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Reentry Drilling Gives New Life to Aging Fields

A recent burst of technical creativity has produced an abundance of new ways to revitalize old fields and
tap bypassed pockets of oil and gas. However, identifying the best solutions requires a team of experts
with a broad range of skills that cross the traditional boundaries of petroleum engineering disciplines.
David Hill
Eric Neme
Christine Ehlig-Economides
Sugar Land, Texas, USA
Miguel Mollinedo
OXY
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Over the last ten years, new technologies
and field strategies have converged,
enabling operators to give new life to old
wells. Now, reviving production from
declining fields has become a major activity for oil and gas companies, and one that
requires more support to identify the right
technical solutions. Optimizing well output
and economics are the key goals of these
production enhancement projects and service companies are actively participating
in achieving these goals.
This growing demand has pressed companies in the service sector to diversify their
skills and address a wider range of reservoir and production problems. It has also

For help in preparation of this article, thanks to Olivier


Fabvre, Anadrill, The Hague, The Netherlands; Dave
Bergt, Jaime Bernardini, Ike Nitis and Pearl Chu Leder,
Anadrill, Sugar Land, Texas, USA; Jon Elphick and Andy
Rike, Dowell, Sugar Land, Texas; and Chris Prusiecki,
Anadrill, Dallas, Texas.
DESC (Design and Evaluation Services for Clients),
NODAL (production system analysis), PowerPak (steerable motors), RAPID (Reentry and Production Improvement Drilling), Slim 1, VIPER and VISPLEX are marks of
Schlumberger. A-Z PackStock is a mark of Smith
Drilling & Completions.

stimulated a flurry of technical creativity.


For example, developments in the area of
reentry drilling alonecoiled tubing
drilling (CTD), slimhole measurementswhile-drilling (MWD) systems and new
completion technologies for multiple sidetrack boreholeshave produced a wealth
of options for maximizing return on investment (ROI). But which approach offers the
best solution; how should it be applied;
and in which wells?

To help operators address these questions,


service companies have reorganized to provide multiple integrated services.1 With this
broader outlook comes an extended range of
capabilities, including identifying underperforming wells and recommending cost-effective interventions to increase well productivity
and maximize net present value (NPV).2
With improved capabilities from new
drilling technologies, a growing number of
wells are candidates for reentry drilling

Oilfield Review

Anadrill

Producing Bypassed Oil

@@

By-passed zone

QQQQQQ
QQQQQQ

Sidetracking
Section milling
Window opening

Curve drilling
Medium radius
Short radius

Completion
Sand control
Zone isolation
Flow control
Gravel pack

Oil

Water

Completion
Connectivity
Isolation
Access
Liner hanger

Lateral drilling
Geosteering
Drill-in fluids
Underbalance

Short-radius
sidetrack

Depleted
zone

nImproving net present value of old


fields. Reentering wells and drilling horizontal laterals into bypassed zones can
tap new reserves from existing wellbores.

Optimizing Recovery

nReentry systems. RAPID services cover the key elements of reentry and multilateral
drilling, from pulling old completions to installing the new one and from drilling fluids
to wireline logging.
short- or medium-radius sidetracks and
multilaterals, drilled conventionally or with
coiled tubing. This year, in the USA alone,
more than 1500 reentry sidetracks will be
drilled. By 1999, the number is expected
to increase by 25%.3
Revisiting Existing Wellbores

Reentering wells to gain additional production is not new. Since the mid-1950s, oil
companies have reentered old wells and
drilled sidetracks to bypass formation damage or wellbore mechanical problems, and
also to exploit new zones, saving the
expense of drilling entirely new wells.4
Recent expansion of the reentry drilling market, however, owes much to improvements
in drilling and completion technology.
Reentry drilling provides a means to
reduce horizontal well costs. In addition to
boosting well productivity, reentry drilling
can also tap bypassed reserves (top right).
Multiple lateral sidetracks can fan out from
an existing wellbore for enhanced access
to reservoirs (middle right). And smaller
isolated pockets of oil and gas can be
tapped by extended-reach wells or multilaterals (bottom right). Typically, a horizontal well will triple or quadruple
productivity over a vertical well, and in
some cases, much larger productivity
improvementsup to 17-fold, or more

Autumn 1996

have been observed. Additionally, in zones


with underlying water, overlying gas, or
both, horizontal wells can significantly
increase recoverable reserves.5
Today, service companies use various
approaches to address the growing
demand for reentry drilling. Baker Hughes
INTEQ boosted its reentry drilling services
with support from sister company Baker
Oil Tools, and gained a reputation as a
reentry specialist in the Gulf of Mexico.
Within Schlumberger, RAPID Reentry And
Production Improvement Drilling teams
were created to address this fast-growing
drilling option. Service under the RAPID
umbrella draws on expertise in reservoir
engineering, drilling, directional drilling,
fluids engineering, petrophysics and completion engineeringthe indispensable elements required to plan, drill and complete
successful reentry laterals (above).
1. Chafcouloff S, Michel G, Trice M, Clark G, Cosad C
and Forbes K: Integrated Services, Oilfield Review
7, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 11-25.
2. Net present value is todays value of an asset
accounting for all future expenditures and income.
3. Data from Spears & Associates: Drilling and
Production Outlook, March 1996.
4. Maurer WC: Recent Advances in Horizontal
Drilling, The Journal of Canadian Petroleum
Technology 34, no. 9 (November 1995): 25-33.
5. Ehlig-Economides CA, Chan KS and Spath JB:
Production Enhancement Strategies for Strong
Bottom Water Drive Reservoirs, paper SPE 36613,
presented at the 1996 SPE Annual Technical
Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, USA,
October 6-9, 1996.

Lateral
sidetracks

nMultiple sidetracks for enhanced production. Additional drainholes (red) can


fan out from existing wellbores or horizontal trunks and improve reservoir drainage.
Tapping Remote Structures

Subsea

Extended reach
multilaterals

Multilaterals

nMaking small fields economical. Innovative drilling techniques can improve


asset value by tapping small pockets of
oil. Using the latest downhole motor and
geosteering technology, wells extending
several kilometers from offshore platforms
can be drilled, eliminating the need for
additional structures. Multilateral wells
that branch out from a main wellbore can
access several areas of a field and eliminate the need for new wells.
5

Well Path
Drainage
Volume
Characterization

Slanted well

Permeability (k), md
Thick and
homogeneous,
no gas cap or
aquifer

Shale

Vertical, k v
Poor kv

Horizontal well

Horizontal, k h
Good kv

Oil

kv kh 0.1
Shale

Thick and
homogeneous,
with gas cap
and/or aquifer

Shale
Gas
Oil
Water

Not recommended:
risk of premature gas
or water production

Closely spaced
parallel wells preferred

Layered

kv kh 0.1
preferred over vertical

Stacked parallel wells,


with branch flow
conformance

Laminated

Intersect as many
layers as possible

Not recommended:
risk of disappointing
productivity or
recovery due to low
vertical permeability

Naturally fractured

Intersect vertical and


horizontal fractures

Horizontal well normal


to fractures preferred

Naturally fractured
under waterflood

Closely spaced
short parallel
wells normal to
fractures

Water injection wells

Structural compartment

One well in multiple


compartments

Drain each with one


or more wells

Stratigraphic compartment

One well in multiple


compartments

Drain each with one


or more wells

Elongated compartment
(plan view)

Multiple well paths


slanting from single
main trunk

Single well traversing


multiple channels

Attic compartments

Single well traversing multiple beds

One well bed drilled


on strike preferred

nOptimizing production. Reservoirs can be classified by drainage


volume (left). For each reservoir more than one well typevertical,
OILFIELD
REVIEW
hydraulically fractured
vertical, slanted,
horizontal, hydraulically
fractured horizontal, AUTUMN
and multiple 96
or stacked lateralsmay be
effective. Depending on permeability and reservoir characteristics,
slanted and horizontal reentry drilling are two methods for improving production and recovery (center and right).
6

nA skilled team of experts. Members of the initial RAPID team,


based in Sugar Land, Texas, (front row, left to right) directional
drilling engineer, Ike Nitis; team leader, with drilling experience, Eric Neme; completion and drilling engineer, Mark
Stracke; reservoir engineer, Christine Economides, (back row)
multilateral completions engineer, Herve Ohmer and fluids
engineer, David Anderson.
The RAPID service was established in 1995
by a business development team in Sugar
Land, Texas, USA (above). The lessons learned
and the organizational support structure that
has developed are now being duplicated in
locations worldwide, tapping key specialized
skills within all six Schlumberger Oilfield
Services companies. In microcosm, the functions of the RAPID group reflect the state of the
art in reentry drilling services today.
In some wells, production enhancement
is best achieved without drilling. To
address this need, a targeted effort on production enhancement was also initiated by
Schlumberger. The front line of this effort is
led by an integrated, cross-product-line
team of engineers engaged in identification
of candidate wells. This Production
Enhancement Group, or PEG, is chiefly
responsible for candidate recognition and

Oilfield Review

Water Coning

nWater coning during production and


breakthrough if perforations are too close
to the oil-water contact. Reducing production rate decreases drawdown pressure
and mitigates coning.
Water Cresting

nEffectively producing from horizontal


laterals. Drawdown pressure in a horizontal lateral is lower than in a vertical wellbore for similar production rates.
solution design. 6 PEG engineers perform
technical and economic analysis of problem wells and fields, and then design, with
the support of appropriate experts, such as
RAPID teams in the case of reentry drilling,
the optimal solution. Depending on the
production problems encountered, solutions may include new well logs, reevaluation of existing logs, drilling new or reentry
wells, reperforating, well stimulation treatments or other workover techniques.7 The
goal is to provide the best-in-class service
for every production problem.

Autumn 1996

Candidates for Reentry Drilling

Fracturing, reperforating, removing damage


with acid, and recompletion are all widely
used methods to increase production in
existing wells, thereby improving the NPV of
old fields. Now, reentry drilling is generating
high interest for its potential to improve
recovery from damaged or depleted zones,
and tap new zones at lower cost.
So when should reentry drilling be used?
Many times, traditional techniques may
have already been tried unsuccessfully or
may not be advisable. In older wells, reentry drilling is the best option when there is
an identifiable reason for a slanted or horizontal well path ( p revious page, left).
Reentry drilling from an existing wellbore
is less expensive than a new well. And it
has the advantage that borehole trajectory
through the production zone is near the
original wellbore where more is known
about the reservoir from cores, logs, test
measurements and production history.
When the existing wellbore passes
through or near a gas cap or underlying
aquifer, excess gas or water production usually develops. In the absence of a gas cap, a
traditional strategy to delay bottom water
breakthrough is to perforate near the top of
the productive interval. However, the pressure gradient due to radial flow toward the
well is often sufficient to draw water
upward in the shape of a cone (above left).
Once water reaches the deepest perforations, it may be preferentially produced
because of higher mobility.
Even in the absence of a higher mobility
contact, the strong bottom waterdrive can
cause excess water production.8 Because
horizontal wells drilled near the top of an
oil zone and above the oil-water contact
produce a linear pressure gradient normal
to the well path, bottom water will rise in
the shape of a crest instead of a cone (left).
The advancing crest-shaped water front
displaces more oil than a cone-shaped
advance, which leads to greater recovery
by virtue of flow geometry.
In formations where sand control is
required, reentry laterals may avoid the
need for expensive gravel-packed completions to improve production rates while
minimizing sanding problems. Compared
to vertical wells, horizontal wells allow the

same or higher production rates at greatly


reduced drawdown pressures.
Another reason for reentry drilling is to
gain better access to layered reservoirs. If
individual pay zones are
thick enough to be targeted by horizontal wells,
multiple stacked reentry laterals are a
highly effective strategy. To balance productivitybarrels per day per unit of pressure dropfrom reentry laterals, each
drainhole can be drilled to an appropriate
length inversely proportional to the flow
capacity of that particular layer.
At less cost than stacked horizontal laterals, a slanted borehole boosts productivity
of layered formations. By
designing wellbore trajectory with more drilled length in lessproductive layers, some conformance
controlbalanced productivity from individual zonescan be achieved. However,
if early water breakthrough occurs in a
high-productivity layer, the relative ease of
shutting off production from one of the
stacked laterals compared to shutting off
production from a mid-length section of a
slanted well may, in the long run, favor
using a stacked lateral strategy.
A slanted well can produce a marginal
increase in productivity over a vertical well
in laminated formations
where beds are too thin
for horizontal drilling. Often hydrocarbon
zones are missed or not produced in original completions. Such intervals can be
reperforated and a hydraulic fracture may
significantly improve productivity. However,
when the interval is thin, reentry drilling of a
horizontal lateral will outperform a
hydraulic fracture.
6. A production enhancement article will appear in a
forthcoming issue of Oilfield Review. Also see the discussion of the DESC Design and Evaluation Services
for Clients program: Baltz J, Bumgardner S, Hatlen J,
Swartzlander H, Basham P, Blessen A, Sarrafian F,
Schneider M, Clayton D, Frank T, Gordon D, Taylor B,
Kniffin M, Mueller F, Newlands D and White DJ:
The DESC Engineer Redefines Work, Oilfield
Review 7, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 40-50.
7. Ehlig-Economides CA, Mowat GR and Corbett C:
Techniques for Multibranch Well Trajectory design
in the Context of a Three-Dimensional Reservoir
Model, paper SPE 35505, presented at the
SPE/Norwegian Petroleum Society 3-D Reservoir
Modeling Conference, Stavanger, Norway, April
16-17, 1996.
8. Mobility is the ratio of permeability to viscosity.
Low-gravity crude oils have high enough viscosity
and hence, lower mobility than formation water.

In some reservoirs, stratigraphic compartmentalization due to depositional processes


may account for bypassed
hydrocarbons both vertically and horizontally.
Facies with considerable
contrasts in flow characteristics may serve as barriers or conduits. In some cases, reservoir
sands may be too thin to be individually
identified in a seismic section, but have sufficient areal extent to be visible in seismic
amplitude maps for a given structural horizon. In such cases, horizontal wells may be
an ideal strategy for producing thin formations and for extended reach into remote
hydrocarbon sands.
A major application of horizontal wells
has been in naturally fractured formations
like the Austin Chalk in
south Texas. When horizontal wells are drilled normal (perpendicular) to natural fracture planes, they provide
an excellent plumbing system for enhancing production. Locating natural fractures
and determining their orientation are crucial to getting the best well design in these
formations. A horizontal well normal to
natural fractures usually provides better
productivity than a vertical well stimulated
by hydraulic fracturing. Although natural
fractures are usually vertical, shallower
reservoirs and overpressured zones may
have horizontal fractures open to flow. In
these formations, vertical and slanted wells
are reasonable choices. However, in overpressured deep formations, it may be advisable to prop the natural fractures open to
avoid loss of productivity as production
proceeds and pore pressure declines.
Elongated reservoirs can be the result of
fluvial deposition or significant faulting.
Both environments are
natural candidates for
horizontal drilling. In
either case, there are
apparent drilling strategies, depending on the objective for the
well. For example, wellbores can be maintained in an elongated reservoir body, or
directionally drilled to encounter as many

Candidate Recognition Analysis


Field
Net thickness, m
True vertical depth, m
Permeability, md
Vertical permeability
Pressure, psi
Initial pressure, psi
Vertical skin

A
14
2400
3
good in
upper
4000
4335
5

B
37
2400
3
average

C
19
2800
1.5
good

D
6
2800
5
poor

E
8
2500
4
poor

F
9
2400
6
poor

3000
3703
12

3800
4262
10

4000
4144
5

3689
3792
5

3615
3615
5

Vertical well (damaged)


Vertical well, skin = 1
Vertical well after fracturing
Horizontal well, forecast

24
41
70
156

Production rate, m3/d


22
23
63
56
94
86
95
169

38
59
98
242

37
58
97
236

69
99
156
323

Horizontal/damaged vertical
Horizontal/vertical, skin = 1
Horizontal/fractured vertical
Payback (days)

6.5
3.8
2.2
20

Production ratios
4.3
7.3
1.5
3.0
1.0
2.0
33
18

6.4
4.1
2.5
13

6.4
4.1
2.4
13

4.7
3.3
2.1
10

nCandidate recognition in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Field data (top) are used to
calculate production rates (middle) for various well scenarios, including vertical well
with original damaged skin, vertical well with skin reduced to unity, vertical well after
fracturing and reentry horizontal well with a skin of unity. Only horizontal wells with
predicted production improvement that was greater than two times the fractured vertical well case were considered as lateral reentry candidates. These wells would have
the fastest payout time.
different reservoir bodies as possible. The
latter case implies drilling in a direction
normal to the elongation, which, for a fluvial reservoir, means drilling perpendicular
to the downhill direction at the time of
deposition. Another approach might be
multibranch wells, designed to target channels identified with borehole seismic measurements in the horizontal trunk well.
Another application for horizontal drilling
deals with a special structural geometry
called attic compartments.
In these cases, steeply dipping beds may be in contact with an up-dip gas cap or down-dip
aquifer. One strategy is to drill a horizontal
well that passes through several beds, but
stays sufficiently below up-dip gas or above
down-dip water. Although this would seem
to be an efficient approach, it suffers distinct
disadvantages. Flow is commingled among
layers, and gas or water breakthrough will
interfere with production from other layers.
A better strategy might be to drill multiple
horizontal wells, each on strike and staying
in a given bed. The advantage of this
approach is that each well maintains an
optimal distance from gas-oil or oil-water
contacts, thus delaying multiphase produc-

tion as long as possible. Each well can also


be drilled to the optimal productive length
within the formation.
Reentry Candidate Recognition in Action

The Western Siberian region in the Former


Soviet Union contains reservoirs that have
been produced for 10 to 50 years using
conventional vertical wells. Often a simple
workover, such as reperforating, acid stimulation or hydraulic fracture treatment, significantly improves production. But in
some cases, a better solution is to reenter
existing wells and drill a horizontal lateral.
In September 1995, the RAPID team was
approached to assist in choosing the best
option for layered reservoirs with thick oil
columns, where, typically, vertical wells
penetrate the entire productive thickness.
Reservoirs are then progressively drained
from the bottom up, plugging back and
abandoning depleted zones over time.
Production from vertically isolated zones is
never commingled in any well.

Oilfield Review

9. VISPLEX mud (containing a mixed-metal hydroxide) is


a high shear-thinning (thixotropic) drilling fluid, primarily used for milling windows in casing, which is
also used as a drilling and a drill-in fluid. The mudcake produced is easily removed from the formation.

Evaluating Productivity Improvement

7500

Bottomhole flow flowing pressure, psi

To accommodate this request, a questionnaire was designed to collect data from


several reservoirs. Six wells were selected
that appeared to be particularly promising.
For each of the six cases, productivity
improvement expected from a horizontal
lateral was calculated (see Evaluating
Productivity Improvement, right). Because
vertical wells had been drilled through the
entire productive oil column, shallow
zones were damaged during drilling as
mud weight was increased to reach total
depth. The sensitivity to skin damage was
investigated to compare production rate
improvements that could be achieved from
a vertical workover, hydraulic fracture and
horizontal lateral.
To evaluate the potential productivity
improvement from a horizontal well reentry, a lateral drainhole length of 750 ft
[229 m] was assumed for all cases. An ideal
target skin of unity in the lateral was
assumed for productivity comparisons (previous page). Only horizontal wells calculated to be twice as productive as
fracture-stimulated vertical wells were considered as candidates for lateral reentry.
The most favorable production enhancement plan called for medium-radius drilling
with VISPLEX drilling fluid, and completion
of the lateral section with a predrilled liner.9
Proof of the validity of this approach will
come from results of the drilling program,
scheduled to begin later this year.
An interesting application for reentry
drilling in difficult structures occurred in
north Texas, where, the operator, TRIO, was
drilling vertical wells through moundshaped reefs. The reefs are seen on 3D seismic surveys, but hydrocarbons have
migrated into traps, caused by dolomitization, which cannot be identified by seismic
surveys. Wells are usually drilled into the
center of the reefs, but this is somewhat of a
hit-or-miss proposition.

Two 300-ft
stacked laterals
6500

2400
ft
1200

Tubing head pressure = 1678 psi

ft
600 ft
300 ft

5500

Tubing head pressure= 300 psi


Single slanted
laterals

4500

3500

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

Liquid flow rate, B/D

nStacked laterals compared to slanted wellbores. A NODAL sensitivity analysis compares two stacked lateral

boreholes to various lengths of a single slanted wellbore path through two thick, clean sands in a Gulf of Mexico reservoir.

In the Gulf of Mexico, there are many clean sands

inflow performance relationship (IPR) to slanted

with high permeabilitiesoften in excess of 1000

or horizontal wellbore length. Because of fric-

mdbut completion designs must provide sand

tion-induced pressure drop in the small internal

control. A typical example illustrates the use of

flow diameter, the IPR curves converge for longer

reentry drilling under these conditions.

tunnel lengths, and there is little productivity

A previously drilled well path was deviated at

gain between drilling a 1200-ft [366-m] and a

about 35 through the productive sand and

2400-ft [732-m] hole. The red curve is the total

hydraulically fractured for stimulation and sand

productivity of two 300-ft [91-m] stacked laterals,

control. The post-treatment well test indicated a

one in each layer. Because of the shorter length,

high skin of 40 and a permeability of about 180 md.

and therefore less frictional resistance, the two

Because the reservoir contained two approximately

stacked short (300-ft) laterals should outperform

40-ft [12-m] thick, clean sands separated by a

one long (2400-ft) slanted well.

shale bed, the question was whether to design a


slanted reentry well or two stacked laterals.

This illustrates the impact of tubing diameter


on reentry laterals in high-permeability forma-

Since the design was for a reentry well, lateral

tions. Since drilling horizontal or slanted wells

diameter was limited to 6 in. [15 cm]. The lateral

increases production rates, frictional pressure

completion called for a prepacked screen and

drop in the tubing or lateral can limit production

gravel pack for sand control, leaving the internal

potential. In this case, another solution could be

flow diameter at just under 2 in. [5 cm]. A NODAL

to plan to produce the lateral or laterals at a

sensitivity study for this case shows two families

lower drawdown pressure. This solution could

of curves (above). The green curves show the

avoid the need for expensive sand control mea-

effect of lowering surface pressure on vertical

suresprepack screen or gravel pack. Net pre-

flow performance. The steep climb at high rates

sent value analysis, accounting for the costs of

suggests, to experienced reservoir engineers,

various options and coupled with production fore-

that larger tubing would allow higher flow rates.

casts for each design, can provide a way to select

However, the cost of replacing tubing was prohib-

the optimal solution.

itive. The blue curves show sensitivity of the

Autumn 1996

Well Performance Analysis


Tubing size, in.
Flow diameter, in.

2 7/8

3 1/2

4 1/2

5 1/2

2.441

2.992

3.958

5.012

6.276

tion rates (left). The implemented solution


cost 95% less than horizontal drilling with
coiled tubing and was immediately available for every producing well in the field.
Gas production from wells worked over
according to this recommendation doubled
from about 1 to 2 MMscf/D.

500
(installed in well)

Wellhead pressure, psig

400

Vertical well inflow


performance curve

Reentry Drilling Systems

300

200

Tubing uptake curves


100

0
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Gas rate, Mscf/D

nWell performance analysis. In RAPID reservoir analysis, selecting a production


improvement plan begins with well performance matching. In this example, the well
inflow performance relationship (IPR)wellhead pressure versus flow rateincludes
several tubing uptake curves. Flow rate can be significantly increased by changing to
larger diameter tubing.
After a dry-hole vertical well was drilled,
Anadrill was approached to plan a sidetrack
from the vertical well, building angle
quickly to laterally traverse the reef and
increase the chance of intersecting areas of
vugslarge spaces in the formationthat
hold oil. The well had been drilled with a
778-in. vertical hole through the reef, but
because of the small areal size of the structure, only a maximum 500-ft [152-m] horizontal displacement was available for a
lateral borehole. It is difficult to get a longor medium-radius sidetrack turned in such a
short distance and it is also a challenge to
kick off with a small-diameter drill bit inside
such a large open hole.
The proposed solution was unique. The
hole was plugged with cement to about
100 ft [30 m] above the planned kickoff
point (KOP). A smaller, 634-in. pilot hole
was drilled to the KOP with a 434-in. bottomhole assembly (BHA). Then a 612-in. bit
was placed on the BHA with a 434-in., 3bend motor. The smaller bit was used to
prevent damage to the cement pilot hole
while running in to the KOP with the bent
motor. The BHA drilled the curved section
at a rate of 27/100 ft and found hydrocar-

10

bons at about 62 inclination. The reentry


sidetrack turned a $230,000 vertical dry
hole into a well that produced 200 BOPD.
Sidetrack cost, including completion, was
about $140,000.
Another example comes from a major
oil company in Houston, Texas, that asked
the RAPID team for horizontal drilling
recommendations in the difficult conditions of a south Texas gas field. The reservoir was depleted to 300 psi [2070 kPa] at
a depth of 10,000 ft [3048 m]. Even
drilling with air would result in severe
overbalance conditions that could damage the reservoir. Although coiled tubing
drilling was the only practical drilling
technique, anticipated production would
not justify the cost of this option.
The RAPID team examined well conditions and field performance, and discovered that the 15-year-old completion design
used in the 80 producing wells of this field
contained a flow restriction that limited
production rates. Well performance analysis indicated that reengineered completions
using larger tubing would double produc-

When reentry drilling is the optimal solution, one of the first decisions is to choose
between conventional and coiled tubing
drilling (CTD). Through-tubing reentry and
underbalanced CTD is an economical solution for drilling and workover operations on
rigless platforms. Underbalanced drilling
minimizes formation damage and increases
drilling penetration rates.
The majority of older wells will be reentered by conventional drilling with longradiusgreater than 500-ft [152-m]or
medium-radius200- to 500-ft [61- to
153-m]sidetracks. However, there is a
major trend toward reentry drilling with
short-radius40- to 100-ft [12- to 30-m]
drilling. 10 Short-radius sidetracks require
articulated drilling systems, which are highly
effective in competent formations that can
be completed without liners or other completion hardware. Short-radius drilling techniques, whether by conventional means or
with coiled tubing, allow drillers to turn well
trajectories in a much shorter distance than
was previously possible. This allows kicking
off below well hardware, if required, or
drilling a curve and lateral section completely within a reservoir to avoid problems
with overlying formations.
Multilateral drilling, an increasingly popular drilling strategy in new wells, uses multiple horizontal sidetracks from a primary
trunk in a parent well. This technique can
make small fields economical and reduce
the number of wells needed to drain a reservoir. Fewer wellheads significantly reduce
the cost of subsea completions and tie-back
operations. The multilateral geometry can be
simple opposing laterals in the same horizontal formation for better penetration, or
stacked laterals to gain access, in multilayered reservoirs for example, to formations at
different depths. A multilateral pattern can
be used in the same horizon to drain larger

Oilfield Review

reservoir areas through parallel laterals or as


angled laterals in a fan-shaped pattern.
Reentry Well Engineering

Preparing a well for reentry drilling can


involve a range of services from supplying
the workover rig, pulling the old completion and cement squeezing old perforations
to fishing debris from wells and cased-hole
logging for corrosion and formation evaluation. Depending on well design and conditions, there are several possible reentry
scenarios ranging from kicking off in open
hole or cased-hole sidetracks using a whipstock to cut a window through the side of
the casingwindow millingto cutting a
complete section out of the casing or
linersection milling.11
To provide efficient section milling
and window opening capabilities,
Schlumberger formed an alliance with
Smith Drilling & Completions. This partnership allows the RAPID group to provide
worldwide sidetracking services, including
permanent and retrievable whipstocks, and

Autumn 1996

yy
yy
yy
y
yy
yy
yyyy

milling systems.12 Complete engineering


and technical support come from Smith
specialists, but crosstraining allows Anadrill
drillers to run Smith equipment.
Sidetracking out of casing begins with a
gyro survey of the existing hole to precisely
determine location of the casing. A correlation log pinpoints the target formation.
Using these data, kickoff depth and position
of the milled section are chosen. A cementbond log shows whether there is good
cement behind the proposed milled section.
If not, an underreamer is run between
milling and plug-setting operations to clean
up bad cement and enlarge the borehole.13
For section milling, about 60 ft [18 m] of
casing is milled if the kickoff is to be steered
magnetically out of a vertical well (above).
The milled length of casing can be reduced
if a gyro is used to steer the BHA. A competent cement plug is then set across the
milled section. To avoid magnetic interference, the plug is dressed with a bit to the
kickoff point 20 ft [6 m] from the lower casing stub. The disadvantages of section milling
are that it requires a secure cement plug for
proper sidetracking, and there is a risk of not

nSection milling. A specialized bottomhole


assembly cuts through the casing and into
the cement at a chosen depth (A). Cutter
blades extend from the tool when needed
and retract for tripping. Length of the
milled section depends on several factorsnominal ID and casing coupling
diameter, bit diameter, and bent housing
motor angle (B). After milling (C), cement
is placed across the open interval and
new hole is drilled by kicking off of this
plug (D). When milling is complete, the
lower section of the original well is permanently isolated from the sidetrack (E).

10. Maurer, reference 4.


11. Ehlig-Economides C: Improving Production Using
Re-Entry Drilling Techniques, Petroleum Engineer
International 68, no. 9 (September 1996): 32-33.
12. Bell S: Milling Applications Demonstrate
Versatility, Petroleum Engineer International 66,
no. 3, Supplement (March 1994): 12-15.
13. Hill D, Askew W, Tracy P and Koval V: A
Predictable and Efficient Short Radius Drilling
System, paper IADC/SPE 35049, presented at the
1996 IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, New Orleans,
Louisiana, USA, March 12-15, 1996.

11

@y@y@@
yy
@@

@
yy@y

nWindow milling. Operations to


cut an opening out of the casing
begin by running and orienting a
retrievable whipstock, which is
used to guide mills in the lateral
direction (A). After the whipstock
anchor is set, the attaching pin is
sheared and a starter mill initiates the window cut a few inches
into the casing (B). The window
mill does the bulk of the milling,
and is run together with string, or
watermelon, mills that open up
and smooth out the new opening
through the casing wall (C). Once
milling is completed, lateral
drilling can start (D). The whipstock is used to guide BHAs and
completion equipment into the
lateral sidetrack (E). After the lateral is completed, the whipstock
can be removed to allow access
to lower formations (F and G).

12

Oilfield Review

Plan View

Vertical Profile
5000

True vertical depth, ft

0 ft
5100

5200

Lease
line

Top of sand
Actual wellbore profile

467-ft drilling limit


5300

Bottom of sand

1000 ft

5400
-50

300

500

1000

1500

1750

Lateral section displacement, ft

nShort-radius drilling in Texas. Frequently the challenge is to drill a short-radius reentry


lateral into a small target zone and remain within the hydrocarbon pay while avoiding
lease boundaries. In this well, lease restrictions and state regulations defined a narrow
116-ft [35-m] target for the first 700 ft [213 m] followed by a turn to the left (right). The
target was entered with a 77-ft [23-m] radius and a whipstock set at 5159 ft [1572 m].
Drilling continued horizontally with the same BHA. Ability to rotate the Anadrill shortradius drilling system resulted in excellent directional control along the horizontal lateral. In addition to avoiding lease boundaries, the wellbore was maintained within the
pay zone for most of its 1600-ft [488-m] length (above).

being able to reenter the lower casing stub


after drilling the lateral. Drilling penetration
rates are often limited by the ability to clean
cuttings from the well, and once the wellbore turns horizontal, cuttings removal is
even more difficult. Modern milling tools are
designed to create small, nonclogging cuttings that are easily removed from the well.
Polymer muds are more effective for milling
than clay-base muds. Oil-base muds are not
recommended for milling operations.14
An alternative to section milling is to cut a
window in the casing. This requires setting
an oriented whipstock and milling an opening in the casing (previous page). After the
whipstock is set in position, the bolt connecting the starter mill to the whipstock is
sheared. Then rotation is started and carbide tips on the nose of the starter mill cut
into the casing wall. In the next stage, a
window is cut into the casing using a window-milling bit, which is forced into the
casing and the formation by the angle on
the whipstock face. The window is
enlarged or polished using the window
mill and one or more watermelon mills run
directly below the drill collars.
Section milling offers several advantages
over window milling. It can eliminate the
need for gyroscopic orientation, moves the
kickoff depth closer to the target for a given
curve radius and requires only one milling

Autumn 1996

operation. Window milling, on the other


hand, uses a whipstock that provides a
positive sidetracking mechanism, but
requires several gyro runs to orient both
the whipstock and drilling assembly.
Cutting a window also requires multiple
milling operations and a shallower kickoff
depth due to the rathole needed for the
subsequent drilling assemblies.
Whichever system is used, once entry to
the formation is gained, there are more
choices to be made. Besides standard
medium-radius drilling, several recently
introduced options for reentry drilling systems can make well reentries more costeffective. 15 Short-radius drilling, coiled
tubing drilling, and multilaterals are each
candidates for thorough cost-benefit
analysis (right).

1600 ft

Actual wellbore path


0 ft

500 ft

800 ft

nA roadmap for the driller. Before reentry


drilling begins, a detailed plan is
designed. At the Schlumberger Sugar
Land District in Texas, Catherine Ortiz,
a Drilling Planning Center engineer,
reviews a trilateral plan with Steve
Thurston, a well planning engineer,
before her crew leaves for a job scheduled to start within 24 hours.

Short-Radius Systems

Short-radius wells are drilled to avoid traversing problem formations that would otherwise require a liner to isolate, or because
wells must be kicked off below hardware,
such as an external casing shoe.16 In some
formations, the kickoff and lateral can be
kept entirely in the pay zone, avoiding
shale beds and reducing the risk of stuck
pipe (above).

14. Tips for a Successful Re-Entry, Petroleum Engineer


International 66, no. 3, Supplement (March 1994):
8-9.
15. Ehlig-Economides et al, reference 5.
16. Leazer C and Marquez MR: Short-Radius Drilling
Expands Horizontal Well Applications, Petroleum
Engineer International 67, no. 4 (April 1995): 21,
23-24, 26.

13

Venezuela

Atlantic Ocean

Peninsula
de Guajira

Peninsula de
Paraguana

Cerrejon
Gulf of Venezuela
La Vela
de Coro

Guasare

El Mamon
Las Palmas/Tiguje
Monte Clar

A R G E N T I N A

Pacific Ocean

Bolivar fields
Alturitas
Boca
Escalante

San Lorenzo
Poco

Lake
Maracaibo

Rosario

nLocation of the Alturitas field in Venezuela, South America.


The curved section is drilled with a specifically designed short-radius system. The
short-radius BHA consists of a drill bit, articulated motor, flexible nonmagnetic drill collar housing and MWD systems. Highstrength drillpipe is run immediately above
the BHA for easy passage through the curved
section. Drillstring in the vertical well section usually contains standard drillpipe.
The curvature of borehole drilled by a
conventionallong- or medium-radius
downhole motor is defined by three points
of contact between the BHA and borehole
wallgenerally the drill bit, the near-bit
stabilizer and the first stabilizer above the

The Anadrill short-radius drilling system


uses a 4-ft [1.2-m] rigid motor section with
a surface-adjustable standoff as the third
point of contact to control radius of curvature (below). This system maintains continuous contact with the borehole, allowing
predictable build rates and easy control of
the horizontal section. This also avoids the
need to prepare different motors for each
section of the well.17 Directional control is
monitored with a Slim 1 retrievable MWD
system that includes a gamma ray measurement for geological correlations. This MWD
tool was designed to communicate with the
surface through mud-pulse telemetry during
angle-build drilling to a 40-ft minimum
radius of curvature. The directional sensor
has been placed in the lowest position,
directly above the motor power section, for
enhanced trajectory control.18
One recent example of production
enhancement through short-radius drilling
took place in OXYs Alturitas field, 30 miles
[48 km] west of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela
(left). The target Marcelina reservoir lies
below a coal stringer that is difficult to drill
at any inclination other than vertical, which
made horizontal drilling uneconomical

motor. On a short-radius system, however,


the three points of contact have to be positioned below the motor knuckle joint.
Articulations are needed to allow the
motor to pass around sharp bends and
have no effect on angle build rate. They
also allow rotary drilling. Both roller cone
or polycrystalline diamond (PDC) bits can
be used at the operators discretion to handle different formation characteristics.

Fishing head

Mud pulser

Battery module
Gamma-ray detector

Upper
articulation

Direction and
inclination systems
Stinger

Power section
Lower
articulation
Rotor/stator

Adjustable standoff
1.5 Fixed bend
Rotating near-bit stabilizer

14

nShort-radius drilling system. The


Anadrill PowerPak XF short-radius drilling
system consists of an articulated BHA
with the Slim 1 slim and retrievable MWD
system. Build angle is controlled by a surface-adjustable standoff at the top of the
short rigid motor section behind the bit.

17. Hill et al, reference 13.


18. Hutchinson M: Innovative Short Radius Drilling
System Demonstrates Greater Flexibility and
Directional Control, Petroleum Engineer
International 68, no. 10, Supplement (October
1996): 14-15.

Oilfield Review

Coiled Tubing Systems

One of the newer technologies developed


for the reentry market is coiled tubing
drilling (right). This approach is attractive

Autumn 1996

Vertical Profile
10900
10920

True vertical depth, ft

until short-radius drilling technology


became available.
Alturitas 22 was producing 300 BOPD
[47 m3/d], so the objective was to increase
production by drilling a horizontal lateral
using the Anadrill short-radius drilling system. The plan was to set a retrievable whipstock in the 958-in. casing, mill a window,
drill the curve and lateral, and then place
the well on production. The retrievable
whipstock allows the original completion
to be reentered, if necessary, or more laterals to be added at a later date.
An A-Z PackStock was set at 10,895 ft
[3321 m] and a 20-ft [6-m] window,
including about 9 ft [3 m] of formation,
was milled using a gel mud to improve
removal of cuttings. Inclination at 10,915 ft
[3327 m] was 3. The mud system was
changed to oil-base and the BHA was
replaced with an Anadrill short-radius
drilling system. In another 84 ft [26 m] of
drilling, 90 inclination was achieved,
placing the lateral well within the target
depth of 10,988 to 11,003 ft [3349 to
3354 m] (above right).
Drilling continued horizontally through
the reservoir, which consisted of a series of
sandstone layers. The horizontal lateral was
allowed to angle upward from the lowermost layer, crossing all the sandstone members for about half the lateral length. The
wellbore was then steered downward
again, staying within the pay. Drilling was
stopped after the well path had descended
back through the entire sand sequencea
horizontal distance of 1933 ft [589 m]
from the kickoff point.
Success of this project can be measured
by current production and cost. The lateral
was left as an openhole completion flowing 2000 BOPD [318 m3/d]nearly a sevenfold rate increase over the production of
a typical vertical well in this field. The cost
of this workover was $3.2 million, compared to an original well cost of $2.4 million, a nominal increase in cost relative to
the improvement in production. OXY plans
to drill more wells of this type.

10940
1

10960

2
3

10980

4
5

11000
11020
11040
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

Lateral section displacement, ft

nAlturitas well profile. The drilling plan called for a short-radius lateral to the bottom of
the pay, then the lateral was allowed to angle upcutting through each sand layer
before turning back down, again cutting through each of the layers. Once the bottom
sand was reached, drilling stopped1933 ft [589 m] from the kickoff point. This lateral
produced a sevenfold improvement in production rate over the original vertical well.
VIPER Coiled Tubing Drilling System

VIPER BHA with PowerPak motor

B
Logging tool

Drilling head module


Coiled tubing
and wireline

Check
valves

Wet
connect

Pressure transducers,
and electronics

Electrical
disconnect

Telemetry
and power

Gamma-ray sensors
and electronics

Directional and inclination


sensors and electronics

C
Orienting tool
Motor, gear train
and bearing section

Motor/power
electronics

Steerable motor
Articulation

Nonmagnetic
power section

Surface-adjustable
bent housing

nCoiled tubing drilling system. The VIPER system consists of a wireline-powered BHA
that includes an instrument package for directional control as well as gamma ray,
temperature and pressure measurements, a PowerPak downhole motor, an orienting
tool that can rotate continuously and a circulating sub. Data and downhole commands
are transmitted via a cable that is pumped down inside the coiled tubing.
15

Anadrill

Shallow or
depleted reservoirs

Layered
reservoirs

Fractured
reservoirs

nMultilateral drilling for improving productivity. In depleted zones, a network of laterals increases the length of wellbore in contact with the reservoir (top lateral), which
also reduces adverse pressure drawdown effects. Several isolated layers can also be
tapped from the same wellbore (middle laterals). In a fractured reservoir, dual laterals
intersect twice as many fractures (bottom laterals).

True vertical depth, ft

5700

KOP
10/100 ft build

6100

Top of
Austin Chalk
Bentonite
Eagleford

6500

False Buda
Buda
Georgetown

6900

7300
0

800

1600

2400

3200

4000

4800

Lateral section displacement, ft

nTypical Austin Chalk quadrilateral openhole (barefoot) completion drilled for Union
Pacific Resources.

16

when drilling rig mobilization costs are


prohibitive. The most successful application of CTD is through-tubing reentry combined with underbalanced drilling. Coiled
tubing allows more precise control of low
downhole hydrostatic pressure. Not having
to pull production tubing and kill the well
makes this technology attractive.19
New coiled tubing directional BHAs provide improved directional control and efficiency. One such system, called VIPER
technology, is a wireline-powered BHA that
includes a downhole orienting tool for
directional control and MWD system for
directional measurements. Both are operated from surface via wireline-supplied
power and signals. Without the wireline,
signal transmission is impossible in underbalanced drilling environments where
foamed, aerated or nitrogenated mud is
used. The wireline system also increases
the data transmission rate by several orders
of magnitude over mud-pulse systems,
allowing surface control of sensors.
Another VIPER system benefit is improved
coiled tubing drilling efficiency. The electric motor in the orienting tool offers higher
torque, as well as accurate and uninterrupted directional control. Continuous
slow rotation of the motor drills a smoother
borehole profile, allowing longer-reach
drilling by reducing friction and dogleg
curves. The ability to continuously monitor
downhole pressure during drilling, tripping
and circulating ensures accurate maintenance of underbalanced conditions.
Multilateral Systems

Multilateral drilling places more than one


drainhole into one or more hydrocarbon
intervals (above left). Improved recovery and
reduced well construction costs, through
reuse of the parent borehole and surface
equipment, make multilaterals an attractive
option. The cost of preparing an existing well
is the same regardless of how many laterals
are drilled. Multilaterals, therefore, cost less
per lateral than single lateral wells.20 Slot
management is improved, and the expense of
drilling additional parent wellbores is eliminated.21 Additional reservoirs can be tapped
by drainholes that could not have been

Oilfield Review

Open Hole

Sidetracking and drilling


from Anadrill
Drill-in fluids from Dowell

drilled previously, and production rates per


wellhead can be much greater.
The most basic multilateral application is
openhole, or barefoot, completions in
competent carbonates like the south Texas
Austin Chalk ( p revious page, bottom).
Anadrill has drilled more than 50 such
wells to date. Lateral drainholes intersect
natural fractures, increasing production
from a single well. Inability to perform
workovers, however, is a drawback. These
are essentially throw-away wells with commingled flow and no chance of turning off
water production.
Completing Multilateral Wells

Cemented Liner

Packers, liners,
completion fluids
from Dowell
Tubing-conveyed
perforating from
Wireline & Testing

Prepacked Screen or Slotted Liner

External casing packers,


completion fluids,
Maraseal and screen
from Dowell
Packers from
Wireline & Testing

In general, three completion options are


available for reentry multilateral wells
(left). Wells can be left open as in the
Austin Chalk, cased and perforated, or
completed with some variation of a production screen.
Soft formations that produce from matrix
permeability require normal completions,
such as slotted liners and gravel packs in
each branch, connected mechanically to the
main wellbore trunk. This connection has to
be pressure-tight to maintain zone isolation.
Furthermore, when different reservoir types
are produced through the same multilateral
well, selective accessibility to each lateral
may be necessary throughout the life of the
well. Complete control of each drainhole is
essential to avoid jeopardizing production
of the entire multilateral system when one
drain is depleted or produces excessive
water or gas.
Today, most lateral connections are built
downhole and rely on good cement to provide a seal and isolation. Schlumberger is
developing hardware systems that allow
separate completions for each branch of
the well. These systems include surfacebuilt junctions that can extend into any
portion of the wellvertical or horizontaland each branch can be easily and
selectively accessed. With such systems,
there are no reductions in internal diame-

ter in the trunk, which allows lateral


branches to be drilled in any sequence,
and allows standard tubing and packer
completion strings to be run. An outlet port
will support a liner hanger and packer,
making it possible to run any type of standard completion in the lateral, and
enabling good sand control practices, isolation and flow control.
The Outlook

An explosion of new technologies coupled


with a collapsing of conventional boundaries between different oilfield services has
given operating companies the widest possible range of solutions to increase recovery
in aging fields. A comprehensive toolbox
for production optimization through reentry
drilling and completion can be provided by
groups like the RAPID team. The potential
value of these services is dramatic.
Thousands of wells have been drilled and
completed conventionally. Using reentry
techniques to increase production from just
a fraction of these wells will be equivalent
to discovering several giant new fields.
RCH, JMK, AM
19. For more information on coiled tubing drilling see:
Bigio D, Rike A, Christian A, Collins J, Hardman D,
Doremus D, Tracy P, Glass G, Joergensen NB, and
Stephens D: Coiled Tubing Takes Center Stage,
Oilfield Review 6, no. 4 (October 1994): 9-23.
20. For some examples showing some cost details of
reentry multilateral drilling: Hall D: Multi-Lateral
Horizontal Wells Optimizing a 5-Spot Waterflood,
presented at the SPE Permian Basin Oil & Gas
Recovery Conference, Midland, Texas, USA, March
27-29, 1996.
21. On offshore wells, a slot is a space that accommodates one wellhead in a template secured to the
ocean floor. A template has a limited number of
slots, which cannot be changed once the template
is installed. If one well waters out or is dry, that slot
is already used up. Reentry drilling, however, gives
new life to the slot because it allows bypassing
unproductive zones with a new drainhole.

nReentry completion options. Reentry laterals may be left as openhole completions


in competent formations like the south
Texas Austin Chalk (top). Alternatively,
laterals can be cased, cemented and perforated (middle). More complex completions, such as gravel-pack completions,
are also available (bottom).
Autumn 1996

17