant Inspection


Periodically, power plants are
shutdown for inspection.
Inspectors feed eddy current
probes into heat exchanger tubes
to check for corrosion damage.

Pipe with damage

Prob
e

Signals produced
by various
amounts of
corrosion thinning.

Ultrasonic Inspection (PulseEcho)


High
frequency sound waves are introduced into a material
and they are reflected back from surfaces or flaws.
Reflected sound energy is displayed versus time, and
inspector can visualize a cross section of the specimen
showing the depth of features that reflect sound.

initial
pulse

crack
echo

back surface
echo

crack
0

Oscilloscope, or
flaw detector

10

plate

Hydrostatic Test
Every

pressurised equipment must be subjected to


hydrostatic test and witnessed by DOSH Inspector

Review the manufacturing data report


Carry out the measurement of the pressurised
equipment and must be in accordance with the
approved drawing

Hard stamp on flange and issue JKJ 127 if the


test is successful

Why Hydrostatic Test


To check the structure integrity of the
vessel
To check against brittle fracture
To check for leak, and
To obtain a more favourable strees
distribution in a high localised stress
region.

Hazard on Hydrostatic Test

Leak/Soap Test

Pemeriksaan kebocoran
dengan menggunakan
buih sabun untuk tangki
gas
Perkeliling Ketua Pengarah Bil 1 Tahun
2000

Leak Test

Aboveground LPG
Tank Installation

vaporiser

Oil separator

Piping and

HOSTING MACHINE

Definition
Hoisting Machine
any equipment for lifting, raising or lowering
load such as a lift, escalator, hoist, crane,
winch, dragline, piling machine, aerial
cableway, funicular railway, access platform,
dumbwaiter, vertical conveyor lifter and
mechanical loading ramp, and includes
transporter, walkalator and other similar
equipment, but does not include manual hoist
and materials handling equipment

Main crane types

Main crane types

Main crane types

Kereta Kabel

Kren Kembara
Atas (OTC)

Kren Derik

PENGENDALIAN MESIN PERLU ORANG YANG


TERLATIH

OPERATOR KREN
(Bergerak dan Menara)
ORANG KOMPETEN LIF

FMA Bahagian III : Orang yang bertanggungjawab/ menerima


latihan yang mencukupi. (Peraturan 26)

TOWER CRANE

Features of OTC

Page 139

Gantry Crane
Control box

Girder
SWL
Crab Rail

Hook block
Hook

Hoist Drum

TYPES OF CRANES

Safety Feature

Structure Inspection

Pendant & Remote Controls

Ensure that all controls are clearly marked


for their intended functions

Securing the hoist rope


to the drum
There must be a minimum of 2 wraps of wire on the drum
when ever the hook block is at its lowest point

ANTI COLLISION

Flashing lights/Audible alarms

Wire Rope Inspection


Electromagnetic devices and
visual inspections are used to
find broken wires and other
damage to the wire rope that
is used in cranes and other
lifting devices.

Wire Rope Construction

Wire Rope Construction

Cth : Langs lay FSWR


- biasanya digunakan untuk luffing
- bukan untuk mengangkat
Lebih flaksibel dan kukuh berbanding
kaedah pembentangan biasa.
Digunakan untuk excavator , dragline
pile driving rope

Wire Rope Construction

Page 152

KEROSAKAN WIRE ROPE : KINK


Bagaimanakah ianya
terjadi?

Fatigue

Bending fatigue breaks on ropes


made out of compacted outer strands.
The distribution of bending fatigue
wire breaks is typically random.

Fatigue

Heavily worn wire rope with a few


fatigue breaks. The wire ends are
displaced in different directions
because of rope twist.

Fatigue

This six-strand rope displays almost


no wear but a great number
of fatigue breaks.

Birdcage damage

Bagaimana cara yang betul untuk


mengukur diameter ??..

Diameter
berkurang kepada
85 % atau lebih

Wire rope yang rosak


Broken Strands

Crushed Rope

Wire rope yang rosak perlulah dikeluarkan untuk


diservis/ diganti
159

Wire Rope Defect


Three

randomly distributed broken


wires in one strand, in one rope lay.

Page 160

Wire Rope Defect


Corrosion

Page 161

of the rope or end attachments.

Fakta menarik

Lebih 90 % kes
melibatkan kemalangan
barang angkatan jatuh
dari overhead crane telah
dilaporkan adalah akibat
kegagalan pada
wirerope.

Sumber : Dave Hermanowski,


Manager of technical training for Harnischfeger Institute, US

Amalan yang baik mengendalikan


wire rope

SALAH

BETUL

Amalan yang baik mengendalikan


wire rope

Lifting hook
The lifting hook must be stamped or
marked with the SWL
Is is an offence to ride on the lift hook
Only approved lifting cages are allowed to
be use when lifting people

Hook Requirement

Provided with safety latch

Hook opening

Hook twisting

No cracks

Page 166

Hook
Opening

Twisting

Hook Requirement

Sheaves

The grooves must be smooth and free from surface


defects which could cause rope damage

Three Types of Slings


1.

Chain Slings

2.

Wire Rope Slings

3.

Synthetic Web Slings

Identification Tag

Sling Load Capacity and Sling


Angles
The load capacity of the sling is
determined by its weakest
component.

Never overload a sling.


Remember, the wider the sling legs are
spread apart, the less the sling can
lift!
1000 lbs Lift Capacity

707 lbs Lift Capacity

500 lbs Lift Capacity

Synthetic Slings
Sling capacity varies from manufacturer to
manufacturer, no set standard like wire rope has.
User must look at Individual Sling Capacity Tag to
determine Safe Lifting Capacity of that sling.
If the Tag is not readable or is missing,
Do not use it!

Inspect sling before each days use, and as often as


necessary during the day to assure safety of sling!
Sharp edges can slice a sling in two without warning
as the load is tensioned. Use softeners or padding
on corners.

Synthetic Slings

Jangan digunakan jika terdapat


Kesan kerosakan :
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

Asid
Terbakar
Terpotong
Terputus dari regangan
Geseran berlebihan
Kesan kelaran
Kesan tertebuk
Regangan berlebihan/ carik
Kehilangan tag/ pudar

Chain Slings

Hi Tensile Chain Slings

Chain Grade Identification

Chains are marked on a link at intervals


The word grade means the strength of
chain
If there are no marks or stamping, the
chain should be considered to be mild steel
grade L

Chain Slings
Only Grade 8 or better ALLOY Chain can be used for
overhead lifting purposes! All chain is not rated the same!
Chain must have a capacity tag attached to it.
Chains will withstand more rough handling and abuse, but a
chain with the same rated lifting capacity of wire rope will be
much larger in diameter and heavier in weight.
Chains must be inspected daily before use and as often as
necessary during use to assure safety.
It is the riggers responsibility to do the inspections!

Chain Sling Inspection Items

Cracks, stretches, severe nicks, gouges, welding


splattered or deformed master links, coupling
links, chains or other components.

One leg of a double or triple chain sling is longer


than the others.

Hooks have been opened more than 25% of the


normal throat opening measured at the narrowest
point or twisted more than 10 degrees from the
plane of the unbent hook.

Chain size at any point of any link is less than


stated in the chart on the next slide, the sling
shall be removed.

Chain Slings
Only chain slings purchased from
the manufacturer are allowed.

No homemade slings allowed!!

Wire Rope Sling Capacities

Wire Rope Sling Choker


Adjustments

Types of Wire Wire Rope Slings

Wire Rope Sling Inspection Items

Three randomly distributed broken wires in


one strand, in one rope lay.

Wear or scraping of 1/3 the original diameter


of outside individual wires.

Kinking, crushing or any damage resulting in


distortion of the wire rope.

End attachments that are cracked, worn or


deformed.

Corrosion of the rope or end attachments.

Rigging Equipment Slings


Types of slings include alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural or
synthetic fiber rope, and synthetic web.

Chain

185

Wire rope

Metal mesh

Synthetic

Wire Rope Socket

Page 186

Wire Rope Clip

Page 187

Safe Usage Practices

Slings should be stored off of


the floor and hung on racks
whenever possible in a clean,
dry environment.

Never drag slings across the


floor.

Always hook with a closed


hook arrangement (hooks
facing out).

Spreader Bar

Spreader bars are used when our slings


go outside120 (angle)

Spreader Bar

Storage

Store undercover on suitable racks or on hanging


pegs
Clean, inspect and lubricate

Shackles
There are two main types of shackle
Dee and Bow
Never use a shackle or pin which is bent
Never allow a shackle to be pulled at an
angle

Eyebolts

Minimum size for:


Rope hand held as a tag-line on loads is 16mm.
Load restrains 12mm

Common Hooks and Shorteners

Plate Clamp
Plate Clamps are used to lift steel plate.
They should be used at all times when
lifting plate steel.
Before using the clamp always read the
Operators Manual supplied with the
clamp. Do not UNDERLOAD the lifting
clamp.
The minimum working load must be at
least 10% of the W.L.L;

Plate Clamp

Plate Clamp

Chain blocks and come along

NEVER use a hoist for


lifting, supporting or
transporting people

1926.550(a)(8) Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles,


drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating, or other
moving parts or equipment shall be guarded if such parts are
exposed to contact by employees.