0 Suka0 Tidak suka

4 tayangan16 halamandeney 7

Jun 05, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

DOCX, PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd

deney 7

© All Rights Reserved

4 tayangan

deney 7

© All Rights Reserved

- 85993_F0
- 1200 Buildings Program BMS Seminar 2
- rapbeh
- Modeling of Open Loop System and Study of Their Open Loop Response
- Feed Forward Controller
- Fox Boro
- Practical Process Control Textbook
- רקע תיאורטי מעבדה 1
- Example Chap1
- Control
- Manual Agy-ev Gb
- Elevator (1)
- 05_Electro – Hydraulic Controller
- IJERTV1IS5315
- AD353-118r2
- Exp 3
- Vilanova - Pid Tuning for Cascade Control System Design
- CAP eFlashcards Modulo III
- FT3WBK
- PIIID.txt

Anda di halaman 1dari 16

1 . Aim of the experiment

The objective of this lab is to design and implement a PID (Proportional-IntegralDerivative)

controller and to study the effect of integral and derivative control actions on the

system.And characteristics of positional control system , characteristics of servo

potentiometer and permanent magnet dc motor will be investigated.

2.Characteristic of PID Controller

The manipulated variable y of a P controller is proportional to the measured error e. From

this can be deducted that a P controller;

-reacts to any deviation without lag and

-only generates a manipulated variable in case of system deviation.

The dynamic behavior of the P controller after a step change in the error variable is

shown in Fig. The amplitude of the manipulated variable y is determined by the error e

and the proportional-action coefficient KP:

The term describes a linear equation whose gradient is determined by KP. clearly shows

that a high KP represents a strongly rising gradient, so that even small system deviations

can cause strong control actions.

corresponding manipulated variable acting in the opposite direction. Since P controllers

only generate a manipulated variable in case of system deviation (see definition by

equation), a permanent change, termed .steady-state error cannot be completely

balanced.

Note: Stronger control action due to a high KP results in smaller system deviations.

However, if KP values are too high, they increase the tendency of the control loop to

oscillate.

Steady-state error in control loops with P controllers x 0: adjusted operating point of the controller.

In the .ideal. control situation, i.e. with zero error, proportional-only controllers do not

generate control amplitudes . This amplitude is required, however, if the controlled

variable is to be kept at any level of equilibrium in a system with self-regulation. In order

to achieve this anyhow, P controllers require an option for adjusting the operating point.

This option is provided by adding a variable offset y0 to the manipulated variable of the

This way, any control amplitude y0 can be generated, even with zero error. In

mathematical terms, this measure corresponds to a parallel displacement of the

operating characteristic over the entire operating range.

Note: Selecting an operating point . y0 nonzero . only makes sense for systems with selfregulation. A system without self-regulation will only reach steady state when the

manipulated variable equals zero (example: motor-driven actuator).

-high KP reduces system deviation and increases the tendency to oscillate while the

steady-state error is simultaneously reduced.

-The system deviation decreases at high gain (high proportional action coefficient),

but also increases the risk of oscillation for the controlled variable.

-Fast response to changes in the control process due to immediate corrective action

when an error occurs.

-Very stable control process, provided that KP is properly selected.

P controllers exhibit the following disadvantages:

-Steady-state error when disturbances occur, since only system deviation causes a

change in the manipulated variable.

P controllers are suited to noncritical control applications which can tolerate steady-state

error in the event of disturbances: e.g. pressure, flow rate, level and temperature control.

P control action provides rapid response, although its dynamic properties can still be

improved through additional control components.

2.2 Characteristic of Integral (I) Controller

Integral control action is used to fully correct system deviations at any operating point. As

long as the error is nonzero, the integral action will cause the value of the manipulated

variable to change. Only when reference variable and controlled variable are equally

large . at the latest, though, when the manipulated variable reaches its system specific

limit value (Umax, pmax, etc.) . is the control process balanced. Mathematics expresses

integral action as follows: the value of the manipulated variable is changed proportional

to the integral of the error e.

How rapidly the manipulated variable increases/decreases depends on the error and the

integral time Tn (reciprocal of integral-action coefficient Ki). If the controller has a short

integral time, the control signal increases more rapidly as for controllers with long integral

time (small integral-action coefficient).

Note: The higher the integral action coefficient Ki, the greater the integral

action of an I controller, or it is the lower, the higher the integral time value Tn.

When comparing the dynamic behavior of a P and an I controller , it shows that the

manipulated variable y increases only slowly in I controllers, while it immediately reaches

its final control value with P controllers. Therefore, the response of integral-only

controllers to disturbances and step changes in the reference variable is only very

sluggish. If the integral time is adjusted to be so short that it causes a rapid increase in

the manipulated variable, oscillation will easily occur, making the control loop instable in

the end.

Note: Adjusting an operating point would not make any sense for I controllers, since the

integral action component would correct any set-point deviation. The change in the

manipulated variable until error has been eliminated is equivalent to an .automated.

operating point adjustment: the manipulated variable of the I controller at steady state

(e=0) remains at a value which would have to be entered for P controllers via the

operating point adjuster.

I controllers exhibit the following advantages:

-No error at steady state

I controllers exhibit the following disadvantages:

-Sluggish response at high Tn

-At small Tn, the control loop tends to oscillate/may become instable

2.3 Characteristic of Derivative (D) Control

D controllers generate the manipulated variable from the rate of change of the error and

not . as P controllers . from their amplitude. Therefore, they react much faster than P

controllers: even if the error is small, derivative controllers generate . by anticipation, so

to speak . large control amplitudes as soon as a change in amplitude occurs. A steadystate error signal, however, is not recognized by D controllers, because regardless of

how big the error, its rate of change is zero. Therefore, derivative-only controllers are

rarely used in practice. They are usually found in combination with other control

elements, mostly in combination with proportional control.

In PD controllers with proportional-plus-derivative control action, the manipulated variable

results from the addition of the individual P and D control elements:

The factor Tv is the rate time, KD is the derivative-action coefficient. Both variables are a

measure for the influence of the D component: high values mean strong control action.

As with the P controller, the summand y0 stands for the operating point adjustment, i.e.

the preselected value of the manipulated variable which is issued by the controller in

steady state when e = 0.

Elements of a PD controller

The course of the manipulated variable which can be seen in the step response

shows the influence of the D component : any change in the error signal results in a

short-term increase of the manipulated variable.

Due to parasitical lags, this pulse has only a finite rate of change. An indefinitely

short pulse, as required by the above equation, will not occur in practice.

Note: The influence of the D component increases proportional to the rate

time Tv or the derivative-action coefficient KD.

The control response shows that steady-state error occurs in PD controllers just as it

occurs in P controllers. Due to the immediate control action whenever there is a change

in the error signal, the control dynamics is higher than with P controllers. Despite the very

rapid changes in the controlled variable (set point reached after 23 s), the tendency of

the control loop to oscillate decreases. Due to this stabilizing effect of the D component,

a higher Kp value can be chosen than for proportional-only controllers which reduces

steady-state error.

PD controllers are employed in all applications where P controllers are not sufficient. This

usually applies to controlled systems with greater lags, in which stronger oscillation of the

controlled variable . caused by a high Kp value . must be prevented.

2.4 Proportional Plus Integral _ Plus Derivative Control Action

If a D component is added to PI controllers, the result is an extremely versatile PID

controller. As with PD controllers, the added D component . if properly tuned . causes the

controlled variable to reach its set point more quickly, thus reaching steady state more

rapidly.

increases the control action with any change in error. Thus, the manipulated variable y

results from the addition of the differently weighted P, I and D components and their

associated coefficients:

The control response of PID controllers is favorable in systems with large energy storing

components (higher-order controlled systems) that require control action as fast as

possible and without steady-state error.

Compared to the previously discussed controllers, the PID controller therefore exhibits

the most sophisticated control response in the reference system example. The controlled

variable reaches its set point rapidly, stabilizes within short, and oscillates only slightly

about the set point.

The three control parameters KP, Tn and TV provide an immense versatility in adjusting

the control response with respect to amplitude and control dynamics. It is therefore

especially important that the controller be designed and tuned with care as well as be

adapted to the system as good as possible.

Control loops with second- or higher-order systems that require rapid stabilization and do

not allow steady-state error.

NOTE: You should check the graphs which are above the comments.Because some

parts of the comments , explanations are made according to the graphs.

3.Experimental Setting for Proportional + Integral PI Control of a Permanent

Magnet DC Motor Position

3.1 Experimental Setting for Proportional Control of a Permanent Magnet DC Motor

Position

Table 7.1

Amplifier # 1 Gain = 1.0

Maximum Dial Reading (degrees)

Positive Negative

120

-135

Table 7.2

Control

Setting

Servo20

Potentiomete

r Dial

Reading

(deg.)

0V

50

80

115

155

0/36

0

-20 -55

10

-90

-130 -170

As the voltage increases the angle increases positively with respect to the positive side

and also negatively to the negative side.Minus and plus of degrees comes from rotating

direction so generally we can say that increasing voltage increases the angle in degree.

Table 7.3

Amplifier # 1

Gain

Dead band

(deg.)

10 x 1.0 = 10

10 x 0.5 = 5

10 x 0.1 = 1

5 (-10) = 15

20 (-10) = 30

80 (-70) = 150

Magnet DC Motor position

Amp. # 1 Gain = 1

When integrator time constant is 100ms it is moving continuously , then it is 1 sec. There

is small changes around its equilibrium point (zero degree) , if it is 10 sec. The changes

are more smaller.Here no overshoot.

The same thing is correct for also gain= 5 and gain = 10 but increasing the gain will

increase the overshoots.

3.4.Problems

1) All practical motors have friction, which has to be overcome to start the motor

from rest. Therefore a minimum input voltage has to be applied to the motor before

rotation starts is termed as dead-band. If the gain is high, the dead-band value is low, it

is advantageous, but the system may display unwanted oscillation in the response.

2) When the time constant is small then to observe the response is easier and it takes

small time.But when the time constant gets greater , time required to see the response

will be longer.

3) Increasing the gain will increase the overshoots. To correct the overshoots requires

time more than no overshoot.

And also it wont come to its exact position back. There will be error so output wont be

correct.

4) The initial reference signal is so large that the actuator saturates at the high limit. The

integral term increases initially because the error is positive; it reaches its largest value at

time t = 10 when the error goes through zero. The output remains saturated at this point

because of the large value of the integral term. It does not leave saturation until the error

has been negative for a sufficiently long time.

Notice that the control signal bounces between its limits several times. The net effect is

a large overshoot and a damped oscillation where the control signal ips from one

extreme to the other as in relay oscillations. The output nally comes so close to the

reference that the actuator does not saturate and the system then behaves linearly and

settles quickly.

5) It came its equilibrium position very fast,but overshoots are greater now.

Magnet DC Motor Position

Step input response : 80 degree

Step Input Response

Slowest

Amplifier # 1 Gain 10

No overshoot

Differential Time Constant 1s

Faster than 1s

Differential Time Constant 10ms

overshoot

Too fast and more

Differential Time Constant

overshoots

100ms

Step Input Response

Slowest & no

Amplifier # 1 Gain 1

overshoot

Differential Time Constant 1s

Faster than 1s

Differential Time Constant 10ms

& no overshoot

Too fast & no

Differential Time Constant 100ms

overshoot

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Position

Test

Integrat Differenti

or time

ator time

constant constant

Continu

ous

running

YES/NO

Response

time

Slow/Medium/

Fast

Number

of

oscillati

ons

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10s

1s

100s

1s

100ms

10ms

1s

100ms

10ms

1s

100ms

10ms

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

Slow

Medium

Fastest

Slow

Fast

Faster

Slow

Fast

Faster

0

3

21

0

4

15

0

3

7

5.1 Problems

For best it should be fast , no overshooting and no oscillation.If we check it test 8 looks

like the best then test 5 is good and also test 2 is ok, too.

The tests I choosed have the minimum differentiator time constant and integrator time

constant changes randomly not according to smaller to higher or higher to smaller.As a

result differentiator time constant is the main component for determining the best option

and it should be minimum then integrator time constant can change and it has effect on

the system after the differentiator time constant , too.

- 85993_F0Diunggah olehzlajavi
- 1200 Buildings Program BMS Seminar 2Diunggah olehHayanJanakat
- rapbehDiunggah olehTristan Sison
- Modeling of Open Loop System and Study of Their Open Loop ResponseDiunggah olehAyaz Masud Sezan
- Feed Forward ControllerDiunggah olehsant_
- Fox BoroDiunggah olehmirdza94
- Practical Process Control TextbookDiunggah olehAngelo Riguetti
- רקע תיאורטי מעבדה 1Diunggah olehRotem Ohana
- Example Chap1Diunggah olehGmichael Teklay
- ControlDiunggah olehSam
- Manual Agy-ev GbDiunggah olehstankovukanovic
- Elevator (1)Diunggah olehÇisem Filiz
- 05_Electro – Hydraulic ControllerDiunggah olehwildhoney1979
- IJERTV1IS5315Diunggah olehsatti849
- AD353-118r2Diunggah olehRodrigo Laucata
- Exp 3Diunggah olehHemavathy Rt
- Vilanova - Pid Tuning for Cascade Control System DesignDiunggah olehCarlos Bellatin
- CAP eFlashcards Modulo IIIDiunggah olehrodruren
- FT3WBKDiunggah olehPedro Prado
- PIIID.txtDiunggah olehLionel81
- Abb Ach550pidquickguideDiunggah olehWalter Joseph
- Air Heater Control SystemDiunggah olehDeby Helma Putra H.
- PPC_Textbook.pdfDiunggah olehJuan Juradö
- TS310 Users ManualDiunggah olehJavier RomAn
- ICCAS2012 ShamsDiunggah olehShamsMohd
- Controller TuningDiunggah olehAnonymous 0zrCNQ
- Coursewrok M07MSEDiunggah olehAmmar Naseer
- The PID Learning ProcessDiunggah olehSteven A McMurray
- ZL-7802A_en_V1.0_20180427Diunggah olehgwamiti
- Seminar ReportDiunggah olehSwapnil Behera

- chapter3.pdfDiunggah olehPadmavathy
- EEE 352 ACS Lab Report CoverDiunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- Lad2_dataDiunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- Lab3_dataDiunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- network analysisDiunggah olehAnupam Gupta
- Eee 241 Lecture 03Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- exp6Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- exp1Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- exp.8Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- Exp 9 ReportDiunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- exp 5Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- exp 3Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- EEE352EXP2Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- science-1Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- science-2Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- Step 041026 Oh pDiunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- ch06 (2)Diunggah olehDhurai Kesavan
- exampl c1Diunggah olehsowhat-01
- c101 Practice ExamDiunggah olehachibaba
- Chapter 4Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- Chapter 6Diunggah olehSriram Krishnan
- Chapter 7Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- Chapter 9Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- Chapter 8Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- Ct2 Test Solutions 2008Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- Ct2 Test Solutions 2007Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- Ct2 Test Solutions 2006Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- Class Test 2008Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş
- Class Test 2007Diunggah olehŞemsettin karakuş

- ch03Diunggah olehPhát TN
- (Method for Phonetic Matching) Phonetic String Matching- Lessons From Information RetrievalDiunggah olehDenny Ikhsan
- The Development of Modern Astronomy Celestial Mechanics and Classical Mechanics in EuropeDiunggah olehpsamim
- PlatesDiunggah olehCharles Ritter
- Classification and Regression, In a Weekend - Ajit Jaokar & Dan HowarthDiunggah olehRajesh Murugesan
- 650-608.docDiunggah olehSivaArabi
- Simple C ProgramsDiunggah olehDubia Neha
- 19 to 20 geometry syllabusDiunggah olehapi-420755155
- ExpG Heat Exchanger Rev0Diunggah olehmonstertruck_135
- tool faceDiunggah olehRems RM
- Terrestrial and Numerical Phot.-1Diunggah olehamey_mcr
- Lateral Torsional Buckling of Steel BeamsDiunggah olehapirakq
- another-example.docxDiunggah olehJonel Santos
- Protein Viscosity (1)Diunggah olehDipteemaya Biswal
- Error OutputDiunggah olehDinh Anh Minh
- Andrew Liddle General RelativityDiunggah olehAyan Mitra
- What is 3.4 Parts Per MillionDiunggah olehiceman_striker
- John GumbelDiunggah olehJMF_CORD
- ShowcaseDiunggah olehShin Hie
- UniSim Design OLI Interface Reference GuideDiunggah olehapi-3750488
- RatiosDiunggah olehmushahed
- Chapter5 SolutionsDiunggah oleh0796105632
- Practical Research 2.pdfDiunggah olehReymart Tantan
- Cqe Sample ExamDiunggah olehnewdao
- Appendix Mixed ModelsDiunggah olehikin sodikin
- How to conduct a simulation studyDiunggah olehMiguel Casares
- 21Circuits-2x2.pdfDiunggah olehIan Bagunas
- CircularDiunggah olehNagarajanAbimanyu
- algorithms.pdfDiunggah olehDee Sesh
- Design of Buildings for Earthquake Resistance According to Eurocode 8 - Part 1Diunggah olehbabuliu

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.