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DECEMBER 2014

ASHRAE
JOURNAL
THE MAGAZINE OF HVAC&R TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS

ASHRAE.ORG

Affordable and Efficient

Multi-Family Residences
Performance of HVAC Systems at ASHRAE HQ | Condensation Control on CWP Insulation
Overlooked Code Requirements | Constant-Speed vs. Variable-Speed Chillers

www.info.hotims.com/49818-12

www.info.hotims.com/49818-3

CONTENTS VOL. 56, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2014

STANDING COLUMNS
56

32 ENGINEERS NOTEBOOK

Overlooked Code
Requirements
By Stephen W. Duda, P.E.
46 REFRIGERATION APPLICATIONS

Bring on the Subsidy


48

By Andy Pearson, Ph.D., C.Eng.

24

FEATURES

64 SYSTEMS MAINTENANCE

Constant-Speed vs.
Variable-Speed Chillers

12 Part Two

Performance of HVAC Systems


At ASHRAE HQ

By Brian Sullivan
68 ENERGY MODELING

Buildings of the Future


By Javad Khazaii, Ph.D., P.E.

By L.E. Southard, P.E.; Xiaobing Liu, Ph.D.; J.D. Spitler, Ph.D., P.E.

24

Controlling Condensation
On CWP Insulation

142 DATA CENTERS

Creating a Perfect Storm


By Donald L. Beaty, P.E.; David Quirk, P.E.

By Ed Light; James Bailey, P.E.; Roger Gay

36

Air-Cooled Chillers
For Las Vegas Revisited
By Ronald H. Howell, Ph.D., P.E.; Donald W. Land, P.E.; John M. Land

2014 ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARDS

48

Heat Recovery for Canadian Building


By Genevive Lussier, Eng.

56

Affordable and Efficient


By Andrew Pape-Salmon, P.Eng.; Ed McNamara; Ariel Levy, P.E.

ASHRAE Journal (ISSN 0001-2491) MISSION STATEMENT | ASHRAE Journal reviews current HVAC&R technology of broad interest through publication of
application-oriented articles. ASHRAE Journals editorial content ranges from back-to-basics features to reviews of emerging technologies,
covering the entire spectrum of professional interest from design and construction practices to commissioning and the service life of
HVAC&R environmental systems. PUBLISHED MONTHLY | Copyright 2014 by ASHRAE, 1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329. Periodicals postage
paid at Atlanta, Georgia, and additional mailing offices. LETTERS/MANUSCRIPTS | Letters to the editor and manuscripts for publication should
be sent to: Fred Turner, Editor, ASHRAE Journal, fturner@ashrae.org. SUBSCRIPTIONS | $8 per single copy (includes postage and handling on
mail orders). Subscriptions for members $6 per year, included with annual dues, not deductible. Nonmember $79 (includes postage in
USA); $79 (includes postage for Canadian); $149 international (includes air mail). Expiration dates vary for both member and nonmember
subscriptions. Payment (U.S. funds) required with all orders. CHANGE OF ADDRESS | Requests must be received at subscription office eight weeks
before effective date. Send both old and new addresses for the change. ASHRAE members may submit address changes at www.ashrae.org/
address. POSTMASTER | Send form 3579 to: ASHRAE Journal, 1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329. Canadian Agreement Number 40037127.
ONLINE at ASHRAE.org | Feature articles are available online. Members can access articles at no cost. Nonmembers may purchase articles
at www.ashrae.org/bookstore. MICROFILM | This publication is microfilmed by National Archive Publishing Company. For information
on cost and issues available, contact NAPC at 800-420-NAPC or www.napubco.com. PUBLICATION DISCLAIMER | ASHRAE has compiled this
publication with care, but ASHRAE has not investigated and ASHRAE expressly disclaims any duty to investigate any product, service,
process, procedure, design or the like which may be described herein. The appearance of any technical data, editorial material or
advertisement in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty or guarantee by ASHRAE of any product, service, process,
procedure, design or the like. ASHRAE does not warrant that the information in this publication is free of errors and ASHRAE does not
necessarily agree with any statement or opinion in this publication. The entire risk of the use of any information in this publication and
its supplement is assumed by the user.

DEPARTMENTS
4
6
8
10
145
150
152

Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Products
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index

SPECIAL SECTIONS
71 New Product Preview
146 2014 Indices
COVER SALLY PAINTER PHOTO

COMMENTARY
1791 Tullie Circle NE
Atlanta, GA 30329-2305
Phone: 404-636-8400
Fax: 404-321-5478 | www.ashrae.org

Fred Turner

New Beginnings

PUBLISHER
W. Stephen Comstock
EDITORIAL
Editor
Fred Turner
fturner@ashrae.org
Managing Editor
Sarah Foster
sfoster@ashrae.org
Associate Editor
Rebecca Matyasovski
rmatyasovski@ashrae.org
Associate Editor
Christopher Weems
cweems@ashrae.org
Associate Editor
Jeri Alger
jalger@ashrae.org
Assistant Editor
Tani Palefski
tpalefski@ashrae.org
PUBLISHING SERVICES
Publishing Services Manager
David Soltis
Production
Jayne Jackson
Tracy Becker
ADVERTISING
Associate Publisher,
ASHRAE Media Advertising
Greg Martin
gmartin@ashrae.org
Advertising Production Coordinator
Vanessa Johnson
vjohnson@ashrae.org
CIRCULATION
Circulation Specialist
David Soltis
dsoltis@ashrae.org
ASHRAE OFFICERS
President
Thomas H. Phoenix, P.E.
President-Elect
T. David Underwood, P.Eng.
Treasurer
Timothy G. Wentz, P.E.
Vice Presidents
Darryl K. Boyce, P.Eng.
Charles E. Gulledge III
Bjarne W. Olesen, Ph.D.
James K. Vallort
Secretary & Executive Vice President
Jeff H. Littleton
POLICY GROUP
2014 15 Chair
Publications Committee
Michael R. Brambley, Ph.D.
Washington Office
washdc@ashrae.org

ASHRAE Journal enters its second 100


years this month with great prospects
for an even better future.
But this future will be without me.
Im retiring Jan. 5 after almost 20 years
at ASHRAE Journal. As my colleagues
sometime say, hes been here a verrry
lonnng time but it doesnt seem that
way.
At one point, I belatedly updated my
photo on this page after 10 years. Max
Sherman called to ask if Id been ill.
You look like youve aged 10 years, he
said.
Mainly, I want to thank the many
members Ive worked with over the
years. Its been a privilege to serve
you as editor of your publication.
The Journal is a product of member
contributions. The members are this
magazines most important resource
and deserve the credit for the Journals
success.
Ive also been blessed with great staff,
who often make me look better than I
deserve. They have always been dedicated to making the Journal a viable,
useful publication that enhances membership in ASHRAE.

will talk loud when an occasion presents itself.


He also said that societies statistically grow operating expenses faster
than revenue from dues. The Journal,
he said, will help meet this coming
deficit and make appropriations to
committees for important work, which
is sorely needed.
Five months after A.S.R.E. Journal was
first published, the American Society
of Heating and Ventilating Engineers
(ASHVE) began publishing the quarterly ASHVE Journal. Predecessors of
these publications merged in 1959 to
create ASHRAE Journal.

AS FOR ME, next months edition


is my last, wrapping up more than 40
years as the editor of a publication. I
plan to play lots of golf in sunny Florida.
I am proud of what the Journal has
achieved in the last 20 years and will
treasure all of the associations with
members and staff.
Im not sure if Torrence could have
envisioned todays industry and
ASHRAE Journal. But it seems appropriate to share his thoughts when he introduced the magazine 100 years ago.
AS NOTED EARLIER, this is a mileThe basic principle of refrigeration
stone edition for the magazine, which is conservation, not war and destrucstarted with the November 1914 edition tion, and affords to human life a higher
of the American Society of Refrigerating plane of living. Let us all use the Journal
Engineers (A.S.R.E.) Journal.
to promote these principles.
Writing in the first edition, 1914
A society like ours should be the
A.S.R.E. President Henry Torrence told guardian of the industry it repremembers that this new Journal will
sents; let us protect it through The
become the voice of the Society and it Journal.

ASHRAE Journal reviews current HVAC&R technology of broad interest through publication of applications-oriented articles. Content ranges from back-to-basics features to reviews of emerging technologies.
4

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D ECEM BER 2014

www.info.hotims.com/49818-34

INDUSTRY NEWS
Heard at the Show
Whats good for the planet
tends to be good for the body
Sustainable design professionals have to play a role in
a healthy and fit nation. Acting U.S. Surgeon General Boris Lushniak
during the closing session of the Materials and Human Health Summit held just
before Greenbuild

We as a nation never really


thought about what resilience
means. We understand we
cant live against the environment, we have to live with it.
New Orleans Mayor Mitch Landrieu

Greenbuild 2014 attendees listen to a Greenbuild Live panel while others wait to tour the 2014 Greenbuild LivingHome, a net zero electricity demonstration home designed to provide a comfortable, healthy, safe, resilient and adaptable environment for its occupants.

Greenbuild Focuses on Health


NEW ORLEANSSet against a
backdrop of a city rebounding from the devastating floods of Hurricane
Katrina nine years ago, the
13th edition of Greenbuild
International Conference
and Expo featured an
expanded focus on
human health in the built
environment.
Buildings and communities are at the
nexus of everything we

need to do for human


health, said U.S. Green
Building Council Founding
Chairman and CEO Rick
Fedrizzi during the opening plenary held at the
renovated Superdome,
where thousands sheltered
during Hurricane Katrina.
The impact of LEED v4,
which was launched at the
2013 Greenbuild, could
be seen throughout the
Expos product offerings,

ACCA Urges Standardized


Protocols
ARLINGTON, Va.Air Conditioning
Contractors of America (ACCA) is urging the industrys manufacturers to
develop and implement universal communication protocols for equipment
commissioning and ongoing diagnosis.
ACCA says that initial objectives would
be the development of a common set of
error codes and a standardized access
method (e.g., connection port or wireless) for data collection.

Mass. Still Most Efficient


WASHINGTON, D.C.For the fourth consecutive year, Massachusetts is the most
energy-efficient state, according to
6

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ashrae.org

educational sessions and


new efforts to encourage
product manufacturers to
seek third-party evaluation of the environmental
health of their products.
LEED v4 includes an
increased focus on human
health through life-cycle
assessment of building
products and environmental product declarations designed to increase

the American Council for an EnergyEfficient Economys annual State


Energy Efficiency Scorecard. Other
states in the top five are California,
Rhode Island, Oregon and Vermont.

New High-Rise Is Tallest


NEW YORKA condominium tower at 432
Park Avenue in Manhattan topped
off at 1,396 ft (426 m) last month to
become the tallest residential building in the Western Hemisphere. The
432 Park Avenue high-rise is taller
than One World Trade Center without
its spire and is about 150 ft (46 m)
taller than the Empire State Building.
The 104 units in the building start at
$16.95 million.

D ECEM BER 2014

People yearn to do something that matters and leaves


a legacy. All of these (green
building and infrastructure)
initiatives are a higher calling. You dont have to choose
between business or energy
efficiency. Elizabeth Heider, chief
sustainability officer for Skanska USA

transparency of product
ingredients.
However, a week after
Greenbuild, the USGBC
announced it was the
delaying the date when
new projects would be
required to register under
LEED v4, from June 15,
See Greenbuild, Page 8

Technology Turns Waste


Heat Into Fuel
SHANGHAI, ChinaJohnson Controls is
introducing a new technology in
China to meet the growing demand
for central heating that does not
emit harmful pollutants. The York
Dual Steam Turbine (YDST) heat
pump recycles surplus heat from
industrial or power plants into
higher temperature hot water that
can be used to operate large central heating plants. The centrifugal
heat pump is driven by a steam
turbine rather than an electric
turbine. It is designed to supply
more than 100 MW of heat per heat
pump system.

www.info.hotims.com/49818-19

INDUSTRY NEWS

Greenbuild, From Page 6


2015 to Oct. 31, 2016, allowing projects to continue
to register under the less
stringent LEED 2009 during this time. The USGBC
cited a survey conducted
at this years Greenbuild in
which 61% of respondents
said they needed more
time to prepare for LEED
v4. Projects can continue
to be registered under the
more rigorous LEED v4,
but fewer than 400 projects have been registered
under LEED v4 since it was
introduced.
LEED v4 created a
certain amount of chaos
with transparency and
disclosure, said Dwayne
Fuhlhage, who attended
an educational session
related to evaluating the
risk of chemicals in building products. Fuhlhage

is Sustainability and
Environment Director
for PROSOCO, a building
product manufacturer
based in Lawrence, Kan.
Its not all been resolved.
Were seeing a gradual
maturing.
It is triggering the transformation it is intended
to trigger, Fuhlhage said.
Materials are coming
along the way with net
zero.
At the Expo, many
exhibitors offered environmental product declarations and third-party
certifications. The Expo
also featured a focus on
net zero energy, including
a net zero energy house
and a portion of the expo
space that operated on a
net zero energy basis.
Attendees toured
the 2014 Greenbuild

PHOTO: ATELIERS JEAN NOUVEL

CHICAGOA residential
building in Sydney has
been named the Best
Tall Building Worldwide
by the Council on Tall
Buildings and Urban
Habitat (CTBUH). One

Central Park beat 87 other


international entries, and
was commended for its
visible use of green design.
Key features include hanging gardens, a cantilevered
heliostat, an internal
water recycling plant and
a low-carbon trigeneration
power plant. The buildings most visible feature,
the hanging gardens, use
a remote-controlled, dripper irrigation system and
a special process in which
the roots of each plant are
attached to a mesh-covered felt, and soaked with
mineralized water. This
allows the plants to grow
without soil along the faces
of the building envelope.

One Central Park in Sydney

Australian Tower
Best Tall Building

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D ECEM BER 2014

LETTERS

Return Fans in VAV Systems


Your description of airflow tracking and direct pressure control in Octobers Return Fans in VAV Systems
was very good. Would you recommend this approach
for an air-handling system that serves areas where
space to space pressure relationships are critical? If
so, what steps would you recommend to ensure that
the static pressure in the return duct is appropriate for
the proper operation of return air VAV boxes? Ive seen
buildings with critical spaces and with multiple AHUs
attempt to convert all of their systems over to direct
pressure control only to have space pressure relationships become a problem.
Brian Rose, P.E., Member ASHRAE, Guilford, Ind.

The Author Responds


You are correct and my example a) for Airflow Tracking
is misleading. Systems that have return air VAV boxes
essentially have pressure control at the zone level, typically by zone level airflow tracking (tracking the return
airflow rate with the supply airflow rate), but occasionally with zone level direct pressure control (controlling
return airflow rate to maintain zone pressure using a
zone pressure sensor). Either way, the return airflow rate
is determined by the return air VAV boxes, not directly
by the return fan, similar to a VAV supply air system. So,
the return fan simply needs to be controlled like a supply air fan on a supply air VAV system: maintain enough
negative static pressure in the return air duct to allow all
return air VAV boxes to meet their airflow setpoints. In
other words return fan speed should be controlled by
return duct pressure and not be controlled based on system level supply/return airflow differential as my article
suggests. Sorry for the confusion!
Steven Taylor, P.E., Fellow ASHRAE, Alameda, Calif.

LivingHome throughout
both days of the Expo. The
modular net zero home
that featured the latest
sustainable building techniques was relocated and
permanently placed in
New Orleans Lower 9th
Ward after the conference.
The Net Zero Pavilion,
which included 11 exhibitors in 1,500 ft2 of exhibit
space, was powered by
an on-site microgrid

including alternate
energy generation, storage and distribution.
The space was designed
for the hybrid use of
alternating current and
direct current and was
designed to demonstrate
the efficiency, reliability
and resiliency of hybrid
microgrids, which can
operate in combination
with the local utility grid
or in isolation from it.

www.info.hotims.com/49818-25

MEETINGS AND SHOWS

FULL CALENDAR: WWW.ASHRAE.ORG/CALENDAR

2015
JANUARY
Building Innovation 2015, Jan. 12 15, Washington, D.C. Contact the National Institute of Building
Sciences at 202-289-7800, nibs@nibs.org, or www.
nibs.org/conference2015.
ABMA Annual Meeting, Jan. 16 19, Carlsbad,
Calif. Contact the American Boiler Manufacturers
Association at 703-356-7172 or www.abma.com.
ASHRAE Winter Conference, Jan. 24 28, Chicago. Contact ASHRAE at 800-527-4723 or meetings@
ashrae.org.
International Air-Conditioning, Heating, Refrigerating Exposition (AHR Expo), Jan. 26 28, Chicago. Cosponsored by ASHRAE and AHRI. Contact
International Exposition Company at 203-221-9232
or www.ahrexpo.com.

FEBRUARY
CTI Annual Conference, Feb. 8 12, New Orleans.
Contact the Cooling Technology Institute at 281583-4087, vmanser@cti.org, or www.cti.org.
AAMA Annual Conference, Feb. 15 18, Fort Lauderdale, Fla. Contact Kaydeen Laird at the American Architectural Manufacturers Association at
847-303-5664, klaird@aamanet.org, or www.
aamanet.org.

MARCH
MCAA Annual Convention, March 8 12, Wailea,
Hawaii. Contact Cynthia Buffington, Mechanical
Contractors Association of America, at 301-8695800, cbuffington@mcaa.org or www.mcaa.org/
mcaa2014.
ACCA 2015, March 16 19, Grapevine, Texas. Contact the Air Conditioning Contractors of America at
703-575-4477 or www.acca.org.
IAQA Annual Meeting and Indoor Environment
and Energy Expo, March 16 18, Grapevine, Texas.
Contact the Indoor Air Quality Association at 844802-4103, events@iaqa.org, or www.iaqa.org.
IIAR Industrial Refrigeration Conference and
Exhibition, March 22 25, San Diego. Contact the
International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration at
703-312-4200, info@iiar.org, or www.iiar.org.

APRIL
NEBB Annual Conference, April 16 18, Honolulu.
Contact the National Environmental Balancing
Bureau at 301-977-3698 or www.nebb.org/events.
IARW-WFLO Annual Convention and Expo, April
25 29, Orlando. Fla. Contact the Global Cold Chain
Alliance at 703-373-4300, email@gcca.org, or www.
gcca.org/events.
NADCA Annual Meeting and Exposition, April
27 29, Marco Island, Fla. Contact the National Air
Duct Cleaners Association at 856-380-6810, info@
nadca.com, or www.nadca.com.

JUNE
ASHRAE Annual Conference, June 27 July 1,
Atlanta. Contact ASHRAE at 800-527-4723 or
meetings@ashrae.org.

SEPTEMBER
ACEEE National Conference on Energy Efficiency as a Resource, Sept. 20 22, Little Rock, Ark.
Contact the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy at 202-507-4000 or www.aceee.org/
conferences/2015/eer.
SMACNA Annual Convention, Sept. 27 30, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Contact the Sheet Metal
and Air Conditioning Contractors Association at
703-803-2980, info@smacna.org, or www.smacna.
org.

OCTOBER
IFMAs World Workplace, Oct. 7 9, Denver. Contact the International Facility Management Association at 713-623-4362, events@ifma.org, or www.
ifma.org.
AHR Expo-Mexico, Oct. 20 22, Guadalajara, Mexico. Contact the International Exposition Company at 203-221-9232, info@ahrexpomexico.com, or
www.ahrexpomexico.com.

NOVEMBER
AHRI Annual Meeting, Nov. 15 17, Bonita Springs,
Fla. Contact Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute at 703-524-8800, ahri@ahrinet.
org, or www.ahrinet.org.

Lightfair International, May 3 7, New York. Contact organizers at 404-220-2220, info@lightfair.


com, or www.lightfair.com.
AHRI Spring Meeting, May 5 7, Crystal City, Va.
Contact Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute at 703-524-8800, ahri@ahrinet.org,
or www.ahrinet.org.
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ashrae.org

CALLS FOR PAPERS


ASHRAE JOURNAL
ASHRAE Journal publishes applicationsoriented articles that are 3,000 or fewer
words. Graphics are encouraged. All articles are subject to editorial and peer
reviews and cannot have been published previously. Authors should submit abstracts before sending articles to
Fred Turner, Editor, ASHRAE Journal,
1791 Tullie Circle NE, Atlanta, GA 303292305; 678-539-1210, fax 678-539-2210, or
fturner@ashrae.org.
HVAC&R RESEARCH
ASHRAEs HVAC&R Research seeks papers on original, completed research
not previously published. Papers must
discuss how the research contributes
to technology. Papers should be about
6,000 words. Abstracts and papers should
be submitted on Manuscript Central at
www.ashrae.org. For more information,
contact Reinhard Radermacher, Ph.D.,
Editor, at raderm@umd.edu.
ASHRAE CONFERENCE PAPERS
ASHRAE seeks papers for presentation at
Society Conferences. For the 2016 Winter
Conference in Orlando, Fla., conference
paper abstracts are due March 23, 2015.
For more information, contact 678-5391137 or tcox@ashrae.org.

DECEMBER
HARDI Annual Conference, Dec. 5 8, Orlando,
Fla. Contact the Heating, Air-conditioning & Refrigeration Distributors International at 614-3454328, hardimail@hardinet.org, or www.hardinet.
org.

2016
JANUARY
ASHRAE Winter Conference, Jan. 23 27, Orlando,
Fla. Contact ASHRAE at 800-527-4723 or meetings@
ashrae.org.
International Air-Conditioning, Heating, Refrigerating Exposition (AHR Expo), Jan. 25 27, Orlando, Fla. Cosponsored by ASHRAE and AHRI. Contact International Exposition Company at 203-2219232 or www.ahrexpo.com.

OUTSIDE NORTH AMERICA


2015
FEBRUARY

MAY

10

AIA Convention 2015, May 14 16, Atlanta. Contact the American Institute of Architects at 800242-3837, infocentral@aia.org, or www.aia.org/
convention.

ACREX 2015, Feb. 26 28, Bangalore, India. Endorsed by ASHRAE. Contact Dinesh Rawat at 91 11
41635655, crex2015@ishraehq.in or www.acrex.in.

MARCH
ISH 2015, March 10 14, Frankfurt, Germany.
Contact 49 69 75 75 0 or www.ish.messefrankfurt.
com.

D ECEM BER 2014

ACRECONF India 2015, March 20 21, Delhi, India.


Contact Dinesh Rawat at 991 11 41635655, ashraeic@
airtelmail.in, or www.acreconf.org.

APRIL
China Refrigeration, April 8 10, Shanghai. Contact organizers at crexpo@biec.com.cn or www.
cr-expo.com.

MAY
Mostra Convegno Expocomfort Saudi, May 4 6,
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Contact Reed Exhibitions at
39 02 4351701, fax 39 02 3314348, info@reedexpo.it
or www.mcexpocomfort.it.

AUGUST
Bangkok RHVAC, Aug. 14 16, Bangkok. Contact the
Office of Agriculture and Industrial Business Development at 66 (0) 2507 8374-8, rhvac@ditp.go.th, or
www.bangkok-rhvac.com.
IIR International Congress of Refrigeration, Aug.
16 22, Yokohama, Japan. Endorsed by ASHRAE.
Contact 81 3 3219 3541, icr2015@ics-inc.co.jp, or
www.icr2015.org.

SEPTEMBER
Mostra Convegno Expocomfort Asia, Sept. 2 4,
Singapore. Contact Reed Expositions Singapore
at 65 6780 4671, fax 65 6588 3832, mce-asia@
reedexpo.com.sg or www.mcexpocomfort-asia.
com.

www.info.hotims.com/49818-5

TECHNICAL FEATURE
Use of this data does not imply that ASHRAE has endorsed, recommended, or certified any equipment or service used at ASHRAE International Headquarters. For more
information, visit http://tinyurl.com/lbsp36s.
First floor.

Second floor.

Part Two

Performance of HVAC
Systems at ASHRAE HQ
BY L.E. SOUTHARD, P.E., MEMBER ASHRAE; XIAOBING LIU, PH.D., MEMBER ASHRAE; AND J.D. SPITLER, PH.D., P.E., FELLOW ASHRAE

When the ASHRAE headquarters building in Atlanta was renovated in 2008, a variable
refrigerant flow (VRF) system was installed to provide conditioning for spaces on the
first floor, while a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system was installed, primarily
for spaces on the second floor. Details about these two systems are available in previous articles.1,2 Data relating to the operation of the different HVAC systems have been
collected and analyzed for the two-year time span from July 1, 2011 through June 30,
2013 in an attempt to evaluate the performance of the systems.
As we showed in our previous article,2 during the
two-year study period, the space-averaged annual
energy use of the GSHP system was 1.5 kWh/ft2yr
(17 kWh/m2yr) while the space-averaged annual
energy use of the VRF system was 2.7 kWh/ft2yr
(30 kWh/m2yr). As previously discussed, the GSHP
serves all of the second floor, as well as a small stairwell

on the first floor. The VRF system for which power


measurements are available serves all of the first floor
except for the vestibule, reception area, stairwells and
computer equipment room. For both systems, the areas
that are served are primarily office and meeting space;
although a larger fraction of the space on the first floor
is meeting rooms, which are used infrequently. During

L.E. Southard, P.E., is a lecturer and J.D. Spitler, Ph.D., P.E., is regents professor and OG&E energy technology chair in the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater,
Okla. Xiaobing Liu, Ph.D., is a staff scientist in the Building Technology Research and Integration Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tenn.
12

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D ECEM EBER 2014

TECHNICAL FEATURE

the two-year study period the median monthly use of


the meeting room in the new first floor addition was
26.5 hours/month and of any of the smaller rooms in
the renovated part of the first floor was four hours/
month. Figure 1 shows the monthly energy use of each
system. Different zone temperature control strategies
and different equipment efficiencies at the source
operating temperatures account for some of the difference in energy use between the two systems,2 but the
critical question is, how much conditioning is provided
by each of the two systems?
In this article, we first estimate the cooling and heating provided by both the GSHP and VRF systems based
on experimental measurements between July 2011 and
March 2012. We then present system COPs and EERs for
both systems. We also estimate the cooling and heating
provided, and the system COPs and EERs for the GSHP
system for April 2012 to June 2013.
Beginning in April 2012, runtime fractions for many
of the VRF system fan coil units (FCUs) increased dramatically with cooler discharge air temperatures, while
zone temperatures remained steady. The FCUs have
two-speed fans with the higher speed used during fan
coil operation (with heating/cooling output) and the
lower speed used for ventilation mode (without any
heating/cooling output). With unchanged zone loads,
this increase in runtime and decrease in discharge
temperatures led us to conclude that discharge flow
rates during FCU operation must have decreased.
ASHRAE personnel indicated that the manufacturer
had replaced the control boards in 21 of the 22 FCUs

Zone 215B.

FIGURE 1 Monthly energy use by the GSHP and VRF systems.

0.35
Monthly Energy Use (kWh/ft2)

Zone 215A.

GSHP

0.30

VRF

0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
JUL. SEP. NOV. JAN. MAR. MAY JUL. SEP. NOV. JAN. MAR. MAY
2011
|
2012
|
2013

on April 14 and 15, 2012. It seems likely that at the time


of the control board replacement, the flow rates of the
discharge air changed, but since there has been no
subsequent testing and balancing, the new values are
unknown. Spot measurements taken during a site visit
confirm that airflows from the FCUs during fan coil
operation are lower than the measurements taken during the initial testing and balancing. For this reason,
the heating and cooling provided by the VRF system
could not be estimated for dates after the equipment
modifications.

Experimental Measurements
Figure 2 shows the airflows entering and exiting the
heat pumps and 14 of the 22 VRF fan coil units. Outside
air from the dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) is
ducted to a plenum box where it mixes with return
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TECHNICAL FEATURE

TABLE 1 Available measurements.

FIGURE 2 Airflow configuration of terminal units.

HEAT PUMPS

Outside Air from DOAS


Terminal Unit
(Heat Pump or
Fan Coil Unit)

Entering Air

Discharge Air

air from the plenum. For the other eight VRF fan coil
units, outside air is provided directly from the DOAS
to the zone without passing through the FCUs. Table 1
shows the measurements that are available for the different units.
As shown in Table 1, one zone (215B), which is served
by a heat pump, is instrumented more heavily than the
other zones. With temperature and humidity sensors
on both the entering air and the discharge air, and an
airflow meter, all of the necessary measurements are
available to calculate the heating and cooling provided
to the zone.
The heating that is provided to each zone can be calculated as:
.

q = mcpDT

(1)

Thus, the temperature differential and airflow rate are


all that is needed. For cooling there is a latent load, so
the cooling that is provided must be calculated from:
.

q = mDh

(2)

where Dh is the enthalpy differential between the entering air and the discharge air, and data for humidity
levels are necessary. For the remaining heat pumps, only
entering air, discharge air and zone temperatures, and
zone humidity are measured. The flow rate of the discharge air and the entering air and discharge air humidity levels have to be estimated. The flow rates for the
discharge air (when the heat pump operates at various
modes) that are listed in the building renovation design
documents and the testing and balancing report were
assumed to be valid for all of the other zones. For Zone
215B, the average airflow rate is within 2% of the flow
rate listed in the testing and balancing report.
As can be seen from Figure 3, for Zone 215B, the entering air humidity ratio was found to be closely related
to the zone air humidity ratio. In fact, the mixed air
humidity ratio is a little higher than the zone humidity
ratio when the zone humidity is high and a little lower
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ZONE 215B

OTHER HEAT PUMPS

DISCHARGE AIRFLOW

Available

N/A

N/A

DISCHARGE AIR TEMPERATURE

Available

Available

Available

DISCHARGE AIR HUMIDITY

Available

N/A

N/A

ENTERING AIR TEMPERATURE

Available

Available

N/A

ENTERING AIR HUMIDITY

Available

N/A

N/A

ZONE TEMPERATURE

Available

Available

Available

ZONE HUMIDITY

Available

Available

Available

FIGURE 3 Entering air and zone humidity ratio relationship for zone 215B.

0.018
Without DOAS
With DOAS
78% RH

0.016
Entering Air Humidity Ratio

Return Air

VRF SYSTEM

0.014
0.012
0.010
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.000
0.000

0.005

0.010
Zone Humidity Ratio

0.015

0.020

when the zone humidity is low. Because the zone air dew
points are already low (close to that of the OA supplied
by the DOAS) whenever the DOAS is running, the outdoor air from the DOAS has little effect on the entering
air humidity ratio. A linear correlation was fitted and
used to estimate entering air humidity for the remaining zones.
Likewise, the discharge air humidity ratio and
temperature for cooling operation were plotted for
Zone 215B, as shown in Figure 4. Analysis of these data
showed that the relative humidity was nearly constant
at 78%, so for the remaining zones, the discharge air
relative humidity was approximated to be 78% for cooling operation.
For the zones that are conditioned by the VRF system, the only measured data are discharge air temperature and zone conditions. Since the FCUs have
two-speed fans with a single high speed used during
fan coil operation and a low speed for ventilation
mode, the flow rates for the discharge air during fan

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TECHNICAL FEATURE

Total Cooling = Sensible Cooling


SHF

(3)

Uncertainty
A detailed uncertainty analysis was performed, taking into account the accuracy of the instruments, the
effects of aggregating measurements for individual heat
pumps, and the uncertainties associated with estimating
humidity levels and airflow rates. Uncertainty analyses
necessarily involve assumptions about the nature of the
uncertainty! Two key assumptions are:
1. Random errors are normally distributed. This has
an important implication for this work; we are attempting to estimate the total cooling and total heating
provided by each system, by adding the cooling and
heating provided by a number of individual heat pumps
or fan coil units. To the extent these uncertainties are
random, they tend to cancel each other out. So, if the
uncertainty for the amount of heating provided by an
individual fan coil unit is 10% and we are trying to find
the total amount of heating provided by 10 fan coil units,
the uncertainty of the total is not 10% but rather 3%. In
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FIGURE 4 Discharge air humidity ratio and temperature relationship for Zone 215B.

0.014
Zone 215B Data
1:1 Line

0.012
Discharge Air Humidity Ratio

coil operation were estimated to be those listed in the


testing and balancing report. The entering air temperature is not measured, so it was estimated to be the
same as the zone temperature. For eight of the VRF
zones, the outdoor air is provided directly to the zone,
so this approximation should be reasonably close. For
the other 14 zones, during morning warm-up or cooldown operation the DOAS is shut off and, again, this
approximation should be good. However, when the
building is occupied, preconditioned outdoor air from
the DOAS is mixed with the return air from these zones
and this assumption will cause the estimates of cooling provided to these 14 zones to be slightly high, and
the estimates of heating provided to be slightly low. For
estimating cooling provided, when data for humidity
levels is needed, entering air humidity was again estimated using the same correlation that was used for the
zones in the GSHP system. Since humidity levels leaving the VRF system FCUs are not measured, we have
taken the manufacturers data to create a map of sensible heat factor (SHF) for each FCU. This SHF depends
on entering wet-bulb temperature and the outdoor
air temperature. The SHF and discharge temperature
were then used to estimate the latent cooling provided
by each FCU using the relationship:

0.010
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.000
41

50
59
Discharge Air Temperature (F)

68

some cases, we may also have systematic error that has


to be accounted for separately.
2. Errors of individual measurements are independent from each other. So, for example, when computing
the heat transfer rate of a heat pump, we assume that
the errors in airflow rate measurement are independent
of the errors in measuring the temperature difference.
With these two assumptions we can combine estimates
of uncertainties of individual measurements to estimate the uncertainties of aggregated measures such as
total cooling and heating provided. However, estimates
of the uncertainties of individual measurements can
also be problematicmanufacturers typically provide
uncertainties for their sensors, but of course, the sensors may not meet the rated accuracy, and poor installation or usage can further compromise the accuracy.
On the other hand, it is easy to grossly overestimate the
uncertainty by choosing very-worst-case values for each
individual measurement. The often-unstated standard
for uncertainty that we are using is the 95% confidence
level. However, in many cases that has to be applied with
engineering judgment rather than strict quantitative
analysis. With this in mind, the uncertainties associated
with individual measurements are as follows.
The temperature sensors used in the building have
a manufacturer-rated accuracy of 0.2C (0.5F), which
we used.
Airflows for each heat pump and VRF FCU are
based on the test and balance contractors measurements. The contractor used a calibrated flow hood with
manufacturer-rated accuracy of 3% 7 cfm. There has
been relatively little peer-reviewed literature checking

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TECHNICAL FEATURE

FIGURE 5 Estimated monthly heating provided.

FIGURE 6 Estimated monthly cooling provided.

0.6
GSHP

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
JUL. SEP. NOV. JAN. MAR. MAY JUL. SEP. NOV. JAN. MAR. MAY
2011
|
2012
|
2013

the accuracy of these measurements in the field. Choat3


describes a case where the flow hoods gave results that
were 14% lower compared to a measurement made by
traversing the duct with a pitot tube. We chose to rate the
uncertainty of the measurement for each heat pump or
terminal unit as 11.5%. However, it is important to note
that this does not lead to an uncertainty of 11.5% for
total cooling or total heating provided. Rather, because
the total cooling or total heating depends on the total
flow, and as described earlier, random errors tend to
cancel each other out when aggregated, the resulting
uncertainty in the total flow is lower, but depends on
the number of units operating at any one time and their
relative capacities. The fewer the number of units on,
the higher the uncertainty. We chose a value of uncertainty corresponding to three units of 7%.
The estimated humidity level entering all heat
pumps is approximated as being the zone humidity
level. The estimated uncertainty has two components:
the uncertainty of the sensor (3% RH) and the uncertainty due to using the zone humidity level: (+3%/0%).
The latter value is based on the effect (for some units) of
mixing zone return air with DOAS exiting air.
Humidities leaving the heat pumps are based on
our finding that, for the living lab heat pump, the uncertainty of the measured relative humidity is (to a 95%
confidence level) 5.5%. This value is taken as the uncertainty for the humidity levels leaving each heat pump.
Humidity levels leaving the VRF system FCUs are
not measured by the building energy management system. Therefore, we have taken the manufacturers data
to create a map of SHF that depends on entering wetbulb temperature and the outdoor air temperature. We
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GSHP

1.2
Cooling Provided (kWh/ft2)

Heating Provided (kWh/ft2)

0.5

1.4

VRF

VRF

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
JUL. SEP. NOV. JAN. MAR. MAY JUL. SEP. NOV. JAN. MAR. MAY
2011
|
2012
|
2013

made spot measurements and found the actual unit SHF


to be within 0.07 of the catalog data, so we have taken
the uncertainty in SHF to be 0.08. With this uncertainty
in SHF, we can estimate the uncertainty in total cooling
provided at each measurement and for seasonal values.
The resulting uncertainties for the individual heat
pumps vary but are around +23/18% for cooling and
12% for heating (when there is no dehumidification).
When aggregated together, the uncertainty in the total
cooling provided is +14/11% and that for the total heating provided is 7%. For the VRF system, the uncertainty
in cooling provided by a single FCU is +16/15% and for
heating it is 12%. Typically, there are more FCUs running than there are heat pumps, so when aggregated
together the uncertainty in the total cooling provided by
the VRF system is 5% and that for the total heating provided is 4%. Compared to the uncertainties in estimating the cooling and heating provided, the uncertainties
in measuring the electrical energy consumed are negligible, and therefore the uncertainties in the calculated
COP and EER are approximately the same as the uncertainties in the total heating and total cooling provided.

Heating and Cooling Provided


The estimated heating and cooling provided by each
system are shown in Figures 5 and 6, respectively. For the
time period from July 1, 2011 until March 31, 2012, which
is the time period during which the conditioning provided by the VRF system could be estimated, the GSHP
system only provided 38% of the heating that the VRF
system provided. During the same time span, the GSHP
system provided 6% more cooling than the VRF system
provided.

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TECHNICAL FEATURE

FIGURE 7 Estimated monthly system heating COP.

FIGURE 8 Estimated monthly system cooling EER.

6.0
GSHP

Cooling System EER

Heating System COP

5.0

VRF

4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
JUL. SEP. NOV. JAN. MAR. MAY JUL. SEP. NOV. JAN. MAR. MAY
2011
|
2012
|
2013

Several factors contribute to the large difference in


loads between the two systems. First, the DOAS provided nearly twice as much cooling to the first floor
(58 MWh/year average during the study period) as to the
second floor (33 MWh/year average). This reduces the
cooling load, but increases the heating load for the VRF
system. As noted in our first article,2 at times zones on
the first floor are overcooled by the outdoor air, causing the FCU for those zones to operate in heating mode
to effectively provide reheat. The first floor has lower
regular occupancy than the second floor, and the meeting rooms are used infrequently, so it is unclear why
the DOAS airflow to the first floor is higher. Also, the
temperature control scheme of the VRF system causes
the FCUs in adjacent zones in the open office environment to, at times, operate in conflicting modes simultaneously. The loads from this conflicting operation
are a larger part of the total heating loads than the total
cooling loads because the heating loads due to envelope
losses that are not counterbalanced by solar and internal heat gains are relatively small for this building and
climate. The conflicting operations can occur in both
summer and winter, but the heating loads in summer
are small compared to the loads in winter, so they do not
show in the scale of Figure 5.
To quantify system efficiency, it is necessary to know
how much energy was used for each mode of operation
(heating or cooling) but only total system power measurements are available. When all units in a system are
running in the same mode, the energy used can be allocated accordingly. When individual units were running
in different modes simultaneously, system energy use
was allocated to heating and cooling based on the total
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20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

GSHP

VRF

JUL. SEP. NOV. JAN. MAR. MAY JUL. SEP. NOV. JAN. MAR. MAY
2011
|
2012
|
2013

capacity of the units that were running in each mode


at the particular time. Allocating the energy use in this
way, total system heating COPs and cooling EERs can
be estimated, as shown in Figures 7 and 8. The error bars
reflect the +14/11% uncertainty in the estimates of cooling provided and the 7% uncertainty in the estimates
of heating provided for the GSHP system and the 5/4%
uncertainty for the VRF system. These system COPs
include all of the energy used by each system including fan power for units that are running in ventilation
mode, standby power for unit control boards when the
building is unoccupied, and pumping power (for the
GSHP system).
During the winter of 2011 through 2012, the estimated
GSHP system heating COP was 3.30.2 and the estimated
VRF system heating COP was 2.00.1. The following winter the estimated GSHP system heating COPs increased
by 18% to 3.90.3, in part because the differential pressure setpoint on the ground loop had been decreased
from 20 psi to 8 psi, which reduced pumping power.
Another contributing factor to the increased COP during
the winter of 2012 through 2013 is colder weather, which
increased the runtime of the heat pumps and thus proportionately decreased the overhead system power use
associated with ventilation blowers and pumps. During
a May 2014 site visit, a power meter was installed on the
pumps for a short time, and power was recorded at differential pressure setpoints of 15 psi and 8 psi. Figure 9
shows the effect of the differential pressure setpoint on
the pumping power. VRF system heating COPs could
not be estimated during the winter of 2012 through 2013
because of the equipment modifications in the VRF
system.

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TECHNICAL FEATURE

FIGURE 9 Pumping power at different ground loop differential pressure setpoints.

FIGURE 10 GSHP system monthly cooling EER vs. cooling provided.

8 psi Loop dp
15 psi Loop dp

0.9
0.8
Measured Power (kW)

Monthly GSHP System Cooling EER

1.0

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

0.1

10

12

14

16

18

20

Monthly Cooling Provided by GSHP System (MWh)

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Loop Flow (gpm)

For July to September 2011, the estimated GSHP system


cooling EER was 15.6+2.2/1.7, while the estimated VRF
system cooling EER for the same period was 10.70.5.
The following summer the estimated GSHP system
cooling EER was 15.8. These EERs are lower than what
might be expected purely from unit ratings published
in manufacturers catalog data since they account for
all of the energy consumption by the heat pumps, fans,
and pumps (for the GSHP system) and various operating conditions during the three-month time period. A
contributing factor to the relatively low system EERs is
the power consumption of the blowers. The fans on all
of the heat pumps and VRF FCUs run continuously when
the building is occupied even if there is not any heating
or cooling demand, in which case the fans run in ventilation mode with reduced airflow. A detailed analysis
of the power use by the GSHP system shows that this
ventilation-only fan operation accounts for 10% of the
total GSHP system energy use. The power use when all
units are running in ventilation mode is higher for the
VRF system than for the GSHP system,2 so the reduction
in the system energy efficiency due to ventilation-only
fan operation is even larger for the VRF system.
Surprisingly, Figure 8 shows that GSHP system cooling EER is lower in winter when temperatures are more
favorable for cooling. This is because only a few units are
running in cooling mode, providing only a small amount
of cooling, while there is still a significant amount of
system energy use associated with running the blowers
in ventilation mode for all of the remaining units. Also,
with only a small number of units running, the water
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loop flow rates are low, and the circulation pump and
variable speed drive are less efficient at the lower flow
rates. Figure 10 shows the effect of small cooling loads on
the system cooling EER.

Conclusions
The living lab at the ASHRAE headquarters building
provides an excellent opportunity to learn about the
performance of high efficiency HVAC equipment in an
operational office building environment.
Based on measured heating and cooling provided, for
the first nine months of the study, the average system heating COP of the GSHP system was 3.30.2 and the average
system cooling EER was 14.2+2.0/-1.6. For the same nine
months, the average system heating COP of the VRF system was 2.00.1 and the average system cooling EER was
8.50.4. For the entire two-year study period, the GSHP
system heating COP was 3.60.3 and the system cooling
EER was 14.5+2.0/1.6. The heating and cooling efficiencies of both systems are lower than that listed in the manufacturers catalog data, particularly for the VRF system.
The GSHP system performance improved when the
ground loop differential setpoint was decreased from 20
psi to 8 psi. System performance for both systems could
be improved if the power use by fans that are running in
ventilation mode could be reduced. Since the DOAS system has VAV boxes, if the DOAS blowers are adequate to
supply fresh air without the need for additional blowers
to boost the air pressure, it might be possible to eliminate ventilation mode blower operation.
Improvements could also be made in the zone temperature control strategies for the VRF system. The
current control strategy uses an occupant-adjustable

TECHNICAL FEATURE

single setpoint in an open office environment that


prevents a single unit from switching back and forth
between heating and cooling, but can allow the terminal units for adjacent zones to run in opposite modes
simultaneously.2
There is also the potential to reduce overall building
energy consumption by optimizing the DOAS operation. Presently, the DOAS occasionally overcools some
zones, causing the zone equipment to act as reheat for
the DOAS.2 The DOAS supply air temperature setpoint
is reset if all zone temperatures are below cooling setpoint and outdoor air enthalpy is below a threshold
level, or if 80% of zone temperatures are below heating
setpoint. At some other ambient air conditions it might
be possible to transfer a portion of the cooling and
dehumidification provided by the DOAS to the VRF or
GSHP systems if they can operate at higher efficiencies
than the DOAS.
As always, more knowledge leads to more questions.
An abundance of data is available for the ASHRAE
headquarters building, but a few more critical pieces

of information (such as FCU airflow rates and entering


air temperatures) would enable a more complete and
accurate analysis. And with all of the data that are available, many more aspects of system operation and design
could be investigated, possibly leading to improved performance of the existing system and improved design of
future systems.

References

1. Choat, E.E. 1999. Resolving duct leakage claims. ASHRAE


Journal 41(3):49-53.
2. Vaughn, M.R. 2014. Lessons learned from ASHRAE HQ renovation. ASHRAE Journal 56(4):14-30.
3. Southard, L.E., X. Liu, J.D. Spitler. 2014. Part 1: Performance of
HVAC systems at ASHRAE HQ. ASHRAE Journal 56(9):56-63.

Acknowledgments
The project described in this article was funded by GEO, the
Geothermal Exchange Organization, with additional support
from the Southern Company. Dr. Lius time was also supported by
the US-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy
Efficiency (CERC-BEE). The Southern Company also provided a
power engineer to assist with on-site measurements.

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TECHNICAL FEATURE

PHOTO 1 Pipe section left unsealed.

PHOTO 2 Insulator failed to seal top seam.

Controlling Condensation
On CWP Insulation
BY ED LIGHT, MEMBER ASHRAE; JAMES BAILEY, P.E., MEMBER ASHRAE; AND ROGER GAY

Although pipe sweating is the major source of dampness and mold growth in many
buildings, control efforts during renovation and maintenance are often ineffective.
Condensation from chilled water piping (CWP) is generally overlooked because it is
hidden behind ceilings and walls or in mechanical spaces. Sweating occurs where
there are insulation deficiencies.
Cooling is provided by a central plant in approximately
15% of commercial building floor space in the U.S., with
cold water distributed to terminal units in occupied
spaces through CWP. Buildings with CWP are used for
offices, education, health care, shops, public assembly,
lodging and storage.1 Mechanical equipment conveying
chilled water (i.e., pipes, fittings, tanks) is insulated to
improve thermal efficiency and to control condensation.2
The most common types of CWP insulation consist of
resin-bonded fiberglass with a foil and Kraft paper vapor
barrier or closed-cell elastomeric rubber material. Other
insulating products are available with higher moisture
resistance, but are beyond the scope of this study.
Condensation forms where insulation is missing or
insufficient, or vapor barriers are not fully sealed (Photos

1 and 2). Condensation wets the insulation and this


moisture can wick through fibrous pipe insulation for
considerable distances. During the construction process,
new insulation is often not inspected closely and thus,
insulating deficiencies are often not repaired. As the
building ages, insulation deteriorates and/or also can be
damaged during repair work by maintenance personnel
or renovation by contractors.
Energy codes generally dictate minimum insulation
thickness. The amount of insulation needed to avoid
condensation on outer surfaces is also an important consideration. Insulation design calculations are based on
keeping surface temperature above the dew point temperature of surrounding air at a specified pipe temperature and space humidity.3 When insulation thickness

Ed Light is president, James Bailey, P.E., is vice president and Roger Gay is senior industrial hygienist at Building Dynamics, LLC, Ashton, Md.
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TECHNICAL FEATURE

PHOTO 3 Stained ceiling tile under sweating chilled water pipe.

is sufficient to control condensation, sweating may still


occur unless vapor barriers are fully sealed at seams and
joints.
Vapor retarders reduce the transmission of water
vapor through the insulation system. A high quality
vapor retarder material is essential for chilled water
distribution systems to perform adequately. Design,
installation and performance of the vapor retarder
systems are key to an insulation systems ability to
minimize water vapor ingress.4 Factors such as vapor
retarder structure, number of joints, mastics and
adhesives used, and inspection procedures affect
performance.5 Faulty application or damage during
installation can impair vapor retarder performance.
When condensation forms on CWP insulation, it
degrades thermal performance, stains exterior jacketing, wets underlying surfaces and generates odors.
Mold growth is often found on vapor barriers subject
to heavy pipe sweating. Although occupant exposure
may be limited in cases where growth is located behind
ceilings and walls, occupants can be directly exposed
to mold growth which forms on ceilings under sweating pipes (Photo 3) or where above-ceiling space acts
as a return air plenum. Occupants are also exposed
to general dampness created by evaporation from wet
insulation.
This review is based on the authors field experience
assessing CWP insulation performance and managing
the replacement of water damaged CWP insulation.
Methods for remediating mold and insulating CWP varied in these projects, allowing for a comparison of different approaches.

PHOTO 4 Major water damage.

PHOTO 5 Minor water damage.

Assessment
The condition of CWP insulation with respect to condensation control can be assessed visually, by identifying
insulation deficiencies and noting the relative severity
and extent of water damage. Examples of staining patterns considered minor and major are illustrated in
Photos 4 and 5. Suspect growth is often present in areas
with major condensation. Where suspect spotting is not
associated with water stains on the insulationthe root
cause may be excessive space humiditynot insulating
deficiencies (Photo 6).

Removing Moldy Insulation


While occupants may not be directly exposed to mold
growth on water-damaged CWP insulation, uncontrolled demolition can significantly degrade air quality
during and after its removal. HVAC design engineers
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TECHNICAL FEATURE

PHOTO 6 Mold spotting caused by excessive humidity.

usually do not specify appropriate procedures for


removal of CWP insulation contaminated with mold
growth and construction contractors subsequently
repair or replace moldy CWP insulation without precautions to protect workers and occupants.
EPA guidelines recommend removing mold growth
with stringent site control procedures similar to those
required for hazardous materials such as asbestos.
However, unlike asbestos, health risks associated with
mold exposure are limited to sensitive individuals and
public health officials generally do not consider this a
health hazard.6 EPA guidelines recommend that demolition of insulation with mold growth exceeding 10 ft2 (0.9
m2) be conducted inside a negatively pressurized containment (Photo 7).7 The degree of isolation specified in
EPA guidelines may not be necessary where surrounding areas are vacated during the work. A more flexible
approach to containment can reduce project time and
cost.
An alternative method for remediating mold-contaminated CWP insulation replaces full containment with
local exhaust ventilation. Insulation is removed over
a portable hood and underlying surfaces are covered
with plastic sheeting. The ventilation unit consists of an
inverted exhaust hood atop an aluminum portable rolling containment, with a HEPA-filtered exhaust system.
Height of the hood is adjustable and it is set just below
the piping (Photo 8).
The authors conducted a pilot study to evaluate
effectiveness of the hood method during insulation
removal. Release of larger particles was evaluated by
laying plastic sheets above the adjacent suspended
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PHOTO 7 Insulation removal following hazardous material procedure.

PHOTO 8 Insulation removal using portable hood.

ceiling and inspecting for settled dust after insulation was removed. The sheeting was generally found
to be clean, with the exception of a few small pieces
of debris. Capture of fine particulates was assessed by
releasing smoke from air current tubes at the point of
insulation removal. All visible smoke was drawn into
the portable exhaust hood when it was located directly
below the work. Based on these findings, insulation
removal using the hood was permitted. To ensure that
mold was fully controlled, the following steps were
added to the process:
Underlying surfaces below the ceiling must be
draped with plastic sheeting for a minimum of 10 ft (3 m).
Cleanup above and below the ceiling near the point
of removal must be conducted with a vacuum cleaner
equipped with a high-efficiency filter and a sanitizing solution wiped on surfaces.

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TECHNICAL FEATURE

Each removal site was visually inspected by the projQuality control of the installation process can be
ect engineer, with additional cleaning required where enhanced by detailed field checking of all new insuladust or debris was observed.
tion. To accomplish this, the authors inspect all CWP
The authors oversight of insulation removal using
insulation at completion for compliance with specificathe portable exhaust procedure
tions. Early experience revealed that
found that it effectively controlled
a single punch-out inspection permold where the contractor fully
formed at the end of the project can
implemented control procedures.
be unwieldy. At one school, the CWP
Observed contractor deficiencies in
insulation replacement project genthe field included:
erated a punch list of more than 200
Insulation removed without use
defects (Table 1).
of the portable hood;
A more efficient approach to
Incomplete draping of plastic;
enhanced quality control used by
Exhaust hood set too low under
the authors in later projects had an
piping;
insulator accompany the inspector
Insulation removal extended beat the completion of each area, coryond the hood;
recting observed deficiencies on the
Restriction of exhaust outlet respot.
ducing airflow;
Exhaust discharged too close PHOTO 9 Incomplete insulation installed without
Follow-Up Evaluation
to the removal area (air turbulence
The performance of new CWP
enhanced quality control.
spread dust); and
insulation, installed with and
Incomplete cleanup after insulation removal.
without enhanced quality control, was compared by
Any dust remaining on surfaces as a result of these
inspection during the next cooling season. Insulation
deficiencies was addressed by additional cleaning.
in areas with enhanced quality control was generClose supervision was needed to ensure consisally found to be dry and in good condition. In those
tent implementation of dust control procedures.
schools, maintenance personnel noted that they no
Workmanship issues observed during these projects are
longer needed to change stained ceiling tiles in CWP
common in environmental mitigation, but often remain areas. Occupants reported that musty odors were
undetected due to lack of onsite inspection.
eliminated and also recognized that a major mold
issue was resolved.
Installing Chilled Water Insulation
In contrast, major condensation associated with vapor
Specifications for insulating CWP were based on the
barrier defects was observed from insulation installed
North American Insulation Manufacturers Association
without enhanced QC measures (Photo 9).
(NAIMA) and National Commercial and Industrial
Standards, which detail insulation thickness, coverTABLE 1 Punch list for school CWP insulation replacment.
age of the various piping components and sealing
INSULATION
NUMBER OF
OCCURRENCE
requirements.8
DEFICIENCY
OCCURRENCES
PERCENTAGE
In typical construction and renovation projects, instalIncomplete Seal: Mastic/Adhesive/Tape
51
25.0
lation of CWP insulation is not closely inspected in the
No Seal: Missing Mastic/Adhesive/Tape
75
36.7
field for quality control by architects, engineers, conMissing Insulation/Bare Pipe
30
14.7
tractor supervisors or building owner representatives.
Penetration of Insulation by Object
2
1.0
As a result, insulation may be insufficient or incomPerforations/Tears of Insulation
5
2.5
plete and vapor barriers may not be sealed, resulting in
Old Insulation Left in Place
39
19.1
ongoing condensation and mold growth. Improperly
Leaks/Saturated New Insulation
2
1.0
installed CWP insulation can be costly, ultimately resultTotal
204
100.0
ing in the need to replace large sections of insulation.
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TECHNICAL FEATURE

Conclusions
Condensation on chilled water piping can be a major
contributor to dampness and mold growth in buildings,
with condensation generally forming where insulation
is insufficient or vapor barriers are not fully sealed.
Vapor barrier deficiencies are commonly overlooked
during construction and installation of insulation or can
become damaged during maintenance or renovations.
This is also an issue on refrigerant lines, which are a
common source of condensation when associated with
self-contained HVAC units.
Replacement of water-damaged CWP insulation can
significantly improve indoor environmental quality.
Control procedures are needed during demolition of
water damaged insulation to prevent occupant exposure to mold. An alternative to full containment uses
local exhaust, removing moldy material over a portable,
inverted exhaust hood. This may also be accomplished
using a portable HEPA-filtered air cleaner with intake
air from a flex-duct extended to the point of demolition.
Local exhaust potentially allows demolition with mold

control to be completed quicker and at a lower cost.


Close supervision is needed to ensure consistent
implementation of remediation procedures. While deficiencies were observed with use of the portable exhaust
hood, these are common to environmental mitigation
projects in general. Deficiencies often remain undetected due to lack of onsite inspection.
Detailed attention to quality control during installation
of CWP insulation is necessary to ensure elimination
of pipe sweating. Resolution of observed deficiencies is
facilitated by an insulator accompanying the inspector
and correcting problems on the spot, rather than creating an end-of-project punch list.
Follow-up inspections after one year confirmed that
exposure to dampness, mold growth and CWP sweating
was generally eliminated where enhanced quality control measures ensured new insulation was installed in
compliance with specifications.
Ongoing condensation from defective insulation was
observed from new CWP insulation installed without
enhanced quality control measures. Enhanced quality
control over the insulating process can reduce future costs
associated with sweating from defective CWP insulation.
In some areas, the underlying cause of suspect spotting
on CWP insulation is not defective workmanship, but
excessive space humidity. Improved humidity control is
needed to protect CWP insulation in these areas.

Acknowledgments
Appreciation is expressed for the field work and advice of Kate Leyva,
Lee Salter and Emily Trumbull of Building Dynamics, LLC.

References

www.info.hotims.com/49818-29
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1. Westphalen, D. and S. Koszalinski. Arthur D. Little Inc. for US


Department of Energy. 1999. HVAC Systems Vol. II: Thermal Distribution,
Auxiliary Equipment and Ventilation, DEAC0196CE23798, Consumption
Characteristics of Commercial Buildings.
2. Hart, G. 2011. Saving energy by insulating pipe components.
ASHRAE Journal (10):4248.
3. 2013 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals.
4. Mumaw, J.R. 2001. Below ambient piping insulation systems.
Insulation Outlook-National Insulation Association (9):1930.
5. 2013 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals.
6. Light, E., J. Bailey and R. Gay. 2011. New protocol for the assessment and remediation of indoor mold growth. Proceedings of
12th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate (1):16369.
7. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2008. Publication #402K01001, Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial
Buildings.
8. Midwest Insulation Contractors Association. 2011. National Commercial and Industrial Insulation Standards.

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COLUMN ENGINEERS NOTEBOOK


Stephen W. Duda

Overlooked Code Requirements


BY STEPHEN W. DUDA, P.E., BEAP, HBDP, HFDP, FELLOW ASHRAE

In an Engineers Notebook column about a year ago,1 I gave an outline of several


energy-reduction strategies sometimes overlooked in mechanical design. This month,
I intend to point out some important safety-oriented code requirements that tend
to be similarly overlooked in mechanical design. These are critical safety- or servicerelated features applicable to building mechanical systemscode requirements that
are frequently overlooked by engineers, design-build specialists, contractors, and
even code officials. These are all real examples from actual facilities upon which I have
performed property condition assessments, peer reviews of other designs, or remodeling projects in which a different engineer was responsible for the original design.
Safety Guardrails Near Roof Edge
In my own experience, this may be the single most
commonly and egregiously overlooked code requirement in HVAC practice, in consideration of how
potentially catastrophic its omission may be. The 2012
International Mechanical Code2 Paragraph 304.11
requires guards to be provided where appliances, equipment, fans or other components that require service...
are located within 10 ft (3 m) of a roof edge or open
side of a walking surface and such edge or open side is
located more than 30 in. (762 mm) above the floor, roof
or grade below. That clause goes on to say the guard
needs to extend at least 30 in. (762 mm) beyond each
end of the item of equipment, and the guard must be
at least 42 in. (1.07 m) tall designed not to pass a 21 in.
(533 mm) sphere (for example, a 42 in. (1.07 m) twopipe handrail). Specific requirements for the loading withstand rating of the guard rail are given in the
International Building Code.3
The reason for this requirement is obviously one of
safety for the mechanic who may be required to change
a fan belt, replace filters, and perform routine service
or major repairs. Imagine a worker tugging on a broken
fan belt or a filter stuck in its housing that suddenly
breaks free, sending the worker stumbling backward.
Even a simple accidental slip or fall, especially when the
roof is wet or icy, could be fatal. Although I quoted above
from the 2012 IMC, the same clause has appeared in
every edition since 2000 albeit with different paragraph
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numbering, and was even found in the now-obsolete


BOCA Building Codes as far back as 1993. Yet as I drive
throughout my own hometown and on business travel
throughout the Midwest, I observe many rooftop units
and condensing units located very close to a roof edge
with no guard rail at all, or at most an insignificantly
short parapet.
If you dont want to deal with a guard rail on the roof
edge, or if architectural aesthetics (e.g., a historic building) dictate that one should not be applied, then clearly
annotate on roof plan drawings that all mechanical
equipment must be installed more than 10 ft (3 m) from
a roof edge at closest approach.

Insulation Required on Hot Surfaces


When visiting central plant mechanical rooms and
air-handling equipment rooms, I typically see insulation very carefully applied continuously throughout a
network of chilled water piping, including on valves,
fittings, strainers, and specialty items. This occurs
especially but not exclusively in humid climates,
as continuous insulation on cold-surface piping is
needed to avoid condensation. Very often, however,
those same elements lack continuous insulation
on steam and hydronic hot-surface valves, fittings,
strainers, air separators, and other specialties, and
Stephen W. Duda, P.E., is assistant director of mechanical engineering at Ross &
Baruzzini, Inc. in St. Louis.

COLUMN ENGINEERS NOTEBOOK

even pumps; instead they feature insulation only on


straight pipe lengths.
The energy losses from these uninsulated elements can
be substantial and is generally not allowed by ASHRAE
Standard 90.14 except for some elements of small piping. Moreover, these uninsulated surfaces pose a safety
hazard and may not meet code or OSHA requirements.
For our international readers, OSHA is the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration, an agency of the U.S.
Department of Labor. OSHA regulations5 mandate that
all exposed steam and hot-water pipes within 7 ft (2.1 m)
of the floor or working platform shall be covered with
an insulating material or otherwise guarded to prevent
contact.
Bare metal steam piping or hydronic hot-water piping is a burn risk for personnel assigned to maintenance
or repair work in the vicinity of those hot surfaces. It is
not difficult to imagine a mechanic performing maintenance in a crowded mechanical room on one piece
of equipment while accidentally making skin contact
with an adjacent uninsulated steam pipe. Or imagine a
worker on a ladder re-lamping a light fixture who begins
to lose balance and, as an involuntary human reaction,
reaches out a hand to the nearest object for self-bracingand that nearest object is a bare steam pipe fitting.
Even above a lay-in ceiling, a worker may be assigned to
repair a VAV box and accidentally touches a nearby bare
reheat pipe fitting. In consideration of this, the author
does not recommend limiting insulation to the lowest 7
ft (2.1 m).
It is clearly not unreasonably difficult to insulate
valves, fittings, strainers, and pipe specials because it is
done frequently on chilled water piping systems for condensation control. The same should be done for hot surfaces, and it is even easier to accomplish since a vapor
barrier is not needed and because removable valve/fitting blankets and covers are available for hot water and
steam systems. OSHA allows issuance of personal protective clothing to workers in lieu of insulating nearby
hot surfaces, but it is difficult to imagine a mechanic
successfully rebuilding the seal on a pump near an adjacent hot surface while dressed in bulky clothing and
wearing heavy, thick insulated gloves.
OSHA does not specify a specific temperature threshold above which insulation is required nor below
which insulation is exempt, and this may be relevant as
hydronic hot water design temperatures in our industry

are falling with the growing application of condensing


boilers. For help in that regard, we can turn to ASTM
Standard C1055-03,6 which points out that touching of
a metallic surface at or above 158F (70C) causes irreversible injury to human skin almost instantaneously
upon contact, and faster than human reaction can
withdraw. Metallic surfaces at or below 111F (44C)
appear to pose no safety threat according to the same
Standard. 140F (60C) seems to be a reasonable threshold because it correlates to a first-degree burn (the least
severe type of burn) at a contact duration of five seconds. Furthermore, the Uniform Mechanical Code7 in
Paragraph 1201-3.8.6(A) establishes 140F (60C) as the
threshold above which pipe insulation is required.
Hopefully, this safety concern will eventually fade, as
energy concerns are driving designers and engineers
to specify high-efficiency condensing boilers operating
with low-temperature heating water systems. But steam
systems are still prevalent in health-care occupancies
and legacy non-condensing hot water systems will still
be encountered in retrofit work for many more years,
so this author recommends you include a clause in your
insulation specifications stating something similar to:
For piping services denoted as 140F (60C) or greater, all
piping surfaces including but not limited to pipe, flanges,
fittings, valves of every kind, strainers, unions, and other
appurtenances should be insulated to avoid potential for
personnel injury via contact with a hot surface. Where
Standard 90.1 compliance is required, all piping elements
operating above 105F (41C) must be insulated except for
some elements of piping 1 in. (25 mm) and smaller.

Sidewall Grille Blade Spacing


If an air inlet or outlet is less than 7 ft (2.1 m) above
the floor, its maximum allowable blade spacing is 0.5
in. (12.7 mm). This is mandated by NFPA 90A8 in Article
4.3.7.3. Technically, that clause is worded as requiring a
grille having openings through which a 0.5 in. (12.7 mm)
sphere cannot pass; so a grille with wider blade spacing
could be used if a 0.5 in. (12.7 mm) mesh screen is placed
immediately behind the grille. Although the NFPA does
not explain the rationale behind this requirement, it
may be related to discouraging the use of an HVAC grille
as a place to discard trash or accumulations of other
materials that could later become a fire hazard. As is the
case with the Safety Guards near a Roof Edge, the cited
code requirement is taken from the 2012 edition, but the
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33

same clause has appeared for many previous editions as


well.
Ceilings are rarely lower than 7 ft (2.1 m) above the
floor, but sidewall grilles often can be (for example,
return grilles in hospital operating rooms). While the
HVAC grille manufacturers do offer the 0.5 in. (12.7 mm)
blade spacing, many product lines of HVAC sidewall
grilles are catalogued and sold with 0.75 in. (19 mm)
blade spacing. Obviously, fewer blades means the grille
can be priced lower. The design professional must pay
careful attention not only to their air inlet and air outlet
schedule to require the correct blade spacing wherever
the grilles will be installed lower than 7 ft (2.1 m) above
the floor, but also to product submittals during the construction phase to ensure a lower-cost alternative with
wider blade spacing is not being substituted.

Summary
Three code requirements that are sometimes overlooked in mechanical design are presented here. Each

topic is derived from the authors own experiences


found many times while performing property condition assessments or peer reviews of other designs in
actual facilities. This column is intended to be used as a
summary checklist or a quick reference guide for HVAC
design professionals, to avoid repeating these oversights
on future building projects.

References
1. Duda, S. 2013. Lessons from energy audits. ASHRAE Journal 55 (11).
2. ICC. 2012. International Mechanical Code.
3. IBC. 2012. International Building Code. Chicago: International Code Council, Inc.
4. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013, Energy Standard for Buildings
Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.
5. 29 CFR 1910.261(k)(11) Code of Federal Regulations. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
6. ASTM Standard C1055-2003 (Re-Affirmed 2014), Standard
Guide for Heated System Surface Conditions That Produce Contact Burn
Injuries.
7. IAPMO/ANSI/UMC-1. 2012. Uniform Mechanical Code.
8. NFPA Standard 90A-2012, Standard for the Installation of AirConditioning and Ventilating Systems.

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TECHNICAL FEATURE

Air-Cooled Chillers
For Las Vegas Revisited
BY RONALD H. HOWELL, PH.D., P.E., FELLOW/LIFE MEMBER ASHRAE; DONALD W. LAND, P.E., MEMBER ASHRAE; JOHN M. LAND

A little over a decade ago two articles appeared in ASHRAE Journal describing the analysis for retrofitting HVAC systems for 11 elementary schools in the Clark County School
District (CCSD) in Las Vegas. Multizone systems using air-cooled R-22 chillers to replace
rooftop units were proposed, and the articles raised concerns about efficiencies of using
air-cooled systems in a hot and dry climate. Since the installation of these systems in the
late 1990s, CCSD has collected 12 years of electrical use and maintenance cost data that
show the air-cooled systems were the right choice for these schools.
In the first article, Air-Cooled Chillers for Hot, Dry
Climates,1 four alternatives for system replacement
were considered and evaluated using a reliable life-cycle
cost analysis program. The alternatives were:
1. New rooftop units;
2. Multizone systems with air-cooled chillers and gas
heat;
3. Multizone systems with water-cooled chillers and
gas heat; and
4. Multizone systems with air-cooled chillers and
electric heat.
The multizone systems with air-cooled chillers and
gas heat provided the lowest 20-year life-cycle cost. The
school system had done some replacement of rooftop
units with multizone systems and experienced significant

savings in maintenance costs over a period of five years.


The expected savings in maintenance and electrical
energy costs for these schools for the 20-year life expectancy of the new HVAC systems was $4.5 million. Table 1
shows the significant results from the first article.1
In the second article, Safe Bet for Vegas Schools,2 the
reasons for considering the alternatives and changes are
discussed.
HVAC maintenance costs for the retrofitted Garrett
Middle School in Las Vegas were less than half of the costs
to maintain two similar schools with rooftop units. The
difference is attributed to Garretts replacement of its
RTU multizone units with an air-cooled chiller, closed
loop chilled water system and multizone air-handling
units.

Ronald H. Howell, Ph.D., P.E., is retired. Donald W. Land, P.E., is facility engineer at University of Nevada at Las Vegas. John M. Land is a retired data analyst.
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TECHNICAL FEATURE

TABLE 2 Life-cycle cost analyses for Edwards and Wengert.

TABLE 1 Dollar savings in operating costs after retrofit.


AVERAGE MAINTENANCE COSTS
FOR THE 11 SCHOOLS

Before

After

$0.181/ft Per Year $0.085/ft Per Year


AVERAGE ELECTRICAL COSTS
FOR THE 11 SCHOOLS

Before

After

59,422 Btu/ft
Per Year

50,480 Btu/ft
Per Year

17.4 kWh/ft
Per Year

14.9 kWh/ft
Per Year

TOTALS FOR
MAINTENANCE AND ELECTRICAL

MAINTENANCE
SAVINGS FOR ALL
SCHOOLS
(641,380 FT)

SAVINGS FOR 20
YEAR EXPECTED
EQUIPMENT LIFE
(EXTRAPOLATED)

$61,572/Year at
$0.096/ft

$1,231,450

ELECTRICAL SAVINGS
FOR ALL SCHOOLS
(641,380 FT)

SAVINGS FOR 20
YEAR EXPECTED
EQUIPMENT LIFE
(EXTRAPOLATED)

$161,308/Year at
$0.1002/kWh

$3,226,170

FOR ALL
ABC SCHOOLS

FOR 20 YEAR LIFE

$222,800/Year

$4,457,620

AVERAGE PER SCHOOL

Maintenance

$5,597/Year

$111,950

Electrical

$14,664/Year

$293,288

Total

$20,262/Year

$405,238

Table 2, extracted from the second article, shows the


results for the 20-year life-cycle cost analysis for two of
the 11 elementary schools being considered.
The second article2 concluded:
Looking only at the chiller energy consumption would
lead one to install a water-cooled chiller, rather than an
air-cooled chiller in a desert area. However, considering all of the factors: chiller efficiency, maintenance
costs, cooling tower need, water treatment, etc., the aircooled chiller system would save CCSD about $100,000
throughout the life of the system. The savings from
using the air-cooled system over just the simple replacement of the original direct expansion rooftop units was
approximately $275,000 per school for the 20-year life of
the new system.
These renovations have been completed and are operating as expected with significant savings in operating
and maintenance costs. The total savings are expected
to reach about $1,100,000 throughout the 20-year life of
the HVAC systems in these 11 Clark County schools.

Data Collection
The data that has been retrieved from the CCSD data
center includes:
Electrical energy usage in kBtu/ft2;

EDWARDS ELEMENTARY
ALT.

TONS

FIRST COST

PAYBACK

LIFE-CYCLE COST

150

$487,715

Base

$1,302,187

150

$646,053

7 Years

$1,067,334

150

$648,648

12 Years

$1,172,814

150

$701,600

11 Years

$1,166,525
WENGERT ELEMENTARY

ALT.

TONS

FIRST COST

PAYBACK

LIFE-CYCLE COST

169

$717,160

Base

$1,799,652

169

$952,265

8 Years

$1,495,759

169

$924,718

11 Years

$1,591,332

169

$1,008,700

11 Years

$1,605,235

School areas annually in square feet; and


Maintenance costs in dollars.
Also collected were the 65F (18C) cooling degree days
(CDD) for the Las Vegas area on both an annual basis
and an accounting period basis.
The factors that affected the energy usage include:
1. Was the school operated on a nine or 12-month
basis?
2. The area of each school changed from the original 43,000 ft2 to up to 68,000 ft2 (4000 m2 to up to
6300 m2). This was done in some cases by permanent
additions and, more commonly, by adding modular
classrooms. During the time of this data collection, the
area change was done with modular units. Between
2002 and 2013 the 11 schools had area changes ranging
from 55,000 ft2 to 68,000 ft2 (5100 m2 to 6300 m2). The
average area for all schools for all years was 61,000 ft2
(5667 m2).
3. Some schools had outside activities taking place
after school hours.
4. During the period of analysis, some schools hosted
evening classes for variable lengths of time.
5. Some schools had computers added.
6. Some schools hosted summer school during some
years.
7. Some schools added chiller operation 24/7 for a twoweek period.
All of these factors were not easily accounted for
because they took place at unknown times for unknown
periods, and increased energy usage. However, averaging the energy usage over all the years and all the schools
helped smooth out these effects.
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Advertisement

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TECHNICAL FEATURE

The total amount of electrical usage is made up of


many sources: lighting, equipment, plug loads, computers, fans, pumps, as well as chiller loads. There was no
separate metering of chiller usage so the effect of using a
more efficient chiller is diminished by adding the other
sources of electrical usage.

TABLE 3 Cooling degree days (base 65F) Las Vegas.


CDD PER ACCOUNTING YEAR

CDD PER CALENDAR YEAR

AVERAGE ANNUAL CDD 3,568

AVERAGE ANNUAL CDD 3,568

ACCOUNTING YEAR

1998: 7/97 6/98

2000: 7/99 6/00

2002: 7/01 6/02


2003: 7/02 6/03
2004: 7/03 6/04
2005: 7/04 6/05
2006: 7/05 6/06
2007: 7/06 6/07
2008: 7/07 6/08
2009: 7/08 6/09
2010: 7/09 6/10
2011: 7/10 6/11
2012: 7/11 6/12
2013: 7/12 6/13
Average

Results
Cooling Degree Days
Before looking at the energy and maintenance
costs, it is useful to look at the cooling degree days at
base 65F (18C) (CDD) for Las Vegas. These are given
in Table 3. The average annual CDD = 3,568 is taken
from a local source in Nevada. From the Principles
of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning, which has
weather data taken from the ASHRAE Weather Data
Viewer 5.0, gives a value of 3,486 CDD for McCarran
International Airport. The average CDD from NOAA
for 2000 to 2013 for the accounting year for the Clark
County School District, July through June, averaged
3,789. The accounting year is the basis for the school
districts reported annual energy usage and costs. The
average for the calendar years 2000 through 2013 was
3,793.
It is clear that, on the average, either basis yields the
same number of CDD: 3,790. Notice that for 1998 the
number of CDD was 2,908. This is a 23% lower value in
this comparison year than the average of the 14 years
over which the new equipment has been compared.
Therefore, this yields a conservative estimate of the
energy savings for the new systems compared to the old
systems that were in use in 1998. The range of reported
CDD during 2000 to 2013 is a high of 4,091 to a low of
3,566 or +8% to 6% of the average.
The deviations in CDD (23%, +8%, and 6%) are not
unusual. CDD is not a very precise indicator of the
severity of the summer. It is only a single parameter indicatortemperatureand does not take into
account variations in solar intensity fluctuations,
wind velocity variations, nor humidity load variations.
However, it is a readily available number that is in
common use.
The results of the evaluation of this CDD data is that
there are no unusual summers during the data collection time period. Also, the 14 years of data have a higher
number of CDD than the reference year of 1998, providing a conservative estimate for energy savings.
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CDD

2,866
3,635
3,755
3,601
4,054
3,495
3,842
3,898
3,743
3,918
3,550
3,682
4,000
4,087
3,789

YEAR

CDD

1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013

3,300
2,908
3,241
3,773
3,917
3,663
3,846
3,755
3,595
3,755
4,091
3,818
3,818
3,668
3,566
4,045
3,791
(14 years) 3,793

Electrical Energy Usage


Table 4 provides the total electrical energy used in the
11 elementary schools for the 1998 year (last year that all
schools were operating with the old HVAC system) and
for 2002 through 2013 when all schools were operating
with the new HVAC systems. The data was converted
from kWh to kBtu per square foot.
In the last column on the right, the average for the
years 2002 to 2013 is given for each school. The bottom row is the average for all schools for each year.
The average for all schools and all years from 2002 to
2013 is given in the lower right corner and was 51.0
kBtu/ft2. From Principles of Heating, Ventilating and AirConditioning, Page 8, the typical annual goal for an
annual electrical energy budget for a building is 15
kWh/ft2, which converts to 51.2 kBtu/ft2 (580 MJ/m2),
very close to what was experienced in the Las Vegas
schools.

Discussion
The average annual electrical energy consumption per
square foot per year for the 11 schools for the 12 years of
usage following the renovations was 51 kBtu/ft2 (580 MJ/
m2). For the 11 schools in 1998 prior to renovation, the
average was 59.4 kBtu/ft2 (675 MJ/m2). This is a 14.1%
reduction in energy usage for the 11 schools for 12 years.

www.info.hotims.com/49818-26

TECHNICAL FEATURE

TABLE 4 Electrical energy use per unit area.


ELECTRICAL ENERGY USE PER SQUARE FOOT (KBTU/FT 2)
SCHOOL

1998

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

AVERAGE

DIS
DON
EDW
FER
HRM
HAR
SMI
TAT
TOM
WAR
WEN
avg

56.9
59.5
54.4
61.7
53.6
60.0
46.2
69.9
56.4
72.5
62.7
59.4

50.1
51.7
51.1
55.6
43.1
44.2
44.1
54.5
50.3
55.9
60.5
51.0

77.0
63.4
57.0
65.0
55.0
48.4
55.1
76.0
47.0
54.9
63.0
60.1

50.5
51.0
44.2
50.9
45.7
44.8
47.3
49.5
46.9
48.3
46.3
47.8

50.3
45.4
48.6
59.3
54.9
45.6
53.7
57.9
51.2
47.8
47.9
51.1

50.1
50.0
48.7
61.4
58.0
44.2
59.9
53.7
50.7
46.1
53.7
52.4

49.7
55.4
51.6
59.5
67.3
52.0
56.4
53.3
51.3
51.6
57.6
55.1

47.8
49.8
48.9
50.5
67.7
41.1
56.0
51.5
49.1
42.8
56.3
51.0

48.2
50.9
53.7
50.0
60.2
41.9
54.3
53.4
50.0
43.3
59.9
51.4

47.0
49.3
60.8
47.7
56.4
40.1
51.5
49.6
42.5
41.5
60.3
49.7

49.1
46.1
50.4
55.3
56.4
46.1
54.1
49.0
44.0
43.7
59.5
50.3

42.6
45.6
44.2
51.4
55.4
43.3
53.0
48.5
39.9
41.0
48.1
46.6

40.1
43.1
44.1
50.0
55.9
50.8
48.1
40.6
43.3
41.6
47.6
45.9

50.2
50.1
50.3
54.7
56.3
45.2
52.8
53.1
47.2
46.5
55.0
51.0

FIGURE 1 Electrical energy use pre- and post-renovation.

FIGURE 2 Electrical energy use for all schools.

75
70

60
Energy (kBtu/ft2)

Electrical Energy (kBtu/ft2)

65

55
50
45
40

60
55
50
45

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Average Energy 2002 2013

Average 1998

Following the retrofit, two schools,


Harmon and Smith, are higher
in kBtu/ft2 when compared to the
original energy usage. Harmon was
higher at 56.3 kBtu/ft2 (639 MJ/m2)
after renovation compared to 53.6
kBtu/ft2 (609 MJ/m2) prior to renovation, an increase of 5%. Smith was
higher at 52.8 kBtu/ft2 (600 MJ/m2)
compared to 46.2 kBtu/ft2 (525 MJ/
m2), an increase of 14%. This could be
due to many unknown factors such
as building usage, extra lighting load,
higher computer usage, extra classes
being taught, etc. Further investigation indicated that these two schools
had control issues. These involved
oversized hot deck gas heaters and
42

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Average 2002 2013

40

DIS DON EDW FER HRM HAR SMI


School
Average Energy 2002 2013

undersized electric damper actuators for the low leakage zone dampers installed for improved energy
efficiency. This resulted in simultaneous heating and cooling at times.
However, nine of the 11 schools had
lower average energy use in 2002 to
2013.
Figure 1 shows the average of all
schools each year following renovation compared to the reference year
of 1998. 2003 was slightly higher
than 1998 due to damper issues.
Figure 2 is a plot of the individual
schools showing the before and after
renovation energy usage values.
Harmon and Smith are highlighted
to show their lack of energy savings.

D ECEM BER 2014

School
Disken
Dondero
Edwards
Ferron
Harmon
Harris
Smith
Tate
Tomiyasu
Ward
Wengert
Average

TAT TOM WAR WEN

Energy Use 1998

Abbreviation
DIS
DON
EDW
FER
HRM
HAR
SMI
TAT
TOM
WAR
WEN
avg

There is some maintenance


cost data available for six of the 11
schools. In the other schools, HVAC
maintenance costs other than those

www.info.hotims.com/49818-17

TECHNICAL FEATURE

TABLE 5 Representative maintenance cost data.


SCHOOL

HVAC MAINTENANCE ($)

AREA (FT 2)

$/FT 2 /YR

Edwards

11,882

62,962

0.189

Ferron

1,300

59,852

0.022

Tate

12,747

64,029

0.199

Tomiyasu

7,258

58,241

0.125

Ward

12,232

65,050

0.188

Wengert

2,906

62,761

0.046

Average

0.127

for HVAC systems were not separated. These appropriate


data are given in Table 5.
In the 2011 ASHRAE HandbookHVAC Applications,
studies of HVAC maintenance costs have been
reported for two studies, one in 1983 and the
other in 2004. The median value for 2004 was
$0.44/ft2yr ($4.74/m2yr). Since the data presented
in Table 5 was from 2002 to 2013, the $0.44/ft2yr
($4.74/m2yr) from this reference would be a reasonable estimate for comparison. The schools in this
study were performing better than what was reported
in the Handbook, which includes something about
reports of maintenance costs: The maintenance costs
of mechanical systems varies widely depending upon
configuration, equipment location, accessibility, system complexity, service duty, geography, and system
reliability requirements. There appeared to be some
lack of proper training for maintenance needs with
the new HVAC systems.
From Table 2 the maintenance costs were reported at
$0.181/ft2yr ($1.95/m2yr) in 1998 along with an estimate
for the renovated system, with limited data, at $0.085/
ft2yr ($0.92/m2yr). Using the 1998 value of $0.181/ft2yr
($1.95/m2yr) compared to the value given in Table 5 of
$0.127/ft2yr ($1.37/m2yr) a savings in maintenance costs
of about 29.8% was achieved.

Conclusions
Using the results from 2002 to 2013 and extrapolating
to a 20-year life results in the following savings. An average electrical cost was found by taking the 1998 value
for CCSD and extrapolating for half of the life, yielding
a value of $0.121/kWh. The average area was 61,000 ft2
(5667 m2).
From Table 4: 59.4 51.0 kBtu/ft2yr results in an average of 8.4 kBtu/ft2 (95 MJ/m2) annually per school.
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D ECEM BER 2014

8.4 kBtu/ft2yr per school (61,000 ft2 11 schools 20


yrs) = 113 million kBtu or 33,038,000 kWh
At $0.121/kWh that gives $3,997,600 savings in 11
schools for 20 years.
From Table 1, the estimated savings were $3,226,000.
So, the actual savings exceeded the estimated savings by
$771,600 or 24%.
From Table 1, the maintenance costs were $0.181/ft2yr
($1.95/m2yr) per school prior to renovation. From Table
5, the representative actual maintenance costs following
renovation were $0.127/ft2yr ($1.37/m2yr) per school.
Savings = ($0.181/ft2yr $0.127/ft2yr) (61,000 ft2 11
schools 20 yrs) = $724,680
From Table 1, the savings in maintenance costs were
estimated at $1,231,450 or an over estimate of 41%,
which is $506,770.
Combining electric usage costs and maintenance costs,
the savings were under estimated by $264,660.
The total savings for electric and maintenance costs for
11 schools for 20 years was $4,722,280. In addition, the
life-cycle cost estimate was 5.9% better than expected.
There was a significant savings in water usage by not
selecting water-cooled chillers over air-cooled. Water
use was a significant concern in the original decision to
go with air-cooled chillers. This turned out to be a wise
decision considering that a 14-year drought has dropped
Lake Meads water levels to their lowest point ever this
year.

Acknowledgments
H. Richard Cuppett, P.E., provided all energy, maintenance, use, and cost data for the 11 Clark County School
District elementary schools included in this analysis. A
memoriam to Elton Dale Scheideman, AIA, who died
in February 2006, during his 15th year as Director of
Planning and Engineering for CCSD. He authorized the
first air-cooled chiller project at Garrett Middle School
in August 1991. He would have been pleased with the
results presented here for the 11 elementary schools.

References
1. Howell, R.H., D.W. Land, E.D. Scheideman. 2003. Air-cooled
chillers for hot, dry climates. ASHRAE Journal, 12.
2. Howell, R.H., D.W. Land, E.D. Scheideman. 2004. Safe bet for
Vegas schools. ASHRAE Journal, 5.
3. Howell, R.H., W.J. Coad, H.J. Sauer. 2013. Principles of Heating,
Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 7th edition. Atlanta: ASHRAE.
4. 2011 ASHRAE HandbookHVAC Applications, Chapter 37.

www.info.hotims.com/49818-11

COLUMN REFRIGERATION APPLICATIONS


Andy Pearson

Bring on the Subsidy


BY ANDY PEARSON, PH.D., C.ENG., MEMBER ASHRAE

Last month we started thinking about the harsh economics of justifying a heat
pump installation over a more traditional, cheaper but environmentally damaging
heating system. As I mentioned then, it has been very hard for me to come to terms
with the fact that, in the heat pump world, the cooling effect that I value so highly
is often thrown away, whereas what I considered to be waste, and to be honest was
often a pesky nuisance, is a highly valued commodity and can be sold for a handsome profit. Its a funny old world.
Heat pumps make the best economic sense when both
In contrast, when the Swedish government announced
the cold end and the hot end are useful to somebody.
its intention to introduce a subsidy in 12 months time,
Not only do you not have to worry about disposing of the the market immediately collapsed because prospective
excess heat or cooling effect, but people will actually pay purchasers all said I will wait for the sub. Several previyou for it. The combination of useful cooling and useously successful installation companies went to the wall
ful heating can be a match made in heaven. However,
in the downturn, with the result that when the subsidy
practicalities can often get in the way. The
arrived, there wasnt enough capacity to meet
There is only one thing in the world demand. In the United Kingdom, the governperson who could use the cooling is too far
worse than being subsidized and
away and the interconnecting pipe would
ment has been subsidizing renewable heat
that is not being subsidized.
be too expensive, or the cooling would need
for a few years now. The concept is laudable; if
to be stored for several hours until it was
a user installs a heat pump to take heat energy
needed because the cooling and heating
from the ambient, for example, through airdemands are not synchronized. Sometimes
source or ground-source heat pumps, they
a dependency on the neighbors for business
are paid a tariff for each kWh delivered. The
critical cooling is deemed to be too much of
tariff is sufficiently generous to cover the
a risk. Other times it is just considered too
energy bill for running the heat pump and to
complicated to be worthwhile. This is a real
recoup the capital spend in a short time.
OSCAR WILDE
shame because it is one of the few examples
However, there was a catch. Heat from
in life of a real win-win situation.
processes was not covered, so valuable sources that
When there is no immediate use for the cooling byare right there and would give efficient operation were
product from a heat pump, thoughts turn to governthrown away in favor of less efficient, more difficult to
ment support to sweeten the proposition. There have
obtain, natural heat. The whole affair has been subsibeen many types of subsidy tried in recent years, with a
dizing bad systems at the expense of potentially good
range of outcomes; some good and some not so good. In
ones. Happily, this is changing and a tariff has been introFrance the announcement of a grant for the installation
duced to recognize process heat as well as ambient heat.
of domestic heat pumps was so successful that the marClearly, governments need to be very careful when
ket boomed, bringing a huge number of underqualified they step in to offer incentives. A well thought-through
or unqualified installers into the picture. The resultant
scheme can be a powerful force for good, but the unindrop in quality of installations produced a huge backtended consequences that flow from a badly planned
lash. Heat pump technology got a terrible reputation for incentive program can do serious and lasting damage.
being unreliable and inefficient. The market slumped
Andy Pearson, Ph.D., C.Eng., is group engineering director at Star Refrigeration in Glasgow, UK.
and the subsidy was withdrawn.
46

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D ECEM BER 2014

www.info.hotims.com/49818-22

2014 ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARD CASE STUDIES

Jonxion 4905 Lapiniere, is


a 117,918 ft2 (10 955 m2) office
building near Montreal that
uses heat recovery to heat the
building without any external
energy source. Its energy consumption is only 9.7 kWh/ft2
(104 kWh/m2) annually.

HONORABLE MENTION
COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS, NEW

Heat Recovery
For Canadian Building

BY GENEVIVE LUSSIER, ENG., MEMBER ASHRAE

BUILDING AT A GLANCE

Jonxion
4905 Lapiniere
Location: Brossard, Quebec, Canada
Owner: Galion
Principal Use: Office spaces
Includes: Office spaces, a pub, employee
lounges and meeting rooms
Gross Square Footage: 117,918
Conditioned Space Square Footage: 110,000
Substantial Completion/Occupancy: 2010
Occupancy: 85%
National Distinctions/Awards: LEED-NC Silver

Canadian winters are harsh, resulting in high heating


loads. But a new office building (nicknamed Jonxion)
near Montreal is entirely heated using only heat recovery
measures and renewable energy from the ground. The
design of the envelope and mechanical systems helped
lower capital costs and energy consumption of the building to only 9.7 kWh/ft2 (104 kWh/m2) per year.
The building envelope design was crucial to heating the
whole building and fresh air supply using only recovered
heat from interior spaces and from the ground. All floorto-ceiling windows are triple paned to limit heat loss
and heat gain. Smaller windows (5 ft high and less) are
double paned, low-e with argon gas space. These specifications obtained a uniform and low perimeter heat loss
and heat gain per linear foot, making the mechanical
design simpler.
Genevive Lussier, Eng., is director, technology and design at SMi-Enerpro in Longueuil, Quebec, Canada.

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2014 ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARD CASE STUDIES

ABOVE Main entrance.


LEFT Lobby.

Mechanical Systems Description


The gross building area is 117,918 ft2 (10 955 m2) distributed on five floors. The refrigeration systems are located
in a roof penthouse. A mechanical room is located on
each floor for the secondary ventilation systems. A dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) of 16,000 cfm (7551
L/s) is located on the roof and distributes fresh air to the
secondary systems. The DOAS is also equipped with an
exhaust fan that exhausts air from the restrooms and
general spaces.
A heat recovery wheel is installed in the DOAS to
recover heat from the exhaust air. This wheel also recovers latent energy from the exhaust air, which eliminated
the need to install a humidifier in the DOAS. To prevent
freezing of the wheel when outdoor temperatures are
very low (less than 10F [12C]), the speed of the wheel
is reduced. Each floor of the building is air conditioned
by a secondary system equipped with a cooling coil. This
system mixes return air with treated fresh air from the
DOAS. On every floor, for the building periphery, six
fan coils cool or heat the air according to the envelope
load. As a result, since the fan coils offset the envelope
load, the full occupied space becomes an internal zone,
resulting in a sizable cooling load year-round in the
building, even in winter.
The heat removed from these interior spaces (by two
80 ton (281 kW) centralized chillers) is rejected (from
the chiller condensers) in a heating loop to heat the fan
coils located in the peripheral zones. Basically, in winter,
these chillers are used as heat pumps. This means that
heat generated from the internal spaces is transferred to
the peripheral spaces.
The chillers operate at high evaporator temperatures
(48F [9C]) and low condenser temperatures (95F
[35C]), which results in a lower kW/ton. In this case,
after a one-year study, we observed that only one of the

80 ton (281 kW) chillers is needed, and it operates at a


60% average load (48 tons [169 kW]). At this operation
point, the chillers energy consumption is approximately
0.65 kW/ton. Furthermore, if the heat gain from the
internal spaces is not enough to satisfy the heating load,
the chiller extracts energy from the ground using the 28
geothermal closed loop vertical 500 ft (152 m) deep boreholes. All the heating coils were designed to use low temperature heating water, making it possible to use heat
rejected by the chillers without adding any energy and
thus increasing the efficiency of the chillers by operating
at lower condenser temperatures.
All of these sources of heat recovery resulted in the
ability to heat the air from the ventilation systems without using boilers. This means that the whole building is
heated without using an external energy source (fuel,
gas or electrical energy), resulting in a significant reduction of CO and CO2 emissions and energy consumption.
All ventilation systems fans are equipped with variable frequency drives. Since the fresh air is supplied by a
DOAS and the secondary systems do not exhaust air, no
return fans were necessary. Airflows to zones are varied
depending on heating and cooling loads. The peripheral
fan coils are equipped with ECM motors. The minimum
fresh air amount introduced in the systems was determined using ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007. CO2 levels are
monitored on each floor as well as high occupant density
rooms (for example, conference rooms). High induction
diffusers were used to increase comfort levels in each
zone. Furthermore, during construction, all sealants,
adhesives, paints and glues had low or no VOCs in their
composition. Figure 1 illustrates the ventilation systems
configuration.
Both chilled and heating water are produced using two
80 ton (281 kW) high efficiency twin screw compressor
chillers. The fan coil systems can either cool or heat the
D ECEM BER 2014

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49

2014 ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARD CASE STUDIES

FIGURE 1 Ventilation systems.

FIGURE 2 Chilled and heating water systems.

Fresh Air Supply Fan

Fresh
Air
16,000 cfm
Exhaust
Air
Exhaust
Fan
Heat
Recovery
Wheel

Fan Coil for Building


Envelope Load
(6 Per Floor)
Occupied
Zone

3,200 cfm

Occupied
Zone

3,200 cfm

Occupied
Zone

3,200 cfm

Occupied
Zone

3,200 cfm

Occupied
Zone

3,200 cfm

Ventilation System Occupied Zone


(1 Per Floor)

Evaporator
Chilled Water
Bypass Valve

Ventilation System
Of Occupied Zone
(5 Total)
General
Exhaust

80 Tons
Each

Condenser

150 gpm

Evaporator

150 gpm

To evaluate the energy savings, a computer model of


the base case building was made using the EE4 simulation software (this base case building must meet
Canadian energy codes or ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1).
Table 1 shows the real energy consumption and cost
(before taxes) in Canadian dollars of the building from
January to December 2011. Please note that this energy
consumption includes the tenant consumption with an
average occupancy level of 70%.
Figure 3 shows the simulation results along with the
real energy consumption of the building from January to
December 2011.
The total energy (which is 100% electric) consumption
of the building is 1,141,800 kWh per year, which translates to 9.7 kWh/ft2 (104 kWh/m2) per year. The energy
consumption of the model was 1,906,400 kWh per year,
ashrae.org

Fan Coils for Building


Envelope Load
Quantity: 30

Sanitary
Exhaust

Energy Efficiency

ASHRAE JOURNAL

Condenser

150 gpm

air it supplies to its given zone according to the load.


The systems use chilled or hot water and treat the air
with the same coil. Every coil is connected to the cooling
and heating water loops and switches on the appropriate loop using automatic control three-way valves. All
pumps are equipped with variable frequency drives and
modulate their flow according to the coil demands of
each loop. Figure 2 shows the chilled and heating water
systems.

50

Heating Water
Bypass Valve
150 gpm

Cooling Coil

D ECEM BER 2014

26 Bore holes of 500 ft Deep

or 16 kWh/ft2 (172 kWh/m2) per year, which is relatively


low. The total energy consumption was thus reduced by
40% compared with the model, which roughly sums to
$62,000 CAN$ per year. Figure 3 also indicates the impact
of heating with recovered energy only: the average savings during the winter period is 50% compared to the
model.
In this project, the total HVAC system costs were
$1,880,000 CAN$. For a 117,000 ft2 building, this capital cost represents $16/ft2. If more common mechanical systems had been installed (ventilation units, no
ground-source boreholes, cooling towers and boilers),
the mechanical costs would have been equal or higher.
Indeed, if no heat recovery wheel had been installed, the
chillers would have been bigger because of higher fresh
air cooling load. If the building envelope were less high
performing, the summer cooling load would have been
higher, requiring bigger chillers, and the winter heating
load would have increased, probably requiring energy
from hot water boilers.
From the beginning of the project, the engineers and
architects worked together to design a high performance
building envelope to reduce the quantity and size of the
mechanical systems and thus reduce capital costs. This

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2014 ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARD CASE STUDIES

FIGURE 3 Real energy consumption versus model.

MONTH

NUMBER OF DAYS

CONSUMPTION (KWH)

COST ($CAN)

January

30

100,800

$7,545.89

February

33

91,800

$6,987.58

March

28

76,800

$6,406.47

April

30

76,800

$6,328.32

May

30

78,600

$6,739.22

June

32

87,000

$7,243.43

July

29

99,000

$8,242.84

August

29

96,000

$8,015.50

September

29

96,600

$8,050.06

October

31

101,400

$8,430.52

November

31

111,600

$8,977.10

December

33

125,400

$10,090.14

Total

365

1,141,800

$93,057.07

means that in this project, the annual energy savings of


$62,000 CAN$ are instantly gained without any additional capital cost for the building owner. Also, this project

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250
Energy Consumption Measured
Energy Consumption of Model

200
kWh (In Thousands)

TABLE 1 Real energy consumption 2011.

150
100
50
0

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

proved that designing an energy efficient building does


not necessarily cost more than a conventional one.

Environmental Impacts
The first impact of this project on the environment is
reduced water consumption. Since there are no cooling

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2014 ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARD CASE STUDIES

towers installed, there is no potable water consumption


water treatment and reduces the need and amount of
to compensate for evaporation. Also, there is no water
chemicals used. Centralized chillers instead of multiple
purge of the system when chemical
heat pumps reduces the amount
Architectural details of building faade: different
treatment is done. Furthermore, very
and time of maintenance. There
types of windows.
low flow sanitary equipment and fauare two chillers to provide backup
cets were installed to reduce potable
when one is being serviced, as well
water usage. Also, the landscaping was
as backup pumps for the condensers
made using only indigenous trees and
and evaporators, making it possible
plants that require no potable water
to perform maintenance of imporor irrigation. Finally, the latent energy
tant equipment without interruptrecovered from the wheel in the DOAS
ing heating or cooling. The variable
eliminated the need for a humidifier,
frequency drives installed on all fans
which eliminated the need for using
and pumps enable smooth startups,
potable water to humidify the air.
which helps reduce wear of motors.
The design of the mechanical sysAll supply fans of fan coils and DOAS
tems and building envelope created
are direct drives, which means there
a self sufficient building using no
are no belts to replace, resulting in
external energy, gas, fuel or electricity
less maintenance time.
for heating. The building uses electricity from the proThe heat recovery wheel, which also recovers latent
vincial utility provider, which mainly produces hydroenergy, eliminated the need for a humidifier in the fresh
electricity. The provide estimates carbon emission from
air system. No humidifier means no need for complicated
hydro-electricity at 0.066 lbs (0.03 kg) of CO2 per kWh.
water treatment such as reverse osmosis or equivalent, no
Considering this, and the very low energy consumpneed for steam or other type of humidifier, resulting in an
tion of the building, we determined that the Jonxion
easier operation of the system and less maintenance.
buildings carbon footprint is 37.7 tons (34 Mg) of CO2
All ventilation systems and equipment are connected
per year, which is less than the amount produced by 10
to a building automation system (BAS). Since every floor
cars. Furthermore, having no combustion systems for
configuration is similar, each floors operation sequences
heating, there are no polluting gases released into the
are also similar, which facilitates understanding of the
atmosphere.
sequences for the operators. Having less equipment also
As for the centralized chillers, they use R-134, a nonhelped simplify the operation. The BAS allows operators to
ozone depleting refrigerant, in their refrigeration circuits. create trends of important points, such as supply air and
room temperatures, glycol temperatures, starts and stops
Operation and Maintenance
of pumps and chillers, which help to diagnose any issues.
From the beginning of the project, operation and
maintenance was a key aspect. Indeed, even if the
Conclusion
very best of equipment with the latest technologies are
The design of this project generated impressive
installed, if their operation is complicated and mainresults: a self-sufficient building in respect to heattenance intensive, it will not be possible to achieve the
ing, very low annual metered energy costs (9.7 kWh/ft2
set energy efficiency goals. The mechanical designs
[104 kWh/m2]), high indoor air quality, simplified mainwere made with the objective of keeping maintetenance, low potable water consumption and very low
nance to its minimum and ensure an easy operation.
greenhouse gases emissions. The project demonstrated
Many aspects of this project simplified operation and
that integrated design is a key factor in the achievement
maintenance.
of efficiency goals. Furthermore, it also proved that an
First, no exterior equipment exists such as cooling
energy efficient and sustainable design does not cost
towers or dry coolers, simplifying maintenance and the
more than a conventional one. After following its operaoverall look of the building. Also, having the heating
tion for more than a year, we observed that the designand cooling glycol loops connected together simplifies
ers efficiency goals were surpassed.
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Because the Ramona


Apartments cant rely on tenant
behavior for saving energy, the
designers created an exceptionally airtight and thermally efficient building envelope. This
included laying out the building in a U shape and choosing
the right combination of windows and walls.

HONORABLE MENTION
RESIDENTIAL, NEW

Affordable

And Efficient

BY ANDREW PAPE-SALMON, P.ENG., MEMBER ASHRAE; ED MCNAMARA; ARIEL LEVY, P.E., ASSOCIATE MEMBER ASHRAE

BUILDING AT A GLANCE

Owner: Nurture 247 Limited Partnership

The Ramona is a model for high-efficiency in a multifamily residential building with low incremental
construction costs. The primary design objective for the
Portland, Ore., apartments was to pursue a high performance building envelope as a precursor to whole-building energy efficiency.

Principal Use: Rental housing


(income-restricted)

Building Description

Ramona
Apartments
Affordable Housing
Location: Portland, Ore.

Includes: Early Childhood Education Center


on ground floor
Employees/Occupants: About 4 onsite staff and
363 occupants in 138 apartments
Gross Square Footage: 230,762
Conditioned Space Square Footage: 188,606
Substantial Completion/Occupancy: 2011
Occupancy: 99.25%
National Distinctions/Awards: Multifamily Executive2012 Project of the Year Merit
Award Affordable Housing; NAHB
2012 Pillar of the IndustryFinalist
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The Ramona Apartments provides 138 units of affordable housing that is


targeted at families with children. Completed in March 2011, the Ramona is
a 230,760 ft2 (21 400 m2), six-story building with one level of underground
parking. There are five stories of wood frame construction above a concrete
podium. The ground floor includes 12,864 ft2 (1200 m2) of space leased to
Portland Public Schools for an early childhood education center and 1,760 ft2
(164 m2) leased to a non-profit community group. The upper floors contain
apartments, mostly two-bedroom and three-bedroom units. The building is
certified at LEED Gold.
Andrew Pape-Salmon, P.Eng., is an associate with RDH Building Engineering Ltd. in Victoria, BC, Canada. Ed McNamara
is owner of Turtle Island Development in Portland, Ore. Ariel Levy, P.E., is a managing principal and senior building science specialist with RDH Building Sciences in Portland, Ore.

D ECEM BER 2014

SALLY PAINTER PHOTO

2014 ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARD CASE STUDIES

SKYSHOTS, PORTLAND, OR.

ABOVE At 31,597 ft2, this was the largest

SALLY PAINTER PHOTO

contiguous ecoroof in Portland in 2011. The


roof is planted with drought-tolerant native
species, has PV panels on the south half and
solar water heaters on the north half.

Problem to be Solved
The project team set out to meet the Architecture 2030
Challenge for reducing energy use by 50% from other
existing, similar buildings (http://tinyurl.com/qaq66fy).
Besides the technical challenges, there were two complicating factors:
In an apartment building of this type, tenants control most of the energy use. The design could not rely on
complicated systems or on central controls.
The budget, already limited by the financing of
affordable housing, was further constrained by the difficulty of obtaining financing in 2009.
The design and construction process aimed to maximize
collaboration between team members who had worked
together on several projects and could build on the relationships and on the lessons learned. From the very beginning
of design, everyone was at the table and the major subcontractors were active participants. Before making design
decisions, the team analyzed multiple options, modeled the
energy savings, and tested the pricing. The team put a great
emphasis on an airtight, thermally efficient building envelope. This was considered the most cost-effective way to get
energy savings, the best way to reduce reliance on tenant
behavior, and a good strategy to avoid future maintenance
costs related to maintaining equipment.

Design Process and Decisions


Building Enclosure
The teams first step was to design an efficient building
and an efficient envelope. The team began by studying
eight to 10 massing models and assessing them for cost
and energy efficiency as well as for aesthetics and for
suitability for the site. The U-shaped design that was
selected provided a high ration of floor area to skin and,
therefore, provided the most energy-efficient shape.
The team developed and priced 12 different options for

LEFT The courtyard sits above an underground

parking garage, but is designed with a drainage system that filters all of the stormwater
before it drains to the municipal storm sewer.

framing and insulating the exterior walls. Each of the


12 wall assemblies was modeled, including calculation
of an overall R-value for the opaque walls and glazing. Three different window performance levels were
considered for the initial models (U-0.45, U-0.35, and
U-0.29); a total of 36 possible assemblies were analyzed. The energy model showed that the windows were
extremely important. The least performing opaque wall
with the best window had a better R-value than the best
performing opaque wall with the U-0.45 window.
Focus was put on finding energy efficient windows
and reducing the overall window to wall ratio. Smaller
windows were put in the bedrooms where they werent
needed as much during the daytime; larger windows
were put in the living areas. Screens were added to
shade living room windows on the south and west elevations (if they werent already shaded by a balcony). The
windows are vinyl casement with a high performance
U-value of 0.26, exceeding the standard for ASHRAE
Standard 90.1. The windows have low air infiltration as a
result of a design that includes three layers of gasketing
and cam locks that have three contact points. Balconies
have fiberglass doors with U-value of 0.26 and air infiltration rating of 0.03 cfm/ft2 (0.15 L/sm2).
Exterior wall insulation is blown-in cellulose within
the stud cavity rated at R-23 nominal. The exterior cladding is brick veneer. The calculated effective overall
R-value of the wood-framed walls, accounting for framing and thermal bridging, is R-16. Additional exterior
insulation is installed outboard of sheathing in small
areas of steel stud framing. Full exterior insulation was
considered, budget constraints focused the teams attention elsewhere. The roof has two layers of rigid insulation under a two-ply SBS membrane over wood trusses
for an effective R-32. Continuous layers of insulation
minimize thermal breaks. The eco-roof (planted roof)
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Apartment Systems
The apartments use electric heat. Because there was so
little heat loss through the envelope, this was the most
sensible heating system. The heat is a combination of
baseboard in sleeping rooms and wall-mounted, fanforced units in living and dining rooms. Each room has
its own heater that is sized to that space, and each heater
is controlled by an electronic thermostat with digital settings and simple controls including an on/off switch.
One-hundred percent outdoor makeup air is conditioned and is ducted directly into each apartment.
Central continuous exhaust fans pull air from bathrooms and kitchens and return it to an energy recovery
ventilation system at the two roof-mounted central
makeup air units.
The apartments do not have air conditioning. Each
room has a ceiling-mounted fan with wall-mounted controls for turning the fan on and for controlling its speed.

Common Area HVAC


The makeup air system includes two air-to-air heat
pumps to space condition hallways and lobbies (also
providing the fresh air to the apartments). These are
capable of providing 100% outdoor air to conserve
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Large common laundry rooms on each floor have high-efficiency equipment. The
front loading machines have lower costs for cold-water washes..

SALLY PAINTER PHOTO

includes soil and native vegetation to reduce summer


heat gain. The interior apartment ceilings and party
walls have R-11 batts installed for acoustic separation
and to reduce heat transfer between units. Putty pads
are wrapped around all electrical boxes on party walls
to reduce airflow and sound flanking paths. All balconies are mounted on four knife-plates rather than more
traditional cantilevered beam or ledger attachments to
simplify detailing and improve rainwater management.
The building enclosure airtightness was achieved with
a continuous building wrap air barrier with taped joints
at exterior walls, sealant at vertical joints on wall sheathing for additional protection, detailed window wrapping
with self-adhesive membrane and sealants and carefully
detailed wall-to-roof membrane tie-in. Airtightness
was tested at 0.22 cfm/ft2 at 75 Pa as part of the research
effort, ASHRAE 1478 RP: Measuring Air-Tightness of Mid
and High-Rise Non-Residential Buildings. The wholebuilding air testing and the thermal image photographs
taken during pressurization revealed some leakage that
the team corrected. The building was not retested after
corrections, but was most likely improved.

energy for cooling service. Integrated energy recovery


wheels are 65% to 70% effective. Blowers and fans are
VFD controlled. There are separate air-source heat
pumps for each laundry room (five units, 1.5 ton [5 kW]
each) and for the fitness room and leasing office (2.5 to 4
ton [9 to 14 kW], with built-in economizers). All common
area HVAC is controlled by programmable thermostats
with local sensors and controls in secure office spaces.
Domestic hot water is supplied by high-efficiency central boilers.
The team selected a machine room-less elevator using
one-third as much energy as a hydraulic system.
All lighting fixtures in the apartments are fluorescents
with high-efficiency integral ballasts. Common area
lighting uses high-efficiency ballasts and lamps. In addition, occupancy sensors are used to control the lighting in offices, bathrooms, recycling rooms, and other
similar rooms. Photocells and timers are used to control
exterior lighting.
Kitchen appliances in the apartments are Energy Star
rated. Common area laundry rooms on each floor have
high-efficiency front-loading washing machines and
gas dryers with higher prices for warm and hot water
modes. A separate MEP engineer was used to provide
commissioning services that included:
Review of the plans at 50% stage;
Inspections of the work during installation;
Written start-up procedures for major equipment
and oversight of the start-up process; and
Final commissioning of the installed equipment.

Water Conservation
Toilets use 1.28 gallons per flush, some of the most
efficient toilets that were available at the time. As
an example of the innovative and mindset of the

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2014 ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARD CASE STUDIES

developer, one floor has dual-flush


TABLE 1 Energy baseline, actual consumption and reductions for the project in the first year of operations.
toilets and the owner is collectKWH PER YEAR ELECTRICITY NATURAL GAS TOTAL ENERGY
ENERGY USE INTENSITY
ENERGY USE INTENSITY
ing data for five years to track the
(KWH/FT 2 /YR)
(KBTU/FT 2/YR)
difference in water use per floor.
Year 1
812,761
385,497
1,198,258
5.48
18.71
Showerheads use 1.5 gpm (95
Year
2
832,836
378,412
1,211,248
5.54
18.91
mL/s), which is more efficient than
Year 3
844,042
419,157
1,263,199
5.78
19.72
required by code. Low-flow aerators at the kitchen and bathroom
Architecture 2030 EUI target (50%) for Northwest multi-family residential: 20.0.
sinks help reduce water use. Water
submeters are installed so that
occupants pay their own water and sewer bills, proIndoor Air Quality (IAQ)
Given the attention to constructing an airtight envemoting conservation and lowering rent.
lope, it was imperative to pay extra attention to indoor
Landscaping includes plants that minimize the need
for irrigation. Efficient drip irrigation is installed where air quality. The first step was to use materials (i.e., sealpossible. Rain sensors are installed so that the irrigation ants, paints, adhesives, carpet and pads, formaldehydefree cabinets) with little or no off-gassing of VOCs. The
wont run when it isnt needed. Overall, water use per
next step was to ensure good exhaust and fresh, balcapita is about one-third of the average use per capita
anced makeup air (MUA). As noted, there is a system for
reported by Portlands Water Bureau. This focus on
continuous exhaust ventilation from kitchens and bathefficient fixtures and appliances results in less energy
rooms with MUA ducted directly into the apartments.
needed for domestic hot water heating.
This is superior to the conventional
approach used in most apartments
of relying on air leakage through
the building enclosure for fresh air
(causing cold drafts) and/or MUA
coming under the apartment door
from the hallways. IAQ is maintained without a significant impact
on energy consumption due to
energy recovery in the MUA system.

Renewables
After designing the envelope and
selecting the most efficient equipment, the final step was to use solar
energy to produce as much of the
energy as was economically feasible:
Solar hot water. An array of 64
panels (4 ft 10 ft [1.2 m 3 m]) on
the north half of the roof supplies
about 50% of the hot water heating.
Photovoltaic panels. A 29.92
kW PV system is installed on the
south half of the roof. Actual production over three years has averaged 34,195 kWh per year, approximately 8% more than forecast.
www.info.hotims.com/49818-36
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The energy baseline, actual consumption and reductions for the project in the first year of operations are
shown in Table 1. There are a few factors to consider in
looking at the data.
The energy use intensity (EUI) has increased slightly
each year. Gas use is 3.8% higher than the first year and
electricity use is 1.7% higher than the first year.
Increase in density. The number of residents has
increased over three years. At the end of 2011, there
were 338 residents. A year later, there were 354. At the
end of 2013, there were 360. At the end of July 2014,
there were 363. This increase7.4% over 2.5 yearscould
explain the increase in natural gas use because natural
gas is used almost exclusively for water heating and the
clothes dryers. The number of residents has increased
over three years. At the end of 2011, there were 338 residents. In 2012, 2013 and 2014, there were 354, 360 and
363 residents, respectively. This amounts to an increase
of 7.4% over that 2.5 years. This growth could explain
the differing energy usage over that
same timeframe, which increased
by 5.4%. However, the actual energy
use per capita actually decreased.

When the original bike room with 180 racks got overcrowded, the developer removed
three car parking spaces and added this second room for another 40 bikes.

SALLY PAINTER PHOTO

Energy Data (Residential Use Only)

placed on making the air barrier as continuous as possible, noted in the energy efficiency section and demonstrated through the whole-building airtightness results.

Cost Effectiveness
The capital cost of the Ramonanot including tenant
improvement workwas $127/ft2 ($1367/m2) (a cost that

Innovation
The Ramonas innovation was a
reliance on teamwork during the
design and construction process.
The developers philosophy was
that mechanical equipment will
wear out every 15 years and will
probably be replaced with more
efficient models; but you only get
one chance to build the envelope
right. The design team focused
extensively on a high performance
building enclosure to improve
building energy efficiency, affordability, comfort and acoustic separation from urban noise.
Reducing heat loss meant savings
on capital costs of the HVAC systems.
All aspects of the building enclosure
and mechanical systems exceeded
the building code energy efficiency
standards. Careful attention was
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2014 ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARD CASE STUDIES

was artificially high due to wage requirements that came


with public financing). This is significantly lower than
other high performance (green) buildings where costs can
be at $250/ft2 ($2691/m2) or more. The incremental capital costs of the high-performance envelope and mechanical systems noted in this application are estimated at $4.2/
ft2 ($45/m2) compared to a code-compliant building. The
payback on investment is estimated to be under 10 years.

Conclusion
While the authors are cautious about drawing broad
conclusions, some observations are as follows:
Importance of the building envelope. In this climate and for this building type, a well-designed building envelope is a cost-effective way to achieve significant
energy savings.
Importance of the air barrier. The design team
discussed many options for the air barrier system,
but only clarified its performance at the time of
whole-building airtightness testing. The industry
would benefit from widespread whole-building

airtightness testing, comparing various air barrier


solutions.1
Changes in design. Avoid design changes during
construction. Given the inevitable, assess necessary
changes carefully for their impact on the air barrier.
During construction on the Ramona, changes to a
cornice detail were implemented for constructability
purposes, but air-barrier detailing modification was less
successful. Whole building testing revealed the subsequent air leakage paths, which were later repaired.
Construction administration. Many trades handle
the air barrier before it is finally enclosed. It is important for the design team to communicate the importance
of the air barrier to the entire construction team.
This case study demonstrates an achievement of the
Architecture 2030 Challenge goal (20 kBtu/ft2) for an
affordable apartment building.

References

1. Jones et.al. 2014. Building Enclosure Airtightness Testing in


Washington StateLessons Learned about Air Barrier Systems and
Large Building Testing Procedures. ASHRAE Winter Conference.

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www.info.hotims.com/49818-27

COLUMN SYSTEM MAINTENANCE

Comparing Constant-Speed
And Variable-Speed
Centrifugal Chillers
BY BRIAN SULLIVAN, MEMBER ASHRAE

This column compares the performance of a typical constant-speed, two-stage centrifugal chiller with a comparable variable-speed centrifugal chiller at similar price points. In
an attempt to do a comparative performance benefit based on similar chiller price, the
base efficiency of the constant-speed chiller was improved by 10% by taking the additional
dollars spent on a variable-speed drive and applying it to improve the design performance
for the constant-speed unit (generally in the form of more effective heat exchangers).
In addition, a 3% efficiency penalty was used for the variable-speed chiller to account for
inverter losses. The overall performance for the constant-speed chiller is 13% better than
that of the variable-speed chiller at design conditions.
The performance shown in Figure 1 represents trends
for typical performance. Specific performance will
vary between product lines, and is dependent on the
individual chiller selection, number of compressor
stages and type of refrigerant cycle. However, the
trends in Figure 1 represent the general behavior of a
constant-speed versus variable-speed comparison for
all forms of centrifugal chillers. Finally, this discussion is applicable to water-cooled chillers and the
data shown is for a constant condenser water flow
rate.
Figure 1 shows chiller performance, in terms of kW/ton,
at various load points and entering condenser water
temperatures. Constant-speed performance is designated by solid lines and variable-speed performance by
dotted lines.
The performance trends for a constant-speed chiller
are quite different from those of the variable-speed
chiller. At all entering condenser water temperatures, constant-speed chillers tend to have their best
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performance at full-load (100%) operation. Therefore, to


optimize system efficiency, constant-speed chillers are
generally run to full load before starting an additional
chiller. Conversely, variable-speed chillers have performance curves that scale with the chiller speed and
entering condenser water temperature. Variable-speed
chiller peak performance tends to occur at loads less
than full. Also, as entering condenser water temperature
is reduced, compressor rotational speed is reduced and
performance is further enhanced.

Observations
Variable-speed chillers have a performance advantage at lower-than-design condenser water temperatures and chiller loads. The benefit of such operation
must be evaluated using the plant load profile and then
weighed against the price and benefit of other chiller
options.
Brian Sullivan is a staff engineer for Trane, a business of Ingersoll Rand in La Crosse, Wis.

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COLUMN SYSTEM MAINTENANCE

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HVAC Control Systems

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FIGURE 1 Centrifugal chiller performance comparison (equivalent price) constant

speed (CS) and variable speed (VS).

Entering-Condenser Water Temperature


65F CS
85F CS
65F VS
85F VS
55F CS
75F CS
55F VS
75F VS

Chiller Performance (kW/ton)

Similar price, constant-speed chillers operate more


efficiently than variable-speed chillers throughout their
operating range if the entering condenser water temperature remains near design. In this case the design
entering condenser water temperature was established
at 85F (29.4C) with the compressor impeller diameter
selected for this condition.
Combining these first two observations:
If the tower water temperature is either controlled to be near design, or if the system is
located in a consistently humid climate, the
constant-speed chiller selection will likely provide better performance.
For variable-speed chillers a proper cooling
tower control strategy must be used to take
advantage of low outdoor wet-bulb conditions,
when available, to achieve lower than design
condenser water temperatures. Care should be
exercised to ensure excessive condenser water
pump and cooling tower fan energy do not occur when the control strategy is implemented.

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Operating Load as a Percent of Design Load

If demand charges are significant, the 13% design


power difference will result in a significant increase in
operating cost.
In multiple chiller plants, one might consider a
combination of constant-speed and variable-speed
chillers to take best advantage of reduced energy consumption as well as electrical demand charges. In these
cases, the best return on investment often occurs when
high efficiency variable-speed chillers are used extensively for all low load and low temperature operation.
Constant-speed and variable-speed chillers are used at
high load conditions when high outdoor temperatures
prevail.
The variable-speed cost adds for low voltage chillers (<=600 volts) are considerably lower than those
for medium and high voltage drives (>600 volts). The
benefits of variable speed must be evaluated accordingly.
In summary, variable-speed and constant-speed
centrifugal chillers perform differently with respect to
load and entering condenser water temperature. While
both benefit from reduced condenser water temperature a variable-speed chiller benefits more. Designs
should examine similar price constant-speed and
variable-speed chillers, and determine the appropriate
mix depending on the plant location, condenser water
control, load profile, and separate consumption and
demand charges.

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COLUMN ENERGY MODELING


Javad Khazaii

Buildings of the Future

This second edition of Procedures for Commercial Building Energy Audits provides a
guide for building owners, managers, and government entities on what to expect
audit, establishes guidelines for levels of audit efforts, and introduces good
energy auditors.
This edition has been expanded to include updated guidance on energy auditing
new and useful reference materials. Features of this edition include:

BY JAVAD KHAZAII, PH.D., PE, MEMBER ASHRAE

Widely cited definitions of standard audit levels used in the industry


Energy auditing best practices that professionals can apply in their field work

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) were invented in the second half of the


past century and since then their use has been growing rapidly. The automobile
industry was an early adopter, using MEMS sensors for automobile navigation, tire
pressure control and airbag deployment. As we start transitioning from todays buildings and systems to future smart buildings, design engineers will have a wide variety
of MEMS applications to choose from.
collection of

Key information on conducting effective energy audits that lead to actionable


audit reports
Illustrative graphs and photos

In addition, this book discusses how to


successful approaches to site visits, incorporating on-site measurements,
tion of measures, and how to organize an energy audit report that promotes action
of building owners and managers.

Assume our building envelope and glazing systems are


smart enough to adjust their own heating characteristics based on the outdoor temperature and location of
the sun, to optimize the quantity and direction of heat

transfer through the exterior walls, roofs and glazing systems in such a manner that is most efficient
for every hour and every season throughout the
year?1 For example, one idea is for the U-values of
the building envelope system (including the building glazing system) to automatically change so that,
in cooling mode, the envelope can prevent heat
from entering the building when the outdoor temperature is above the interior temperature setting
and as the outdoor temperature drops below the
interior temperature setting, the building envelope
system can automatically change its U-values to
allow easy transfer of the space internal heat gain to
the outdoors.
Likewise, perhaps the shading coefficient of
the glazing system could automatically change
to protect the inside environment from the
solar radiation during the cooling season, while
allowing the maximum penetration of the solar
radiation during the heating season. Such active
envelope and glazing systems can reduce building yearly energy consumption due to an optimal
amount of heat transfer throughout the year.
Such advancements will generate major revisions
to the current energy consumption calculation
methods and tools.
A group of researchers2 identified common HVAC
equipment faults and generated a detailed fault model.
They showed that these HVAC faults can affect the total
HVAC energy use by as much as 22%, depending on
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D ECEM BER 2014

the type and severity of fault. What would happen if


buildings were equipped with fault detection and diagnosing sensors that constantly evaluate system performance, diagnose faults, and report any dysfunction,
ASHRAE
leakage or deviation from
the expected construction
1791 Tullie Circle
GA 30329-2305
standards anywhere inAtlanta,
the
building
and its HVAC sysPhone: 404-636-8400
(worldwide)
www.ashrae.org
tem? Such diagnosing sensors can notify maintenance
staff of the most likely response required for correction. This could potentially provide for large energy
savings.
What if these diagnosing sensors could evaluate the
condition of the pipes and inform the building owner
of possible areas for future ruptures and leaks and then
provide exact locations? That would help prevent wasting treated water or other liquids or gases and therefore
saving energy as well. Micro-size robots could be located
strategically inside the pipes and coils so they can move
locally, recognize the pipe and coil build-up and clogging locations, and target and destroy them as soon as
they have been generated. This will keep the interior
heat transfer surface of the pipe and coil continuously
at a very good condition and, therefore, help the energy
efficiency of the system. Such capabilities can change
how the industry looks at building commissioning and
maintenance.
Another idea is that instead of using one temperature
sensor for each air-conditioning zone, use devices that
monitor many smaller zones. Depending on occupancy,
the sensors could be used to sense the critical heat subzones and direct the HVAC system operation in such
way that maintains satisfactory conditions only in these
PCBEA Cover.indd 1

Javad Khazaii, Ph.D., P.E., is an associate engineer with Newcomb & Boyd Consulting
Engineering Group in Atlanta.

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provides updated guidance and tools for energy consulting engineers, LEED
professionals, real estate professionals and building managers.
Now referenced in LEED v.4, this version details energy auditing methods
and provides new sample forms and templates that illustrate the content and
arrangement of a complete, effective energy analysis report.
The second edition of Procedures:
Provides a reference guide for building owners, managers and government
entities as to what to expect from an audit
Establishes guidelines for Levels 1, 2 and 3 of audit effort
Shows how to conduct effective energy audits that lead to actionable
audit reports
Includes more than 25 guideline forms in spreadsheet format for easy
customization

To order, visit the ASHRAE Bookstore


www.ashrae.org/pcbeabook
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COLUMN ENERGY MODELING

occupied zones. Ways to do this include wearing temperature, humidity, and environmental comfort sensors
sewn into our clothes, or embedded in our watches or
phones, that continuously communicate with the HVAC
system to direct tailored air-conditioning toward the
occupants. This could also translate to higher energy
savings.
What if similar opportunities are provided for
pressure, and flow monitoring and measurement
that multipoint monitoring can simply replace the
current reliance on the single point monitoring of
these parameters. We are going to have much more
precise controls and much higher comfort levels due
to the opportunities generated by these sensors and
systems.
Another idea is to use the dissipated heat from lighting and equipment motors as a supplemental source of
energy for running those motors or any other application in the building. 3
Yashar, et al,4 noted the small size of MEMS sensors is a significant advantage over its conventional

counterparts because they allow sensors to be used in


systems without being intrusive, i.e., fluid properties
could be measured without significantly disturbing
the fluid, and inertial properties can be measured
without adding mass. Such characteristics of the
MEMS sensors and systems will someday change the
future smart building design, construction, maintenance, control and monitoring. HVAC designers
should start thinking of ways to adapt these technologies for their needs.

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References
1. Sullivan, C.C., Horwitz-Bennett, B. 2011. Extensive R&D in the
work section of Smart Glass, Efficient, Safe, Robust Building Design
and Construction June.
2. Basarkar M., Pang X., Wang L., Hong T. 2011. Modeling and simulation of HVAC faults in EnergyPlus, Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.
3. Varona, J., Tecpoyotl-Torres, M., Hamoui, A.A. 2007. Modeling of
MEMS Thermal Actuation with External Heat Source. Fourth Congress
of Electronics, Robotics and Automotive Mechanics.
4. Yashar, D., P. Domanski. 2004. MEMS Sensors for HVAC & R,
small, fast, cheap. ASHRAE Journal 5.

New Product Preview

A special section in the

DECEMBER 2014 ISSUE

New Product Preview Advertising Section


Carrier Replacement Rooftops. Because Theres No Such Thing as a Kinda-Sorta Perfect Fit.
If youve got a Carrier rooftop unit in need of replacement, congratulations. Youve gotten a full lifetimes worth
of use out of the most popular and dependable rooftop on the market. And, youre in luck. Because the perfect
replacement for a Carrier rooftop is, well, a Carrier rooftop. Weve got more models than ever, with same-day
installation available in most cases. And, youll get a perfect fit with your original utilities and ductwork with
no overhang to worry about.
So make the smart choice. Again. Choose Carrier.
The Carrier Advantage:
Utility connections match with no unit overhang (BEWARE of others who claim the same)
Tens of thousands of units available - guaranteed, not 48 hours away
Over 475 parts locations with everything you need
Price competitive
Quick, competitive financing available
Optional extended warranty plans available
Backed by local experts that have extensive training and experience
Offered in three level of efficiencies to match any application
Plus! Get the free rooftop app:
Simplify your work. Get direct replacement equivalents and where-to-get information covering most major
rooftop brands. Visit the iTunes App Store, Android Market or commercial.carrier.com to download.

Carrier rooftop units, now available in


75- to 150-ton models.
The efficiency and reliability you expect
from a Carrier commercial rooftop unit
is now available on an even greater scale.
Weve expanded our range to include six new
sizes from 75 to 150 tons. Each is built to
your individual performance specifications
with maximum flexibility in design. And
each is built with over a centurys worth of
Carrier innovation and value.

So think bigger. Think Carrier. To learn more visit carrierweatherexpert.com.


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New Product Preview Advertising Section

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New Product Preview Advertising Section

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TM

www.info.hotims.com/49818-60

New Product Preview Advertising Section


University of North Texas Experiences Big Savings Using AERCO
Like most things in Texas, the plans to upgrade the heating
and hot water systems at the University of North Texas in
Denton are big. While the entire project entails nearly 70
boilers and water heaters, the largest part of the renovation
for the school nicknamed mean green may be the energy
savings associated with the new systems. Thats because
by installing high-efficiency AERCO Benchmark gas-fired

boilers and Innovation tankless water heaters the school


has realized tremendous operational benefits, including a
new heating system that consumes 57% less gas and offers
enhanced uptime reliability.
University administrators planned to upgrade their existing
systems with new high-efficiency boilers and water heaters
for a few reasons. One was that the large central steam plant
that supplied most of the heating for the classroom and
administrative buildings was antiquated. The other was that
as the school grew to become the fourth largest college in
Texas and one of the 30 biggest in the United States, it had to
periodically add facilities. Separate steam boilers or hydronic
boilers that peaked at 80% efficiency were used for each
administrative or educational building as it was constructed,
creating operational inefficiencies.
Heating and hot water systems for the residence halls
were also in need of upgrades. Each dormitory used a steam
boiler for space heating and a mix of either indirect steam
storage tank heaters or direct-fired storage heaters that
operated at 82% efficiency.
A Highly Efficient Plan
The first phase of the project consisted of the central
plant and outlying facility buildings, which are under the
supervision of the schools Facilities Department. AERCO
Benchmark 3000 (BMK3000) high-efficiency boilers,
which have full-fire input capacity of 3 million BTU/
hr., were installed into each of the outlying buildings.
The retrofit went off without a hitch, and the units began
reaping benefits almost immediately. Due to the successful
conversion of these buildings, it was agreed that five
BMK3000 units would be installed in the central plant.

The Facilities Department standardized on the Benchmark


family because it had low cost of ownership due to three
key reasons:
High Efficiency With 15:1 turndown, the BMK3000
boilers achieve 96% efficiency to maximize fuel savings
for the university.
Uptime Reliability A stainless steel heat exchanger
increases the reliability and life of the boilers.
Maintenance Compared to the previous system at the
school, the BMK3000 had minimal maintenance and
subsequently lower service costs.
Making Students Comfortable
Learning from the lessons of the Facilities Department, the
Housing Department also turned to AERCO when it began
to upgrade the student center and 14 dormitories. Given
that the housing facilities had equal or larger domestic
water heating requirements compared to space heating, a
water heater was necessary rather than a boiler.
After studying the alternatives and comparing them
to the needs of the residence halls, it was decided that
the AERCO Innovation 1060 tankless on-demand water
heater was a smart choice. Like the Benchmark family, the
Innovation units have the features to meet the universitys
requirements, including a small footprint for easy
retrofitting, a reliable stainless steel heat exchanger design,
and high efficiency of 96%.
Six Innovation 1060
water heaters were installed
in three dormitories and
the Student Events Center.
At Kerr Hall, the first dorm
to be converted, two units
were installed with zeroside clearance in the same
footprint as a single leaking 250-gallon storage heater. One
Innovation unit now handles the entire load of the 300room dorm without the need for storage. By installing two
water heaters, the facilities managers can alternate between
each unit monthly to extend the life of the units. Another
benefit is the tankless design, which reduces the footprint of
the water heaters, as well as virtually eliminates the risk of
Legionella bacteria growth.
Five more dormitories are slated to be retrofitted with
AERCO Innovation units by the end of 2014, when the
project is scheduled to be completed. In all, the university
will have installed 16 Innovation 1060 water heaters and 50
BMK3000 boilers across the 900-acre campus.
Significant Energy Savings
The University of North Texas has been experiencing
efficiency benefits throughout the renovation. For example,
during the 2012-2013 heating season, the new central plant
consumed 6,465 mcf of gas, a 57% decrease from the 11,389
mcf the old system used during the prior heating season. With
results such as these, its easy to see why the AERCO units
have received high marks with the university administrators.

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New Product Preview Advertising Section


Toshiba Carrier offers both ductless and ducted comfort
solutions for all applications: light commercial and larger
commercial buildings. These products also incorporate
advanced filtration systems to deliver
optimum comfort.
Light commercial solutions combine top performance,
comfort and energy efficiency. Large commercial solutions
include VRF systems with an optimized combination of
energy efficiency, flexibility
and comfort. These systems are designed with a wide
choice of stylish indoor units that blend with a variety of
interior decors.
Your Toshiba Carrier contractor also handles a full line
of Carrier comfort solutions, including chillers, rooftops,
and VRF systems. That means you have access to all the
solutions you need, all from one convenient, reliable source
that you already trust.
VRF (Variable Refrigerant Flow) technology is part of an
innovative new indoor comfort system designed to provide
superior zoning flexibility. VRF systems can connect up to
40 fan coil units to a single outdoor condensing unit. Each

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fan coil unit can be independently controlled by varying


the refrigerant flow, and in doing so varying capacity being
delivered to each zone; making it one of the most effective
and efficient systems available.
The system also allows fan coil units connected to
the same outdoor unit to independently cool and heat
through the use of a heat recovery system. The result
is remarkably efficient performance that minimizes
energy loss and makes optimal use of zone specific
temperature control.
VRF systems provide several installation advantages by
eliminating the need to install large distribution fans, water
pumps and large bore pipes; VRF systems do not require
dedicated maintenance rooms or service shafts, giving
back valuable space to the building owner. In addition, the
small footprints of the outdoor units save space and make
installation easier.
Toshiba Carrier systems fully leverage all of the advantages
of VRF, combining energy savings, easy installation and
operation, application flexibility, and long-term reliability to
deliver the indoor comfort solutions you need.

www.info.hotims.com/49818-48

New Product Preview Advertising Section

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New Product Preview Advertising Section


The MSA Chillgard Gas Monitor Series uses an advanced technology called Photoacoustic Infrared
technology. This technology has been exclusive to MSA products for over 20 years. Our monitors have
the ability of reading extremely low levels of refrigerant gases used in most refrigeration systems and
chillers. Photoacoustic Infrared technology allows MSA instruments to see down to 1 ppm to provide
the earliest leak detection to our customers. The Chillgard RT Monitor is third party tested by UL to
the rigorous performance standard, UL 2075.
How does PAIR gas detection technology work?
When using a photoacoustic infrared instrument, a gas
sample is introduced into the monitors measurement chamber
and the sample is exposed to a specific wavelength of infrared
light. If the sample contains the gas of interest, that sample
will absorb an amount of infrared light proportional to the gas
concentration that is present in the sample.
Photoacoustic infrared analysis, however, extends beyond
simply measuring the amount of infrared light that is
absorbed; this technology actually detects what occurs after
the gas is absorbed.
Always in motion, gas molecules move around inside the
measurement chamber, generating pressure. When gases
absorb infrared light, the temperature of the molecules rises
and they begin to rapidly move. As a result, measurement
chamber pressure increases, creating an audible pulse that
can be detected. A highly sensitive microphone is located
inside the photoacoustic infrared monitor to detect even the
smallest of pressure pulses, enabling detection of even the
lowest gas levels.
The monitors optical filter allows only that particular
light wavelength of the gas in question; a pressure pulse
confirms the presence of that gas. The premise is simple;
if no pressure pulse occurs, then no gas is present.
The magnitude of the pressure pulse indicates the gas
concentration present. The stronger the pressure pulse, the
more gas that exists.
Why does MSA prefer PAIR technology to
NDIR technology?
Unlike other refrigerant gas detectors on the market,
Photoacoustic Infrared technology provides the lowest level
of detection and zero stability with minimal maintenance.
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) refers to the concentration
of airborne substances to which workers can be repeatedly
exposed without experiencing adverse health effects. The
purpose of gas detection instruments is to help ensure safe
working environments by identifying the presence of gases
at concentrations equal to or lower than the Threshold Limit
Value (TLV). With certain gases, the TLV can be extremely
low, requiring a detection method that is able to identify gas
at miniscule levels. The higher an instruments sensitivity,
the lower the level of gases it can detect.
Detection limits for many NDIR monitors can be well
above the TLV of many gases. In order to achieve the ppm
level that can be detected by a PAIR monitor, instruments
must have longer sample chambers. Non-dispersive infrared
detectors are an acceptable choice only when higher
detection levels are adequate.

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Zero stability, or maintaining a stable baseline, is critical


for low ppm detection; instability can compromise low level
detection by causing inaccuracy, false alarms and limited
detection levels. A common problem with NDIR monitors
is that the zero derived from the sample to reference ratio
has a tendency to drift based upon a number of factors
including usage, age, temperature, unpredictability of the
light source, and physical changes to the detector over time.
The technology behind the Chillgard RT offers temperature
control allowing the monitor to have a constant, stable zero.
Not all infrared refrigerant monitors are created equal.
When protecting your employees from toxic refrigerant
gases, its critical to choose a gas detector that provides the
most accurate and reliable monitoring possible. With so
much at stake, using the most advanced technology possible
is your bestand sometimes only choice. Photoacoustic
infrared technology used in MSAs series of Chillgard
Monitors enables gases to be detected at extremely low
levels due to its inherent stability and reduced crosssensitivity.
Contact MSA for more information about gas detectors
with photoacoustic infrared technology and how they can
solve your gas detection challenges.

www.info.hotims.com/49818-37

New Product Preview Advertising Section


Oregon School District Goes to School with Buderus Boilers from Bosch
Back-to-Back New and Retrofit School Projects
Buderus high mass SB Series commercial boilers from
Bosch Thermotechnology have proven to be a reliable and
flexible product for the Redmond School District in central
Oregon, located just east of the Cascade mountain range.
Since 2012 the Redmond School District has utilized
Buderus SB boilers in both a newly built high school and in
an existing high school that underwent extensive remodeling
along with a mechanical room upgrade. SB Series boilers
are high efficiency condensing boilers that can use a range
of fuels natural gas, LPG and oil providing flexibility for
both retrofit and new construction projects.
In 2012 the district constructed a new $73 million 280,000
sq. ft. high school to meet growing student enrollment needs.
The Ridgeview High School incorporated four Buderus
SB615 condensing boilers fired by liquid propane tied into a
VRV system controlled by a Honeywell WEBS HVAC DDC
control system. Multi-zone air handlers with refrigerant fed
coils installed within the buildings ductwork supply heating
or cooling throughout the school, which earned LEED
Gold certification, due in part to optimizing its mechanical
systems energy performance. Energy savings using the
Buderus SB615 boilers are projected to be between 20% and
25% of a standard code-compliant system.
By 2013, the districts namesake Redmond High School,
opened in 1970, was in need of interior renovations to its
classrooms, gym and mechanical room comfort generation
equipment. Two original 60,000 lb. water-tube boilers and
a heat exchanger needed replacement, and again the district
selected the Buderus SB Series for the upgrade. For this
application three SB745 gas condensing boilers were installed
on a newly laid pad, and tie into an existing header while
allowing sufficient space for electrical equipment and flues.
I used Buderus boilers as the basis of design because, in
part, I had good experiences with them in previous projects,
comments Scott Miller, P.E. of MFIA, Inc. consulting
engineers. We knew from previous experiences that they are
very efficient. In this case, the added incentive was the ability
to use heating units that looked and performed like those in
other schools. There was initial hesitation on the owners part
due to other school district horror stories with condensing
boilers. But when I showed them how the Buderus boilers
looked and operated there was a willingness to try them. At
Ridgeview we needed the efficiency for LEED purposes. By
the time we got to Redmond HS, the owner asked that we
design around the Buderus product.
Buderus SB Series at a Glance
Stainless steel Buderus SB Series gas condensing boilers
are ideal for large projects, both new construction and
retrofit. Equipped with a two-staged or modulating forced
draft burner, they minimize pollutant emissions. They are
equipped with two return water connections, which allow for
separate return flows and optimal efficiencies up to 98%with
inputs of 563 to 5443 MBH.
When return-flow temperatures are reduced below
the dew point of combustion gases are reduced further,
additional heat is reclaimed from the flue products. In the
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SB Series, low flue gas temperatures are ensured by low


return water flow temperatures, highly efficient titaniuminfused stainless steel heat exchanger surfaces, heating
units, and continuous operation.
Boiler insulation comes pre-installed in the SB Series and
convenient top connections allow easy access for piping,
reducing installation effort. Project costs for SB Series boilers
are reduced due to simplified piping, and their high water
content heat exchangers require no minimum flow rate, which
eliminates the need for a costly dedicated boiler circulator.

Project Essentials

Project Name: Ridgeview & Redmond High


Schools
Buildings Owner: Redmond School
District, Redmond, Oregon
Application: Hydronic heating with VRV
Equipment: Buderus SB615 (LP) & SB745
(natural gas) condensing boilers
Engineer: MFIA, Inc., Portland, OR
General Contractor: Skanska, Portland OR
Manufacturers Representative: PacWest
Sales, Portland, OR
Project Completion: 2012-2013
Ridgeview HS awarded LEED Gold certification

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New Product Preview Advertising Section


Carriers AquaEdge 23XRV has surpassed industry
standards for energy efficiency, now offering Integrated
Part Load Values (IPLV) as low as 0.299 kW/Ton, which
exceeds ASHRAE 90.1 efficiency standards by up to 44
percent. The award- winning water-cooled, variable-speed
screw chiller is available with non-ozone depleting HFC134a refrigerant and Greenspeed Intelligence, making it
one of the most efficient, reliable and durable chillers in
the industry.
Surpassing the 0.300 kW/Ton IPLV mark is an
amazing achievement in our industry, similar to running
a four-minute mile in track or breaking the sound barrier
in aviation milestones that were long thought to
be unachievable, stated Greg Alcorn, vice president,
commercial sales and marketing, Carrier. In addition to
breaking this efficiency barrier, the AquaEdge 23XRV
features robust and flexible operation with a wide operating
envelope and surge-free compression. We are continually
expanding the capabilities of our AquaEdge chillers to
deliver superior efficiency and sustainability while meeting
or exceeding our customers needs.

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AquaEdge 23XRV water-cooled chillers are available


in several configurations to meet the needs of diverse job
sites, including the CE Pressure Equipment Directive (PED)
in Europe. The units are supported by Revit Building
Information Modeling (BIM) drawings to help engineers
and architects in more accurate design, construction
planning and fabrication.
Carrier AquaEdge chillers are also the industrys first
full series of seismic-compliant chillers. They conform
to International Building Code and ASCE 7 seismic
qualification requirements in concurrence with ICC ES
AC156 Acceptance Criteria.
Alcorn added, Customers can be confident that Carrier
products are not only energy efficient with non-ozone
depleting refrigerant, but they are also manufactured at
best-in-class factories, including Carriers Charlotte, N. C.
chiller manufacturing facility, which is a 2010
IndustryWeek Best Plants Award Winner and a Leadership
in Energy and Environmental
Design (LEED) Certified facility.

www.info.hotims.com/49818-47

www.info.hotims.com/49818-67

New Product Preview Advertising Section


SULLIVAN COUNTY, NH BIOMASS DISTRICT ENERGY PROJECT PROVIDES
IMMEDIATE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
Perseverance was the key for Sullivan Countys District
Energy biomass project. It was more than worth the wait.
Sullivan County had been interested in utilizing biomass
for quite some time in order to reduce reliance on foreign
fossil fuels and reduce carbon emissions. After much
research by Facilities Director John Cressy and his team,
the County purchased a Hurst biomass boiler district
heating system with a backpressure steam turbine/
generator to serve the Countys nursing home, office and
prison complex in Unity, New Hampshire.
According to Cressy, there was an initiative and a
feasibility study for a biomass project in progress when
he arrived 5 years ago; however it did not meet Sullivan
Countys expectations and the entire project was shelved.
Then the Wood Education and Resource Center stepped
in and offered to do a new feasibility study. The study
blew our minds, he said. The numbers looked almost
too good to be true.
In the meantime, Cressy was busy researching biomass
boilers for the project, looking at almost 2 dozen plants
to see what they
were using. I
ran into a Hurst
competitor at the
Northeast Biomass
Conference 2
years ago and was
shown some of
his equipment. We
liked the concept
and robust nature
of the walking
floor so I specified it in our bid package. The equipment
specified by the winning bidder turned out to be Hurst
equipment. I hadnt even heard of Hurst; but after
learning what I did, I was delighted that they were central
to our project.
Sullivan County built a new 3000 sq ft building for the
project. The new biomass system provides space heating,
hot water heating, power to steam dryers and to the
kitchen. 90% of our fuel load has replaced fossil fuels,
Cressy said.
Bob Waller and his company, Thermal Systems Inc.,
the authorized Hurst Boiler representative serving Maine,
New Hampshire and the surrounding areas, coordinated
and performed all specification and procurement
services for the project. Waller and TSI oversaw the
development of the equipment specifications, the
equipment arrangement design, and the procurement of
the components necessary to meet the requirements of
the county initiative.
Even though its still a new system, Im very pleased
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with the Hurst equipment, Cressy said. Its robust,


which is important in New Hampshire, as we put heating
systems through a lot up here.
The Hurst equipment utilized in the project included:
Hurst Biomass Boiler - 5.0MMBtu/hr, 150 psi,
Hybrid Design
Hurst Fuel Reclamation System - custom engineered
to encompass a nine (9) tree reciprocating floor this was a complex challenge requiring specialized
construction designed to take into account the
entirely unique natural terrain of the site, and the
15 foot elevation discrepancy between the material
handling and storage areas of the boiler room
Hurst Oximizer Deaerator - with a duplex pump set
Hurst Propane Package Boiler -80 hp, 150 psi
The $3.4 million project was funded in part through
several grants totaling $675,000 in addition to a taxexempt bond through a local bank. Due to the recent
Renewable Energy incentives now available to the
marketplace, the Sullivan County Unity District CHP
Energy Project was able to secure the following grants:
North Country RC&D Grant >$75,000 awarded
US Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory
>$250,000 awarded
NH Public Utilities Commission Commercial &
Industrial Thermal or Electric Renewable Energy
Project Grant >$300,000 awarded
So far, the benefits of the biomass system have exceeded
expectations. In just the first 4 months of operation since
December 2013, the county realized a 20% savings
out of its $500,000 annual fuel budget, and the County
expects that the annual fuel savings will pay for the
construction bond within 15 years. With the sale of
energy credits, the County expects to receive a minimum
of $75,000/year of offsetting revenue.
In addition, the project allows all those energy dollars
to stay in the local economy. Inspired by the success of
this project, Cressy has been working on educational
outreach within the county about the benefits of biomass
energy. One of the most important parts of this biomass
initiative is building public awareness of the benefits of
lessening dependence on fossil and foreign fuels, thus
putting more dollars into the local economy, he said.
Cressy added that most of the woodchips used for fuel
are found within a 5 mile radius of the county complex.
Cressy is very pleased with both the Hurst equipment
and follow up service provided. Hurst always has said
their goal is for us to be happy customers. And we are.

www.info.hotims.com/49818-90

New Product Preview Advertising Section


Offload Your Building Controllers MS/TP Communications
Routing BACnet MS/TP messages to BACnet/IP requires
a standalone BACnet router or routing capability in
a BACnet building controller (B-BC) but there is a
performance penalty if routing is accomplished in
the building controller. Shifting routing to standalone
BACnet routers removes this performance burden freeing
the building controller to perform more meaningful
supervisory functions.
The TP in MS/TP signifies token-passing protocol
meaning that only the station with the token can initiate a
command/response cycle. If the station with the token has
nothing to say or has completed its command/response
cycle, it must relinquish the token to its logical neighbor
and the round-robin sequence continues indefinitely.
Token-passing is complicated but it improves real-time
responsiveness over nondeterministic protocols such as
Modbus but it comes at a price. The building controller
must not only scan sensor inputs, execute logic and set
outputs, it must also participate in the token-passing
protocol of MS/TP which is always generating traffic even
when no data is being transferred. The recent increase in
MS/TP baud rates to 115.2 kbaud exasperates the problem.
Handling the overhead of the BACnet MS/TP token
passing protocol puts a burden on the building controllers
CPU usage.

Building controller CPU usage can be decreased by


offloading the MS/TP token passing to external BACnet
MS/TP to BACnet/IP routers. This is especially important
if you require the controller to be connected to multiple
MS/TP networks.
Besides improving building controller performance
by off-loading MS/TP traffic to a standalone router,
the BACnet router offers wiring convenience. Instead
of running MS/TP cable to the building controller, the
installer can run MS/TP cable to the nearest Ethernet drop
and install a standalone router at this location. As more
IP networks are installed, there will be less need to install
long MS/TP cables.
Our BASrouterLX High-Performance BACnet
Router and BACnet Multi-Network BASrouter provide
the routing solution. Both units offer stand-alone routing
between BACnet networks such as BACnet/IP, BACnet
Ethernet, and BACnet MS/TP allowing the system
integrator to mix BACnet network technologies within
a single BACnet inter-network. Plus, the BASrouterLX
provides a high-speed processor, with advanced features
that include MS/TP slave proxy support (allowing auto
discovery of MS/TP slaves), MS/TP frame capture and
storage for use with Wireshark. Up to 50 BBMD entries
can be made.

For more product information visit www.basrouter.com

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New Product Preview Advertising Section


ParkerView- Alarm (PV-A) is a simple to setup, use, and
maintain cellular based alarming system for use on boilers
or other devices.
It allows the owner or operator of the boiler or other device
to be off site and be alerted when an alarm condition is
detected, cleared or when there is a power loss.
When an alarm condition is detected PV-A will text up to
3 phone numbers to indicate there is a problem.
If the alarm is cleared an additional text is sent to let an
offsite owner or operator to know.
PV-A is standardly provided in a 12x12x4 plastic weather
proofed Nema 1 enclosure to improve cellular transmission.
It can be mounted indoors or outdoors and requires a
115V/60Hz/1Ph power source. It contains a UL Listed power
supply and a Verizon Network certified cellular modem.
Options exist for a remote antenna for those basement
boiler rooms.
PV-A can be purchased as a standalone device and
installed in the field by others or it can be provided mounted
on a new boiler.
The system can monitor two boilers or alarm points.
Dry contacts on the boiler (or other device) are required,
these dry contacts should close when an alarm is present.

The PV-A could allow a boiler service company to know


of a boiler problem before the customer is even aware of a
down boiler.
When the Parker View - Alarm is purchased it is required
that a low cost one year cellular plan also be purchased.
This plan can be initially purchased through Parker Boiler
or a third party. Subsequent years must be purchased from
the third party.
Once installed it takes under 3 minutes to setup the
cellular text list and custom names. It will operate with no
maintenance for years and is backed by a 1 year warranty.
PV-A is part of Parker Boilers BMS solutions which
include an array of communications products designed to
meet customer demands. Options 1. Remote Antenna
2. 24Vac Version.

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ICE has been a HVAC manufacturer with two facilities in
Canada with one in Winnipeg (since 1961) and Calgary
(since 1991) and one in the USA, Tennessee (since 1993).
With years of proven direct fired heater and indirect fired
experience behind us, we offer a comprehensive product
line of direct fired and indirect fired equipment with integral
packaged DX cooling. ICE cooling provides some of the
highest efficiencies (EER) in the industry by utilizing digital
scroll compressors, digital superheat controller, electronic
expansion valves, and variable speed condenser fans (floating
head design).
Since our inception, ICE has strived to be a leader in the
industry by following these main principles.
Commitment to success: The success of our customers
and employees. To us, success is driven by loyalty
that comes from service, quality and innovation. This
attitude goes into all our projects, from the initial
design stages, to the manufactured product, through
to the commissioning phases and on going service to
the customers.
Product recognition: Distribute a product that has
been recognized by the HVAC industry for innovation
and excellence. The ICE product has withstood the test
of time. The knowledge the company has gained from
its years of experience and breadth of building types
makes ICE well equipped to handle a variety of todays
air management applications.

Our forward thinking has carried on through such advanced


products as:
A. HTDM 91 plus is the most efficient indirect fired heat
exchanger in the market today. Upto 60:1 turndown
and available in heat only & high efficiency heat with
package DX cooling. HTDM model which has the
highest turn down burner in the industry.
B. Explosion proof and hazardous location HVAC units
are customized and constructed to meet the harshest
environments.
C. Custom Air Handling and Heat Recovery Units
are customized to satisfy all requirements from the
consultant and end user to on site conditions.
D. Scrubbers Units are designed for 100% removal of
contaminates to provide G1 air to the critical area.
ICE Western Sales Ltd does not stop there; many new
products are on the horizon to meet ever-increasing
concern over energy costs, consumption and impact on our
environment. One size does not fit all, which is why ICE
offers custom configurations for air handling, heat recovery,
and process units. As with our standard units, these custom
systems are built with energy recovery and conservation in
mind, which means lower operating costs in the long run. You
can trust that we stand behind every unit we manufacture
with a well trained staff and representative network. We
service what we sell!

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Reducing VAV Fan Power by 30%
It is common knowledge about VAV that comfort and
energy savings go hand in hand. A building with many
VAV zones raises the chances of occupant comfort
satisfaction. In addition many VAV zones reduces the
chances of overcooling or overheating which lowers fan
speeds and lowers the central conditioning requirement
both of which result in lower energy use. Much has also
been written about control
solutions such as supply
air temperature reset and
static pressure reset which
can reduce the energy
consumption of any VAV
system during turndown.
Less has been written
about designing the basic
VAV air system for low
energy at full flow as well as turndown before any control
solutions are applied.
ASHRAE has addressed basic low energy VAV air system
design in the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to
Medium Office Buildings*. The goal is to select the lowest
horsepower supply air fan possible which, after avoiding
over sizing the air volume, revolves around a low pressure
drop air system. Every part of the air system from filters
and coils to the returns is either selected or designed for low
pressure drop. Some examples are:
Use the largest filter bank that can fit in the space.
Select low pressure drop extended surface area filters.
Select the largest coil that can fit in the space.
Size risers for 800 to 1200 fpm at the floor closest to the
air handler.
Size supply air ducting for 1200 to 700 fpm or pressure
drop no greater than 0.08 wg per 100 ft.
Use VAV diffusers to lower pressure drop over VAV
terminals by 0.25wg to 0.75wg and reduce fan power
by 10 to 20%.
Size VAV diffusers for low static pressure drops
between 0.25wg and 0.05wg--Size VAV diffusers as
large as possible, especially at the end of the duct run,
for the lowest possible pressure drop at design air flow.
Specify that no balancing damper shall be installed
before the last VAV diffuser so that the system will be
balanced at the lowest possible fan speed.
Size return grills for pressure drop no greater than 0.08 wg.
Use ceiling return air plenums (except in high humidity
locations such as DOE climate zone 1.).

A low pressure
design can reduce
supply air fan power at
design air flow down
to 0.4 W/cfm. This is a
30% reduction from a
traditional VAV system
where design supply
air fan power may be around 0.6 W/cfm. About one third of
this reduction is due to the use of VAV diffusers instead of
conventional VAV boxes. With duct design for a maximum
static pressure of 0.25wg at the first (upstream) diffuser,
VAV diffuser systems operate below the lowest static
pressure reset for VAV boxes. In addition, location of the
system static pressure sensor close to the last diffuser results
in reset of all upstream diffusers downward toward the static
pressure of the last diffuser (may be as low as 0.05wg) as
the system turns down.
A 30% fan energy savings well worth designing into your
VAV systems. For more information contact Acutherm at
www.acutherm.com.

For a more complete list see Air Handling Units or VAV


Rooftops posted in Documents/Resources/Energy Savings
at www.acutherm.com.
http://www.acutherm.com/media/docs/
HighPerformUsingLowEnergyAirHandlingUnits.pdf
http://www.acutherm.com/media/docs/fm020p118_
REV1401_ROOFTOP.pdf

* ASHRAE. Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings


Achieving 50% Energy Savings toward a Net Zero Energy Building,
available at https://buildingdata.energy.gov/cbrd/resource/1174.

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Complying with Upcoming EPA Regulations on Polyurethane Foam Insulation
As many manufacturers of HVAC/R equipment are aware, the U.S.
EPA has proposed eliminating the use of several common HFC
blowing agents in the production of polyurethane foam insulation.
These include HFC-134a and HFC-245fa, among others, due to
their significant global warming potential.
While the exact details and timing of the regulations are still
unknown, most in the industry agree that it is only a matter of
time before these blowing agents are no longer an option for
U.S. manufacturers (as early as the end of 2016). Fortunately,
there is a proven, economical and readily available alternative
that is approved by the EPA for all foam
applications: ecomate from Foam
Supplies, Inc.
Ecomate is a foam blowing agent
technology and family of polyurethanes
that has a neutral impact on the
environment, with zero contribution to
global warming, ozone depletion or smog
production. It has been listed by the EPA
since 2003 as an approved substitute for
CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs.

compliance with current and upcoming EPA standards, to avoid


any disruptions when new regulations go into effect.
The Proven Solution for the HVAC/R Industry
Every single day, ecomate customers produce some of the worlds
best products including air handlers, refrigeration equipment,
water heaters and more without contributing to global warming,
ozone depletion or smog production. Chances are, ecomate can be
a key to your companys success, too.

Offering Similar Results as Legacy


Blowing Agents
In most cases, a change to an ecomate
system produces similar or better results to
those achieved with HFC-141b, HFC-134a,
HFC-245fa and other blowing agents
including critical foam properties such as
thermal efficiency, adhesion, dimensional
stability and more. Plus, ecomate offers
far superior insulating properties than
other materials still in use today, such as
fiberglass and expanded polystyrene (EPS).
Ecomate is also safe and easy to use,
with the same shipping and handling
requirements as legacy urethane systems.
Plus, several ecomate systems meet fire
resistance and other safety specifications
for various industry and building codes,
as verified by Underwriters Laboratories,
Factory Mutual and other certification
organizations.
A Simple Transition
In the vast majority of HVAC/R
applications, whether converting from
a liquid or froth based foam system,
transitioning to an ecomate system is both
easy and inexpensive with minimal
changes to equipment and production
processes. Foam Supplies has been
successfully transitioning customers to
ecomate since 2002, from a wide range of
CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs.
Foam Supplies regularly works with
manufacturers to develop turnkey
solutions, including foam systems,
equipment and technical support, to either
transition from other systems or to start
up foaming operations for the very first
time. FSI can assure companies are in

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New and Improved AP Armaflex Black LapSeal
Durable, easy-to-install, closed cell pipe insulation for plumbing and refrigeration
Armacell is pleased to announce new and improved,
AP Armaflex Black LapSeal. Its the original flexible
elastomeric pipe insulation with a new and improved lap
seal for greater seam security and increased protection
against condensation, mold and energy loss. Installers who
already like the quick application of self-seal and lap seal
Armaflex will appreciate the enhancements to our newest
pipe insulation innovation, available for the first time in a
wider range of popular small wall sizes.
Black LapSeals new angle-cut seam has up to 40% more
surface area on the self-sealing connection points compared
to other similar products in the marketplace. Other new
features include an improved lap seal closure system, with a
wider release tab on the lap tape which can be easily removed
for installation. For added security, the low-profile lap seal
ensures the longitudinal seam stays closed and looks neat.
Its the ideal solution for speeding up install times or making
hard-to-reach installation areas easier to accommodate.
Like all AP Armaflex products, Black LapSeals closed
cell structure means that it will not wick moisture and needs
no additional water vapor retarder. The flexible, but durable,
fiber-free elastomeric foam resists punctures and wont
crack or flake over time. When installed and maintained
properly, Black LapSeal insulation should last the life of the
mechanical system.

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For condensation
control on chilled
water or refrigeration
lines, theres no equal
to elastomeric foam
insulation. This easyto-install flexible pipe
insulation keeps cold
pipes from sweating,
preventing expensive
damage to the equipment or its surrounding environment.
AP Armaflex Black LapSeal
Angled cut with more surface area for a better bond
A single easy-release interior adhesive liner for quicker
application
New durable, low-profile lap seal with wider release tab
100% fiber free and non-particulating
25/50 ASTM E 84 flame and smoke rated up to 2
Made with Microban antimicrobial technology
New sizes: 3/8 to 6 ID; 3/8 to 2 Wall
As the inventors of Armaflex elastomeric foam technology
in 1954, Armacell continues the tradition of practical
innovation today.

New Product Preview Advertising Section


LG Multi V Water IV
The innovative Multi V Water IV by LG Electronics
provides building operators with uncompromised
engineering flexibility and outstanding energy efficiency.
The newly-released unit is available in two configurations,
including the heat pump and heat recovery, each of which
can accommodate up to 64 thermal zones due to their
capability to reach distant areas of a building.

in long-term cost and energy savings for contractors,


building owners and occupants. The VRF water system also
can tie into existing condenser water loops for seamless
installation. Additionally, LG offers a unique variable water
flow control kit to work with condenser water pumps that
have the ability to vary water flow, contributing to overall
energy savings.

Enhanced Energy Savings


LGs Multi V Water IV system operates with the
latest inverter technology, incorporating an optimized
scroll compressor that maximizes energy efficiency.
The technology in the unit results in reduced power
consumption by delivering the appropriate amount of
cooling to all indoor units. Inverter compressors can vary
the volume of refrigerant as needed to meet building load
changes, providing occupants with ideal comfort at all
times, regardless of outside temperature.
At the heart of the system is LGs flagship Variable
Refrigerant Flow (VRF) technology, which can reduce
the added expense of duct work and distribution fans.
LG VRF technology delivers sustainable energy benefits,
including minimizing efficiency losses over time, resulting

Increased Flexibility
Due to its light weight and compact footprint, the Multi
V Water IV makes an ideal HVAC solution for offices,
hotels, schools and retrofits. The Multi V Water IV
operates at low sound levels, allowing the unit to be placed
anywhere inside the building, providing occupants with a
peaceful, quiet environment.
For more information on this and other LG Commercial
Air Conditioning products, please visit our website at
www.lghvac.com.
Contact Information:
LG Electronics
www.LGHVAC.com

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Kimpton Brings Historic Hotel Palomar Philadelphia Up to Par in Energy
Efficiency with Water-Source Heat Pump System from ClimateMaster
THE CHALLENGE
In alignment with its EarthCare program goals for
energy reduction, KimptonHotels and Restaurants
sought to improve the efficiency of the HVAC system
at its historic Hotel Palomar Philadelphia property.
The 156,650-square-foot, 25-floor Art Deco hotel
was originally constructed in 1929 and, following its
acquisition by Kimpton in 2008, was slated for an
extensive renovation to elevate the energy efficiency and
overall sustainability of the property.
Typical to a historic renovation of this scope, the
mechanical and construction teams were faced with
some notable challenges, including space constraints,
architectural preservation requirements and an aim of
achieving LEEDcertification for the building from the
U.S. Green Building Council.
THE SOLUTION
Designed to meet the HVAC demands of all guest
rooms, meeting and commercial spaces, common areas
and the Hotel Palomars restaurant, the new 210-ton
mechanical system design incorporated more than
300 ClimateMaster heat pump units, including 293
horizontal Tranquility20 Single-Stage (TS) Series units
and 8 Tranquility Vertical Stack (TRM) Series units. This
high-efficiency water-source system, installed in place
of the buildings original and antiquated boiler heating,
would provide more comfortable, flexible and individually
controllable heating and cooling throughout the hotel.
Each guest room would also be equipped with a smart
digital thermostat capable of communicating occupancy
status to the subsequent ClimateMaster units, and
automatically adjusting operation based on whether a
guest has entered or left the room. This, in combination
with the highly-efficient MERV-11 filters and the chemicalfree water treatment system in the ClimateMaster
units, would help the hotel achieve optimal energy
performance.
THE RESULTS
The Hotel Palomar Philadelphia renovation was
completed in October 2009, and has since resulted
in several notable green building milestones for
the property and for Kimpton at-large. This includes
becoming Kimptons eleventh adaptive reuse property,
as well as the first hotel in Philadelphia to earn a LEED
Gold certification from the USGBC in September 2010.
In addition, the propertys director of engineering has

noted that with the ClimateMaster units currently in


place, the hotel has seen a significant reduction in
energy use over the years, as well as elevated guest
comfort and satisfaction.
PROJECT OVERVIEW
Hotel Palomar Philadelphia, A Kimpton Property
Mechanical Engineer: Exp
Mechanical Contractor: Tracey Mechanical
Manufacturers Representative: Sass, Moore &
Associates
ClimateMaster Equipment: 293 horizontal Tranquility
20 Single-Stage (TS) Series units; 8 Tranquility
Vertical Stack (TRM) Series units
Project Website: www.hotelpalomar-philadelphia.com

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New Product Preview Advertising Section


New Cloud-Based Software Allows for Heat Pipe Design
Heat Pipe Technologys SelectPlus Design Software Enables Heat Pipe
System Design, Drawing Creation, and Plan Submittal
Imagine having access to a free, highly integrated new software
program for heat pipe design, drawing creation, and plan submittal. And imagine that something this powerful came to you through
the Cloud, where powerful servers helped to automate and expedite
the design, specification, and installation of heat pipe solutions.
Well, you no longer have to imagine having access to this solution, because it is available today, at no cost to you.
Heat Pipe Technology (HPT) just released a highly integrated new
software program called SelectPlus, and if early user reviews are
any indication, the software is a huge hit!
SelectPlus addresses the needs of three HPT constituencies:
1) Design Engineers who design and specify HPT solutions; 2)
Manufacturers Representatives who market and help specify HPT
solutions; and 3) Original Equipment Manufacturers who manufacture equipment with HPTs.
SelectPlus directly assists with heat pipe design, including the
ability to create engineering drawings and enable required document submittals. Whether the SelectPlus user is an HPT Representative, a Design Engineer, or an OEM, they will be able to access
workflow processes that are central to their roles in the design,
specification, and installation of HPT solutions. These capabilities include the selection of Dehumidification Heat Pipes (DHPs)
and Recovery Heat Pipes (HRMs) and the ability to calculate the
Recovery Efficiency Ratio (RER) to determine true net savings.
A special feature of SelectPlus allows users to input hours of op-

eration, for super-accurate savings analysis. SelectPlus also enables


communication with engineers affiliated with specific projects. Design
engineers will also enjoy SelectPlus ability to generate dimensional
drawings and help select HPT systems for SelectPlus directly assists with heat
direct-expansion and
pipe design, including the ability
chilled-water systems.
to create engineering drawings and
SelectPlus is a
enable required document submittals.
huge leap forward
in heat pipe design,
and it will enable collaboration and ease-of-use for HPTs affiliated
professionals, whether they are engineers, OEMs, or members of our
global rep network, said HPTs Maz Awad. Whats more, SelectPlus
is cloud-based, so our affiliated professionals can access extraordinary
engineering and design capabilities through any internet connection.
Contact us directly for more information at info@heatpipe.com.
About Heat Pipe Technology
Heat Pipe Technology, a division of MiTek, is the innovation
leader in passive energy recovery and dehumidification systems for
commercial and industrial applications around the globe. Employing the very latest in passive-heat-transfer technology, Heat Pipe
Technology designs and supplies the core energy recovery technologies to the worlds leading commercial air-handling equipment
manufacturers. More info: www.heatpipe.com.

For access today, login to www.heatpipeselect.com

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Navien Brings New Boiler Series to the United States and Canada

Irvine, CA - As Koreas largest boiler company, exporting


to more than 30 countries worldwide, KD Navien, has
developed its industry leading reputation in the United
States and Canada as a tankless water heater and combiboiler company. With deep experience in the manufacturing
of boilers and the largest single boiler manufacturing
facility in the world, the company will expand its product
line in the US and Canada when they begin selling the
NHB (Navien Heating Boiler) series.
Ideal for residential and light commercial use, from the
manufacturer that reinvented the way that people think
about tankless water heating, the NHB builds on Naviens
recent successful product lines. The Navien Heating Boiler
(NHB) will be offered in 4 sizes: NHB-55, NHB-80, NHB
110 and NHB-150 with turn-down-ratios respectively of
7:1, 10:1, 11:1, and 15:1. The noteworthy 15:1 TDR in
the NHB-150 is achieved with Naviens advanced burner
system. One key component to that efficiency is the newly
developed dual Venturi gas delivery system.
Our New NHB heating boiler product will be much
more than just another hi-efficiency condensing wall hung
boiler added to the wide selection of boiler choices for
contractors and homeowners said Brian Fenske, Specialty
Channel Sales Manager for Navien. Yes we will have 95%
AFUE, outdoor reset as required, and a few other similar
operational features like the other brand choices available
but then so much more!
The NHB will offer industry leading options and features
in the boiler operation parameters such as:
the largest industry turndown ratios providing ease
of installation with multiple smaller zones while
maintaining high operational efficiencies
a timed hydronic supply water boost feature
adjustable heat capacity

adjustable anti-cycle timer


freeze protection
adjustable Delta T ranges
pressure LWCO with manual reset
adjustable minimum burner time setting
adjustable turndown ratio timing and many more.
There are almost too many features to list. This product
offers the installer an opportunity to achieve a true highefficiency installation says Brian.
Its a little known fact that Korea is the 2nd largest
market for boilers in the world behind only the United
Kingdom, said Eric Moffroid, VP Sales and Marketing
for Navien. In fact there are almost three times as many
boilers sold in Korea as in all of North America. An
engineering and technology driven company, Navien has
invested heavily in R&D over the past 36 years, resulting
in a host of technologically advanced products. We are
very excited to soon be offering this advanced heating
technology and expertise here in the United States and
Canada. www.navien.com
About Navien
An official ENERGY STAR partner of the Residential
Water Heater Program, Navien is the recognized leader
in condensing technology. The company name is derived
from three words: Navigator / Energy / Environment, with a
mission to provide customers with the ultimate comfortable
living environment through energy efficient products
by using innovative technology to create a healthier
environment for our future generations. Navien products are
available in the United States and Canada through a selected
network of wholesale distributors. For more information
visit us at Navien.com
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Advertising Section
L-VIS Touch Panels: New devices
with frameless glass front and
capacitive touch
The LOYTEC L-VIS family of devices celebrates its
10th anniversary with a range of new devices. This new
generation of devices offers both new products regarding
screen size (7, 12.1 and 15) and equipment and also
the merging of BACnet and LON models that have been
available separately to date. The devices are equipped with
a LonMark TP/FT-10 port and an RS-485 port for BACnet
MS/TP, for connection to LON and BACnet networks. Via
RS-485, either
BACnet MS/TP
or Modbus RTU
can be connected.
Dual Ethernet
with a built-in
Ethernet switch
allows for daisy
chaining devices
via Ethernet.
BACnet/IP,
LonMark IP852
and Modbus TCP
are supported via
Ethernet/IP. The devices can also host Web pages (HTML5)
to be accessed from smartphones, tablets, or PCs. The
merging of LON and BACnet models with simultaneous
backward compatibility with existing projects simplifies
many processes, from purchase, storage, and configuration,
to maintenance of the devices in the field. The devices can
also be used as drop-in substitute for current installations.
Completely new are the glass L-VIS devices with
7 and 15. The glass surface provides a high-quality,
modern appearance. The capacitive touch sensor allows for
operation without any pressure on the surface as we are
accustomed to from smartphones or tablets. Because
of the glass surface without any corners and edges, the glass
L-VIS is perfectly suitable for use in clean rooms
or hygienically demanding areas such as care facilities
or hospitals.

Control is just
a touch away!

L-VIS: Quality BACnet


Touch Panel Solution
NEW! Frameless Glass Front with Capacitive Touch
Dual port Ethernet communication
5.7, 7, 12, and 15 versions
BACnet/IP

LOYTEC Americas, Inc.


N27W23957 Paul Road
Suite 103
Pewaukee, WI 53072
USA
info@loytec-americas.com

BACnet MSTP/IP routing


BACnet alarm, schedule, and trend with email
Modbus TCP (Master or Slave)
Full color animated graphics
Web access from smartphone, tablet, or PC

www.loytec.com

LOYTEC Americas, Inc., N27W23957 Paul Rd, Suite 103, Pewaukee, WI 53072, USA
www.loytec-americas.com, info@loytec-americas.com

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Dont Let Humidity Rust Your Manufactured Auto Parts
and Cost You Money
Car manufacturers have controlled facilities to test and develop
their parts to withstand rigorous conditions, but the wrong
conditions in the facility itself can present a major risk. For
example, if a development facility lab shows high humidity
conditions, the machined parts being tested inside could rust
within minutes. Rusted parts means a car manufacturer loses
time and money on both the scrapped parts and the associated
labor costs.
One such car manufacturer
experienced said condition; they found
that the relative humidity exceeded 80%
in a small space that was serviced by a 3
ton packaged unit. Further investigation
showed that the humidity levels were
disproportionately high due to the fact
that the area outside of (surrounding)
the lab was also being cooled but had
considerable infiltration as a result
of regular space use as an auto shop,
including exhaust systems and regularly
open overhead doors. Sensible load on
the systems serving the lab space was
very low leading to very short runtimes
and the inability of the system to remove
humidity building up in the lab. The lab
space also lacked a vapor barrier to keep
humidity infiltration to a minimum. As
a result the high humidity (latent load)
of the surrounding shop area had an
additional impact on the lab.
The Solution:
The initial solution suggested starting
with the installation of the Rawal
Devices, Inc. APR Control on the direct
expansion (dx) refrigeration circuit
of the 3 ton package unit. The APR
Control would extend the run time of
the basic air conditioning equipment
while maintaining the evaporator coil
below dewpoint, thereby improving the
humidity level in the space.
The APR Control that was used was
capable of providing approximately
1.75-2 tons of modulation, or
the equivalent of around 60-65%
modulation of the total system capacity,
from 3 tons down to around 1 ton at
low load conditions, which resulted in a
more responsive system.
Lowering the indoor fan speed
allowed the relationship of latent to
sensible capacity of the air conditioning
units evaporator coil (normally around
70/30) to be increased closer to 50/50.
By installing and adjusting the APR
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Control for system capacity modulation, as well as introducing


a percentage of fresh air to positively pressure the space, the
issue has been resolved. The relative humidity in the test lab
does not exceed 55% RH, and ranges from 47%-53% thanks
to a wall-mounted humidistat, which gives the machine shop
confidence that the failure rate is no longer in question.
The APR Control provided efficiencies and savings through
all phases of lab operation for this auto part manufacturer,
including labor costs, maintenance, energy savings, and quality
assurance.

www.info.hotims.com/49818-76

New Product Preview Advertising Section

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www.info.hotims.com/49818-38

New Product Preview Advertising Section

www.info.hotims.com/49818-82
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A SIMPLE
AND FLEXIBLE
SOLUTION FOR
VENTING MULTIPLE
POLYPRO LINERS
Run multiple flexible liners in a single
chimney or B Vent space.
M&G DuraVents new solution for venting multiple
PolyPro flue provides a simple and flexible solution.
A great combination when you need to vent multiple
appliances within the same space.
All PolyPro terminations and components are listed.

Scan QR Code to see installation video!


Follow us on social media or for more information on
our products, visit www.duravent.com

800-835-4429 www.duravent.com 2014

www.info.hotims.com/49818-64

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New Product Preview


Advertising Section

New Product Preview Advertising Section


HVAC professionals demand reliability when
it comes to humidity, CO2 and temperature
measurement/control instruments. Rotronic has
been manufacturing humidity instruments since
1965 with the HVAC contractor in mind. By
providing accurate and dependable measurements
in a wide range of applications, Rotronic provides
instruments with performance and features HVAC
professionals appreciate.
Humidity is one of the most difficult
measurements to make in HVAC applications.
Rotronic instruments provide higher precision,
better long term stability and advanced features
demanded by professionals in the HVAC industry.
Rotronic humidity and temperature instruments
have been developed with advanced digital
technology and have made their mark throughout
the world with market leading technology.
The Rotronic name ensures excellence in the
measurement of humidity and temperature.

Using the skills and knowledge built over years


of market leading technology, Rotronic has begun
to develop new lines of instruments measuring
different physical parameters. A line of CO2
instrumentation along with differential pressure
transmitters has been introduced in the past year.
New this year at AHR 2015, Rotronic is featuring
the latest development in HVAC transmitters; the
HygroFlex1 (HF1) transmitter series for humidity
and temperature. The HF1 series offers unmatched
measurement reliability and value at a very
inexpensive price point. These transmitters are easy
to install and maintain in any HVAC application.
Contact Rotronic for all your measurement needs;
humidity, temperature, CO2, and differential
pressure. Reliable, stable and accurate instruments
from Rotronic designed for the HVAC industry
professional are guaranteed to meet your price
and measurement performance targets.

www.info.hotims.com/49818-80
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www.info.hotims.com/49818-52

New Product Preview Advertising Section


ISCO Supplies Leak- and Corrosion-Free Pipe for HVAC Systems
By Melissa Moody
Florence Elementary School wanted an
environmentally-friendly, non-corrosive
pipe to go with their new energyefficient geothermal HVAC system.
Project contractor Arctic Heating & Air
knew they needed a leak-free, clean
piping system.
So they chose ISCOs PP-RCT
polypropylene pipe.
Steel piping loses roughly three
percent of its inner diameter every year
to corrosion, according to industry
experts. Leaks occur, pumps work
harder, and more and more electricity
is expended until ultimately the
entire system must be replaced. And
to prolong the life of the system,
environmentally harmful inhibitors
must be added to prevent corrosion.
To provide customers like Arctic
with a solution to this problem, ISCO
supplies an eco-friendly pipe that
creates a non-corrosive piping system
for indoor applications.
ISCOs PP-RCT fusion process
requires no open flames or toxic glues
and solvents to create a joint-free piping
system. ISCO representative Matt
Denny trained the Arctic crew to fuse
the pipe on the project site causing no
disturbance to campus activities while
re-piping the existing buildings.
PP-RCT resin was the most
advanced material available. PPRCT resin has higher performance
characteristics when compared to
standard PPR resin used in other piping
systems. PP-RCT can handle higher
temperatures and pressures compared to
standard PP-R products, and due to the
beta nucleation process with PP-RCT
resin, a thinner wall product can be
utilized to meet required specifications.
By contrast standard PP-R pipe
requires a thicker wall pipe to meet
the same temperature and pressure
parameters. The advantage with a thinner
wall piping system is a lighter weight
product and a lower overall material and
installation cost to the owner.
Why design a system that is
going to fail? said Zak Schultz,
ISCO Industries North American
Polypropylene Sales Manager.
ISCOs PP-RCT polypropylene is
made with the most commercially
advanced resins and our heat fusion

process eliminates any chance of


leaks and any chance of corrosion.
Florence Elementary was able to
update their HVAC system to conserve
energy and Arctic was able to use a jointfree and corrosion-free piping system to
successfully complete the project.
ISCO Industries supplies pipe that is
designed to last
ISCOs PP-RCT polypropylene
pressure piping system is targeted
for above-grade applications on
the interior of buildings buried
heating hot water and compressed air
applications. It is also an excellent
choice for building owners and
engineers to replace CPVC, copper
and other metals in HVAC, potable
water and industrial applications. As
the global leaders in thermoplastic
pipe and fittings, ISCO can help
determine the best system for each
application like at a Kinder Morgan
facility in Illinois.
The industrial facility had a failing
underground boiler condensate drain
line in their HVAC system. With the
systems existing PVC pipe failing
due to high temperatures and causing
sinkholes, technicians knew they
needed to find a better alternative.

www.info.hotims.com/49818-61

PVC and CPVC systems can fail at


high temperatures and the glued joints
weaken over time. ISCOs polypropylene
pipe withstands high temperatures and
its heat fusion process creates a single,
leak-free monolithic pipeline.
ISCOs PP-RCT polypropylene
pipe was a great fit for the system
due to its leak-proof connections and
resistance to high temperatures. The
facility had to have the line back in
service as soon as possible, so ISCOs
Matt Denny trained the technicians
onsite and stayed until the project was
completed the next day.
Polypro pipe is a natural fit
within ISCOs product line, said
Vince Tyra, ISCO President. PP-RCT
is the most advanced polypropylene
system available, and it is also the
greenest piping system on the market.
Its the pipe of the future.
PP-RCT does not emit any toxins or
carcinogens when burned, and it is 100
percent recyclable, making it a sustainable
and earth-friendly piping system.
With quality products, high
service levels and fifty years of
experience, ISCO provides solutions
for customers looking for high-quality,
long-lasting piping solutions.
The advantages of ISCO PP-RCT
polypropylene pipe:
ISCO PP-RCT can handle higher
temperatures and pressures compared
to standard PP-R resins according to
the DIN 8077 standard. Using PPRCT compared to PP-R allows for a
thinner wall pipe. This will increase
flow, reduce head loss, and lower total
installed cost by up to 20 percent
compared to PP-R.
Reduces thermal expansion by up to
70 percent, decreasing the number of
expansion loops, elbow offsets and
expansion joints
Lower installation cost compared to
CPVC, copper and other metals
Comprehensive selection of pipe
welding equipment and options
Ten year product warranty
Supported by certified fusion
technicians with extensive experience
fusing thermoplastic piping systems.

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New Product Preview Advertising Section


ebm-papst is expanding their line of gas-air ratio control
assemblies with the new NRV77 developed for high
efficiency gas-fired boilers rated up to 35kW (120,000
BTU/H). The assembly includes a modulating premix ready
gas blower, air-gas venturi, and zero-governor gas valve.
All three components are designed, manufactured and
pre-assembled at our factory to provide a measured air-fuel
mixture to the burner. ebm-papst is offering this system
integration to eliminate the additional costs to source,
assemble and support individual components from multiple
suppliers. The NRV77 is developed from the new NRG77
premix ready gas blower and the GB055 E01 gas valve that
are pneumatically coupled with a multi-venturi that supports
a modulation range from 0.5kW (1,700 BTU/H) up to
35kW (120,000 BTU/H).
The NRG77 premix ready gas blower uses state of the
art electrically commutated (EC) motor technology that
includes a new single phase, high speed brushless DC
motor that performs over a 10:1 speed range. The NRG77
was designed for increased rotational speed to achieve
a wider modulation range with 6% reduction in energy
consumption and a 10% reduction in overall size compared
to its predecessor. The motor is also separated from the
scroll housing with a multi-positional vibration isolation
system that insures quiet, vibration-free operation within
the appliance. The two piece die cast aluminum housing
and one piece backward-curved anti-static impeller
compliment the motor design with a non-overloading
characteristic required for wide modulation. Released
this year to the global heating market, the NRG77 is
available with electrical ratings of 24VDC, 120VAC, and
230VAC 50/60 Hz for the mains supply voltage with a
low voltage speed and tachometer circuits for closed-loop
speed control. Appropriate international safety agency
certifications are available upon request.
The GB 055 E01 gas valve is the second component
in the NRV77 assembly that offers a patented co-axial
valve design that delivers up to a 25% reduction in power
consumption with a 10% reduction in size compared to
its predecessor. The gas valve provides two adjustment
screws for setting high fire and low fire operation. The
throttle adjustment provides a means to set the target
carbon-dioxide at the maximum input rate and the offset
adjustment provides a means to set the target carbondioxide at the minimum input rate with an inherent
characteristic to limit carbon-monoxide to safe levels
during blocked-flue conditions. The GB 055 E01 gas valve
is available with electrical ratings of 24VDC, 24VRAC,
120VRAC, and 230VRAC 50/60 Hz for the solenoid
coil voltage. Appropriate international safety agency

certifications are available upon request.


The multi-venturi housing is designed to accept
multiple inserts for a high turndown range typically
required for condensing gas-fired boilers. Three inserts
are currently available for three input ranges that are cost
effectively manufactured by using a common tool mold
with an adjustable restrictor to change the effective inside
diameter of the venturi. The venturi housing, insert, and
blower housing are all sealed with a liquid sealant that
replaces multiple o-rings that would have been used in
the past to insure no leakage of excess air or gas during
proper operation.
The NRV77 completes the ebm-papst NRV series
product line that includes multiple sizes to satisfy input
rates up to 145kW (495,000 BTU/H). These products and
many other air-moving solutions can be viewed at booth
2110 at the AHR Expo 2015, held at McCormick Place,
Chicago, Il January 26-18. Please stop by to speak with one
of our technical representatives.

www.info.hotims.com/49818-91
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COMPREHENSIVE COVERAGE OF
DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING
SYSTEM DESIGN
Get both books for one low price

ASHRAEs District Heating and Cooling Guides


fulfill a worldwide need for modern and complete
design guidance for district systems.

These guides are perfect for consulting


engineers with campus specialization, utility
engineers, district system operating engineers,
and central plant design engineers.

AVAILABLE NOW
Price: $179 ($152 ASHRAE Member)
www.ashrae.org/districtguide

www.info.hotims.com/49818-107

COLUMN DATA CENTERS

Creating a Perfect Storm


BY DONALD L. BEATY, P.E., FELLOW ASHRAE, DAVID QUIRK, P.E., MEMBER ASHRAE

In ASHRAE Technical Committee 9.9s Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments,
the environmental guidelines for IT equipment inlet conditions extended the allowable
range up to 85% and 90% relative humidity (RH) and 75F (24C) dew point. However,
in an unconnected parallel move, international regulators banned the use of leadbased solders within the manufacturing of electronic equipment. The lead-based solder
has been replaced with silver-based solder. Unfortunately, silver, unlike lead, is more
susceptible to effects of corrosion when exposed to certain environmental conditions.
As a result, operating data centers at the higher
humidity levels defined in the allowable ranges in
Thermal Guidelines can have detrimental effects on electronic equipment reliability. This is particularly true
when the location has elevated levels of certain particulate and gaseous pollutants caused by todays industrial
and manufacturing activities.
The gaseous contaminants can act alone, in the presence of humidity, or in synergy with dust or each other
to corrode metallic materials. They can cause irreversible damage of circuit boards, connectors, integrated
circuits and various other electronic components.
The result is a perfect storm caused by the pursuit of
energy savings and environment-friendly materials in
the design and construction of data centers.

Background
The Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)
Directive 2002/95/EC was adopted in February 2003 by
the European Union and went into effect in 2006. The
directive restricts the use of six hazardous materials in
the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipment.
Prior to this, electronic equipment was primarily manufactured with lead-based solder. In short, this directive
has restricted the use of lead in electronics and replaced
it by silver-based solders instead.
Silver is reactive when in the presence of elevated
humidity and certain gaseous contaminations including the following: Sulfur dioxide (SO2); hydrogen sulfide
(H2S); chlorine (Cl2); hydrogen chloride (HCl); nitrogen
oxides (NO, NO2); and ozone (O3).
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D ECEM BER 2014

In recognition of these potential IT hardware failures,


TC 9.9 published a book entitled Gaseous and Particulate
Contamination Guidelines or Data Centers in 2011. This book
sought to introduce and warn the industry about the
potential for problems.
It also sought to establish collaboration between
related industry organizations to solve this problem
through research and information exchange. Those
industry groups include: ASHRAE; The International
Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI); The
International Society of Automation (ISA); The China
Electronics; and Engineering Design Institute (CEEDI).

Energy Efficiency
During the development of the Contamination Guidelines,
there was aggressive industry activity focused on reduction of data center energy consumption.
The DOE had released its report to Congress indicating
the exponential rise in data center energy consumption.
This report was picked up by ASHRAE and The Green
Grid, who had published several white papers on the
PUE metric. This widely adopted industry metric had
resulted in a heightened awareness of the importance
of energy consumption data centers and was leading to
aggressive measures to reduce it.
One of the primary methods to improve PUE was the
adoption and deployment of economizers in data centers, including airside economizers.
By 2010, ASHRAE approved a significant change in the
Title, Purpose, and Scope of Standard 90.1 to include
Donald L. Beaty, P.E., is president of DLB Associates Consulting Engineers, in Eatontown,
N.J. He is publications chair of ASHRAE TC 9.9. David Quirk, P.E., is the chair of TC 9.9.

COLUMN DATA CENTERS

FIGURE 1 ASHRAE thermal guidelines expanded envelopes for recommended and allowable entering air conditions.

Relative Humidity
40%
80 90% 80% 70% 60% 50%

65

70
20%
65

A1

60

With the global push on


55
55
energy efficient operation
50
10% 50
at this point, the third edi45
Recommended
45
40
tion of ASHRAEs Thermal
40
35
35
Guidelines for Data Processing
30
Environments sought to solve
20
10
this problem with wider
0
envelopes (Figure 1).
35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120
Energy efficient operation,
Dry-Bulb Temperature F
through expanded allowable
environmental envelopes,
was previously tempered by the unknown impacts that
and moisture absorption by PCB laminates, which may
higher temperatures would have on the failure rates
degrade machine performance and reliability.
of the IT equipment. To quantify this unknown, a conDeliquescent relative humidity of dust occurs when parglomerate of the major IT OEM equipment manufacticulate contamination absorbs humidity. Airborne dust
turers published consensus relative failure rates of IT
in data centers can be divided into two size ranges: coarse
equipment for different inlet temperature conditions
dust with particle size greater than 2.5 mm; and fine dust
(as described in detail in last months column). The
with particle size less than or equal to 2.5 mm (PM2.5).
information was included in the third edition of Thermal
Fine dust is of particular concern because of its ability
Guidelines along with practical examples of how to apply
to absorb water. Fine particle filtration requires a MERV
the information.
rating of 13 or higher to effectively filter out PM2.5 parAt the time, only higher temperatures were considered ticles from a data center.
an impact on hardware reliability. More recent industry
Reliability & Failure Modes
experience has demonstrated a very real problem assoParticulate and gaseous corrosion can lead to elecciated with elevated humidity conditions when in the
tronic equipment failures. Those failure modes can conpresence of gaseous contamination.
sist of the following:
Effect of Moisture and Particulate Contamination
Copper creep corrosion on circuit boards (Figure 2);
The Allowable Classes (A-1 through A-4) permit ele Corrosion of silver metallization in components; and
vated humidity levels greater than 80% RH. At 80% to
Formation of copper sulfide on ITE printed circuit
85% relative humidity, most dust will get wet and supboard (PCB) assemblies.
port high levels of leakage currents between adjacent
Sulfur-bearing gases are mainly responsible for corrofeatures on printed circuit boards (PCBs).
sion-related hardware failures when silver is present.
In addition, high relative humidity tends to aggraResearch: Past and Proposed
vate the following: creep corrosion; ion migration in/
Several studies aimed to address the role of humidity
on PCBs; component corrosion; connector corrosion;
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143

SOURCE: ASHRAE. MODIFIED BY DLB

A2

Dew-Point Temperature F

rat
pe
lb
Bu

60

75

A4

70

ure

A3

We
t-

Thermal Guidelines

30%
80

75

Tem

data centers (computer


rooms) in the standard. In
doing so, they introduced
prescriptive requirements
for economizers, including
airside economizers, despite
fierce opposition from
the data center industry
members.

COLUMN DATA CENTERS

along with temperature and gaseous and particulate contamination on corrosion of copper and silver.
However, most of these efforts have been based on
very high concentration of gaseous contamination (far
beyond practical applications). Typical ranges of outdoor
pollutants are in Table 1.
The results of those studies can be summed up as follows:
Copper corrosion rate was sensitive to relative humidity; however, silver corrosion rate was quite insensitive to relative humidity.
Copper and silver corrosion rates are influenced by
SO2, H2S, Cl2, HCl, NO, NO2, and O3 concentrations.
The relationship between relative humidity and IT
equipment failure rates is probably of a step function
nature: the failures rates being low below 50% relative
humidity range and rising sharply above 50% relative
humidity range.
There is a recent increase in the number of data centers
using free air cooling using an expansion of the allowable
temperature and humidity limits as per Thermal Guidelines.
As a result, the need has been recognized to study the
impact of elevated and dynamic humidity conditions on
the performance and reliability of IT equipment.
Recent studies suggest that it appears that humidity plays a very important role in facilitating an electrochemical interaction. Most recently, TC 9.9, Mission
Critical Facilities, Data Centers, Technology Spaces and Electronic
Equipment, and TC 2.3, Gaseous Air Contaminates and Gas
Contaminates Removal Equipment, are seeking approval of a
work statement Impact of High Humidity and Gaseous
Contamination on the Reliable Operation of Information
Technology Equipment in Data Centers to further the
understanding in this field.
This research program seeks to characterize the impact
that high humidity and gaseous contamination have on
IT equipment reliability. Furthermore, it is anticipated
that guidelines will be prepared for the acceptable operating environment in data centers globally. The publication of this information is expected to increase the
adoption of Thermal Guidelines in data centers worldwide
continuing the energy conservation movement.

Closing Comments
Corrosion-induced failures of copper and silver-based
electronics has emerged as a new problem in data center
electronic equipment.
The combination of the following has combined to
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D ECEM BER 2014

FIGURE 2 Examples of copper and silver corrosion on electronics.

TABLE 1 Typical range of outdoor pollutants worldwide.


OUTDOOR RANGES IN PPB

POLLUTANT TYPE

MINIMUM

MAXIMUM

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

4.0

1,400

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

5.0

80.0

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

4.0

40.0

Chlorine (Cl2)

1.0

10.0

Ozone (O3)

5.0

60.0

TABLE 2 ISA classification of reactive environments (ANSI/ISA 71.04 2013).

COPPER REACTIVITY LEVELS


(/MONTH)
GROUP

G1
(MILD)

G2
(MODERATE)

G3
(HARSH)

G4
(SEVERE)

<300

<1,000

<2,000

2,000

GAS

GAS CONCENTRATION (IN PPB)

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

<3

<10

<50

50

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)


Sulfur Trioxide (SO3)

<10

<100

<300

300

Chlorine (Cl2)

<1

<2

<10

10

Nitrogen Oxides (NOX)

<50

<125

<1,250

1,250

Hydrogen Fluoride (HF)

<1

<2

<10

10

Ammonia (NH3)

<500

<10,000

<25,000

25,000

Ozone (O3)

<2

<25

<100

100

create the perfect storm in the data center:


New industry regulations have imposed restrictions
on the materials used in electronic equipment solder;
Wider allowable humidity ranges published in Thermal Guidelines; and
The introduction of airside economizers.

PRODUCTS
A

Water Filters

The TEKLEEN line of ABW (automatic backwash) filters from Tekleen Automatic Filters, Los
Angeles, is designed to eliminate contamination caused by airborne dust, sand, pollen,
algae, and pipe scale.
www.info.hotims.com/49818-151
B

Chillers

GEA Refrigeration, Bochem, Germany, introduces five models of the BluGenium series
water-cooled ammonia chillers for process
cooling, building climate control, and industrial applications. They enable brine
inlet temperatures from 15C to 15C (5F
to 59F).
www.info.hotims.com/49818-152
C

Leak Detection/Water Shutoff System

The new System 3.5 automatic leak detection, water conservation and water shutoff
system from FloLogic, Raleigh, N.C., features
an automatic water monitoring and shutoff
system to minimize unexpected water losses due to leaks in pressurized plumbing systems and plumbing appliances.
www.info.hotims.com/49818-153

Water Source Heat Pumps


Mammoth, Eden Prairie, Minn., has
launched the HydroBank MS water source
heat pump line, designed to deliver water
loop (WHLP) EERs of up to 14.9 with ECM
motors. Optional feature options include
hot gas reheat, hot gas bypass, electronically commutated motors (ECM), two-way motorized control valves, and DDC.
www.info.hotims.com/49818-154

Heat Transfer Fluid


DuPont Tate & Lyle Bio Products, Wilmington,
Del., has collaborated with SolarUS to
introduce So-Blu biobased heat transfer
fluid, which uses Susterra 1,3-propanediol
(PDO), a high-performance glycol alternative.
It is designed to provide freeze, corrosion
and extreme heat protection in solar thermal
systems, resulting in increased system and
equipment efficiency and lifespan.
www.info.hotims.com/49818-155

Heat Pump Rooftop Units


Dallas-based Lennox offers the Raider line of
light commercial heat pump rooftop units.
The optional MSAV (multistage air volume)
supply fan technology optimizes energy
efficiency by matching fan speed with
compressor demand.
www.info.hotims.com/49818-156

PRODUCT SHOWPLACE

Controls System
Milwaukee-based Johnson Controls offers
Simplicity Smart Equipment (SE) controls
for the York brand of commercial packaged
and split system products. The controls feature an LCD display and navigation joystick
to provide quick access to menus displaying
unit status, options, current function, supply, return and outdoor temperatures, fault
codes, operational and energy-use data, setpoints, schedules and diagnostic data that
can also be accessed via the Web.
www.info.hotims.com/49818-157

VRF
Trane, Davidson, N.C., offers the Trane
water-source VRF, which uses water as the
energy exchange medium to heat and cool
the systems condenser. Using adjacent
water or geothermal sources, watersource VRF can draw upon stable water
temperatures to dissipate heat during
peak cooling periods and act as a heat
source when in heating mode.
www.info.hotims.com/49818-158

To receive FREE info on the


products in this section, visit
the Web address listed below
each item or go to

www.ashrae.org/freeinfo.

Water Filter
By Tekleen Automatic Filters

Sensor

Chiller
By GEA Refrigeration

The new TDWLB sensor from Transducers


Direct, Cincinnati, is designed for remote
reading of pressure/temperature in HVAC
refrigerant, oil and water lines. The sensor
is controlled and read through a mobiledevice app that enables the user to name
each sensor securely, then program setpoints/alarms for multiple sensors, monitor readings, and graph activity.
www.info.hotims.com/49818-159

Leak Detection/Water Shutoff System


By FloLogic
Air Filter

Mobile App
The new Effinity93 App from Modine Manufacturing, Racine, Wis., is a free, cost-savings calculator for both iOS and Android phone platforms and tablets. The app calculates payback
and energy savings associated with installing
the Effinity93 condensing unit heater.
www.info.hotims.com/49818-160

Permatron, Elk Grove Village, Ill., offers the


PreVent permanent, washable air intake filter that draws in and traps airborne debris
before it can enter HVAC systems. The filter is designed to withstand hostile environments including corrosive areas, UV exposure, and fluctuating weather conditions.
www.info.hotims.com/49818-162

Blade Louver

Heat Pumps

The new Model EAD-635 adjustable blade


louver from Greenheck, Schofield, Wis., features a drainable head member and adjustable drainable blades to channel water. When
open, the drainable blades provide resistance
to water penetration and high volume intake and exhaust ventilation. When closed,
the optional dual durometer vinyl bladeedge gaskets and stainless steel jamb seals effectively to minimize air leakage and water
penetration.
www.info.hotims.com/49818-161

Allied Commercial, West Columbia, S.C., offers


the Z-Series line of heat pumps in a variety
of capacities. They feature an isolated burner
compartment that protects against moisture
and reduces the risk of corrosion and rust; a
belt drive with metal blower pulley created
to last for the life of the unit; and a protective wall that keeps electronic components
safe from damage due to debris and broken
drive belts.
www.info.hotims.com/49818-163

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ASHRAE JOURNAL

145

2014 ASHRAE Journal Indices


ASHRAE members can download ASHRAE Journal articles from 1997 to present for free at www.ashrae.org/ashraejournalarchive. After logging in, members can view articles by year and month or use the search
engine to find articles by author, title or keyword. Nonmembers can purchase downloadable articles for $8 at www.ashrae.org/bookstore. For articles previous to 1997, members and nonmembers can purchase
paper copies by contacting ASHRAE Customer Service at 1-800-527-4723 (U.S. and Canada) or 404-636-8400 (worldwide).

By Author
Ahl, Doug
Future Climate Impacts On Building Design. P.36. Sept.
Allen, Kate
Understanding Salaries in the A/E Industry. P.12. Feb.

Duda, Stephen W.
Avoid Outdated Condenser Water Rules-of-Thumb. P.50.
Mar.
Fire & Smoke Damper Application Requirements. P.42.
July.
Overlooked Code Requirements. P.32. Dec.

Bailey, James
Controlling Condensation on CWP Insulation. P.24. Dec.

Easton, Scott
Small Building, Vast Potential. P.64. Mar.

Baril, Pierre-Luc
Efficient Labs for University. P.70. Nov.

Elovitz, Kenneth M.
Specifying... Or Equal. P.54. Aug.

Beaty, Donald L.
Creating A Perfect Storm. P.142. Dec.

Emmerich, Steven J.
CO and Portable Generators. P.92. Sept.

Digital Revolution Impact, Part 1. P.84. Sept.

Improving Infiltration in Energy Modeling. P.70. July.

Global Data Centers. P.74. Jan.


Is Software-Defined Data Center Next Reality? P.58. Feb.
IT Equipment Load Trends, Part 1. P.74. Mar.
IT Equipment Load Trends, Part 2. P.84. Apr.
IT Equipment Load Trends, Part 3. P.95. May.
IT Equipment Load Trends, Part 4. P.82. June.
IT Equipment Load Trends, Part 5. P.66. July.
Liquid Cooling Guidelines. P.82. Oct.
X-Factor Explained. P.83. Nov.
Betz, Fred
Small Building, Vast Potential. P.64. Mar.

Eubanks, Brent
Climate-Adapted Design for California School. P.72. May.

Higgins, Jared A.
Modeled vs. Real Utility Data. P.93. Apr.
New 90.1 and Modeling. P.68. Feb.
Howell, Ronald
Air-Cooled Chillers for Las Vegas Revisited. Donald W.
Land, John M. Land. P.36. Dec.
Int-Hout, Dan
Chilled Beams Selection. P.58. Nov.
Compliance to Standard 55. P.90. Apr.

Felker, Larry
Codes & Damper Testing. P.76. Oct.

Variable Volume DOAS Fan-Powered Terminal Unit. P.70.


Aug.

Ferguson, Steve
Aligning IECC and Standard 90.1. P.56. Mar.

VAV Coils, Fan Coil Devices. P.58. Jan.

Friedman, Glenn
Climate-Adapted Design for California School. P.72. May.

Chan, Cary W.H.


Detecting Faults in Hong Kong High-Rise. P.46. Jan.

Hedrick, Roger
Standard 62.1 Update & Plans. P.86. Aug.

Conditioning Challenges: Lobbies and Atriums. P.49. Feb.

Flaniken, Bruce L.
Texas Hospital Central Plant Redesign. P.36. Jan.

Bowman, Scott
Sustainable Stewardship. P.70. Oct.

Hartman, Thomas
All-Variable Speed Centrifugal Chiller Plants. P.68. June.

Farmer, Thomas
Technical vs. Process Commissioning: Design Phase
Commissioning. P.52. Feb.

Fisher, Don
90.1 and Designing High Performance Commercial
Kitchen Ventilation Systems. P.12. Nov.

Beu, Leslie
So, Who Is Accountable? P.68. Jan.

Hamstra, Steven
Low Energy Science Building. P.82. May.

High Performance Air-Distribution Systems. P.82. Mar.


The Deal About Duct Lining. P.98. May.

Jeong, Jae-Weon
Do All DOAS Configurations Provide the Same Benefits?
P.22. July.
John, David A.
Proper Specification of Air Terminal Units. P.26. Sept.
Johnson, Caitlin
Alternatives to Vapor-Compression HVAC Technology.
P.12. Oct.
Katipamula, Srinivas
Improving Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps. P.36. Mar.

Chen, Youming
Detecting Faults in Hong Kong High-Rise. P.46. Jan.

Goetzler, William
Alternatives to Vapor-Compression HVAC Technology.
P.12. Oct.

Cohen, Ralph
Improving Operating Room Contamination Control. P.18.
Feb.

Gordon, Scott
Technical vs. Process Commissioning: Measurement and
Verification. P.32. Aug.

Conyers, Rich S.
Design Build Manufacturing Plant. P.32. July.

Technical vs. Process Commissioning: Ongoing Commissioning. P.26. Nov.

Dageforde, Darren
Residential Energy Efficiency. P.62. Aug.

Griffin, Bill
60 Years of Commercial Kitchen Fire Suppression. P.48.
June.

Khazaii, Javad
Buildings of the Future. P.68. Dec.

Grosskopf, Kevin
Bioaerosols in Health-Care Environments. P.22. Aug.

Performing Probabilistic Energy Modeling. P.65. Jan.

Gulledge, Charles E.
Design Build Manufacturing Plant. P.32. July.

Kibby, Charles M.
Design Build Manufacturing Plant. P.32. July.

DeBaillie, Lee
Future Climate Impacts On Building Design. P.36. Sept.
Deng, Shihan
Do All DOAS Configurations Provide the Same Benefits?
P.22. July.
146

ASHRAE JOURNAL

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D ECEM BER 2014

Kavanaugh, Steve
Ground Source Heat Pumps in Texas School District.
P.34. Oct.
Khattar, Mukesh K.
Free Cooling for Data Center. P.60. Oct.

Modeling Real vs. Imaginary. P.96. Mar.


Risk Model Sensitivity. P.86. June.

Lagac, Jacques
Designing for Sustainability. P.22. Apr.

McNamara, Ed
Affordable and Efficient. P.56. Dec.

Persily, Andrew K.
CO and Portable Generators. P.92. Sept.

Land, Donald W.
Air-Cooled Chillers for Las Vegas Revisited. P.36. Dec.

Michaud, Pascal
Energy Savings for Senior Care Center. P.60. June.

Improving Infiltration in Energy Modeling. P.70. July.

Land, John M.
Air-Cooled Chillers for Las Vegas Revisited. P.36. Dec.

Mihalache, Gheorghe
Cheese Factory: Biogas Heats Production. P.80. Aug.

Lau, Josephine
Do All DOAS Configurations Provide the Same Benefits?
P.22. July.

Moffitt, Ronnie
Adding More Fan Power Can Be a Good Thing. P.44. May.

Le Blanc, milie Litalien


Efficient Labs for University. P.70. Nov.

Montgomery, Ross
Putting bEQ in Practice. P.62. May.

Lemire, Nicolas
Efficient Labs for University. P.70. Nov.

Morgan, Mike
60 Years of Commercial Kitchen Fire Suppression. P.48.
June.

Levy, Ariel
Affordable and Efficient. P.56. Dec.

Morrison, Frank
Saving Energy With Cooling Towers. P.34. Feb.

Light, Ed
Controlling Condensation on CWP Insulation. P.24. Dec.

Mousavi, Ehsan
Bioaerosols in Health-Care Environments. P.22. Aug.

Lindahl, Paul
Cold Weather Operation of Cooling Towers. P.26. Mar.
Liu, Xiaobing
Performance of HVAC Systems at ASHRAE HQ, Part 1.
P.14. Sept.
Performance of HVAC Systems at ASHRAE HQ, Part 2.
P.12. Dec.
Lstiburek, Joseph W.
Cool Hand Luke Meets Attics. P.52. Apr.
Deep-Dish Retrofits. P.38. Aug.
Great Moments in Building Science. P.44. Mar.
How Buildings Stack Up. P.42. Feb.
Luftwaffe, Ballast and Shipping Containers. P.46. July.
Net Zero Houses. P.44. Oct.
Tailor Made. P.46. Sept.

Nagle, Carey
Sustainable Stewardship. P.70. Oct.
Nall, Daniel H.
Energy-Efficient HVAC Systems for Labs. P.58. Apr.
Waterside Economizers & 90.1. P.46. Aug.
Ninomura, Paul
Current Trends for Health-Care Ventilation. P.32. Apr.
Ninomura, Tyler
Current Trends for Health-Care Ventilation. P.32. Apr.
Ng, Lisa C.
Improving Infiltration in Energy Modeling. P.70. July.
Offerman, Francis (Bud) J.
The Hazards of E-Cigarettes. P.38. June.

Peterson, Kent W.
Face Velocity Considerations in Air Handler Selection.
P.56. May.
Improving Performance of Large Chilled Water Plants.
P.52. Jan.
Underground Piping Systems. P.54. Sept.
Phoenix, Thomas H.
Presidential Address: People, Passion, Performance.
P.14. Aug.
Poe, Bradley M.
Design Build Manufacturing Plant. P.32. July.
Qin, Jianying
Detecting Faults in Hong Kong High-Rise. P.46. Jan.
Quirk, David
Creating A Perfect Storm. P.142. Dec.
Reindl, Douglas T.
Celebrating 100 Years of ASHRAE Standard 15. P.36.
Nov.
Rousseau, Chris
Current Trends for Health-Care Ventilation. P.32. Apr.
Rumsey, Peter
VAV vs. Radiant: Side-by-Side Comparison. P.16. May.
Sastry, Guruprakash
VAV vs. Radiant: Side-by-Side Comparison. P.16. May.
Schoen, Larry
What ASHRAE Says About Infectious Disease. P.86. Nov.
Schreiber, Kevin J.
Improving Operating Room Contamination Control. P.18.
Feb.

Walking the Plank. P.44. Nov.

Oram, Shawn
Revamping Ho-Hum Strip Mall. P.64. Nov.

Lussier, Genevive
Heat Recovery for Canadian Building. P.48. Dec.

Pape-Salmon, Andrew
Affordable and Efficient. P.56. Dec.

Maynard, Sebastian
Energy Savings for Senior Care Center. P.60. June.

Pau, Wai-Keung
High-Rise Energy Efficiency. P.60. July.

Schwedler, Mick
Effect of Heat Rejection Load and Wet Bulb on Cooling
Tower Performance. P.16. Jan.

McClanathan, Jeremy
Hydronic Heat Recovery in Health Care. P.24. June.

Pearson, Andy
Bring on the Subsidy. P.46. Dec.

Seymore, Marshall
Simplified Chiller Sequencing. P.24. Oct.

McFarlane, Dave
Technical vs. Process Commissioning: Design Phase
Commissioning. P.52. Feb.

Happy Birthday, Mr. Midgley. P.60. May.

Shumway, David
Crime Lab Deconstruction. P.66. Apr.

Technical vs. Process Commissioning: Final Exam:


Functional Performance Testing. P.14. June.

Heat Pumps: The Brutal Truth. P.76. Nov.


How Low Can You Go? P.69. Aug.
Rattling the Chain. P.74. Feb.

Technical vs. Process Commissioning: Measurement and


Verification. P.32. Aug.

Sparkling Water. P.58. July.

Technical vs. Process Commissioning: Ongoing Commissioning. P.26. Nov.

Strangeness and Charm. P.73. Sept.

Technical vs. Process Commissioning: Pre-Functional


Testing. P.44. Apr.
McGinn, Tim
Learning by Experiencing. P.74. Sept.

Still Water. P.46. June.


Totally Absorbing. P.74. Apr.
Understanding Performance. P.86. Oct.
Water, Water Everywhere. P.62. Mar.
What Does Safety Cost? P.64. Jan.

Schuetter, Scott
Future Climate Impacts On Building Design. P.36. Sept.

Southard, L.E.
Performance of HVAC Systems at ASHRAE HQ, Part 1.
P.14. Sept.
Performance of HVAC Systems at ASHRAE HQ, Part 2.
P.12. Dec.
Spitler, J.D.
Performance of HVAC Systems at ASHRAE HQ, Part 1.
P.14. Sept.
Performance of HVAC Systems at ASHRAE HQ, Part 2.
P.12. Dec.
D ECEM BER 2014

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ASHRAE JOURNAL

147

Sullivan, Brian
Constant-Speed vs. Variable-Speed Chillers. P.64. Dec.

Zito, Phil
Decoding the World of BAS Security. P.60. Sept.

Sun, Yuexia
Ventilation, Crowds and the Common Cold. P.62. Feb.

Zogg, Robert
Alternatives to Vapor-Compression HVAC Technology.
P12. Oct.

Sundell, Jan
Ventilation, Crowds and the Common Cold. P.62. Feb.

By Subject

Swierczyna, Rich
90.1 and Designing High Performance Commercial
Kitchen Ventilation Systems. P.12. Nov.
Taylor, Steven T.
How to Design & Control Waterside Economizers. P.30.
June.
Restroom Exhaust Systems. P.28. Feb.

Air Distribution
Conditioning Challenges: Lobbies and Atriums. Dan IntHout. P.49. Feb.
Face Velocity Considerations in Air Handler Selection.
Kent W. Peterson. P.56. May.
High Performance Air-Distribution Systems. Dan Int-Hout.
P.82. Mar.

Return Fans in VAV Systems. P.54. Oct.


Select & Control Economizer Dampers in VAV Systems.
P.50. Nov.
Vaughn, Michael R.
Lessons Learned from ASHRAE HQ Renovation. P.14.
Apr.

bEQ
Putting bEQ in Practice. Ross Montgomery, Timothy G.
Wentz. P.62. May.
Building Automation Systems
Decoding the World of BAS Security. Phil Zito. P.60.
Sept.

Vowles, Mira
Improving Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps. P.36. Mar.
Wagner, Jennifer A.
Improving Operating Room Contamination Control. P.18.
Feb.
Wang, Haitao
Detecting Faults in Hong Kong High-Rise. P.46. Jan.
Wang, Liangzhu (Leon)
CO and Portable Generators. P.92. Sept.
Wang, Shengwei
High-Rise Energy Efficiency. P.60. July.

Building Sciences
Cool Hand Luke Meets Attics. Joseph W. Lstiburek. P.52.
Apr.
Deep-Dish Retrofits. Joseph W. Lstiburek. P.38. Aug.
Great Moments in Building Science. Joseph W. Lstiburek.
P.44. Mar.

Weekes, Donald
IAQ at Construction Sites. P.94. Apr.
Weekes, Lan Chi Nguyen
IAQ at Construction Sites. P.94. Apr.

Wilbar, Lilli
Chilled Beam Selection. P. 58. Nov.
Variable Volume DOAS Fan-Powered Terminal Unit. P.70.
Aug.
Wolfe, Adam K.
Overestimating Energy and Cost Savings of Installing
VFDs. P.16. July.

Technical vs. Process Commissioning: Pre-Functional


Testing. Dave McFarlane. P.44. Apr.
Technical vs. Process Commissioning: Final Exam:
Functional Performance Testing. Dave McFarlane.
P.14. June.
Technical vs. Process Commissioning: Measurement and
Verification. Scott Gordon, Dave McFarlane. P.32.
Aug.
Technical vs. Process Commissioning: Ongoing Commissioning. Dave McFarlane, Scott Gordon. P.26. Nov.
Condensers
Avoid Outdated Condenser Water Rules-of-Thumb.
Stephen W. Duda. P.50. Mar.

Net Zero Houses. Joseph W. Lstiburek. P.44. Oct.

Data Centers
Creating A Perfect Storm. Donald L. Beaty, David Quirk.
P.142. Dec. Digital Revolution Impact, Part 1.
Donald L. Beaty. P.84. Sept.

Central Plants
Texas Hospital Central Plant Redesign. Bruce L. Flaniken.
P.36. Jan.

Free Cooling for Data Center. Mukesh K. Khattar. P.60.


Oct.

Chilled Beams
Chilled Beams Selection. Dan Int-Hout and Lilli Wilbar.
P.58. Nov.

Is Software-Defined Data Center Next Reality? Donald L.


Beaty. P.58. Feb.

Improving Performance of Large Chilled Water Plants.


Kent W. Peterson. P.52. Jan.
Simplified Chiller Sequencing. Marshall Seymore. P.24.
Oct.

Young, Jim
Alternatives to Vapor-Compression HVAC Technology.
P12. Oct.

Cooling Towers
Cold Weather Operation of Cooling Towers. Paul Lindahl.
P.26. Mar.

ashrae.org

Commissioning
Technical vs. Process Commissioning: Design Phase
Commissioning. Dave McFarlane, Thomas Farmer.
P.52. Feb.

Fire & Smoke Damper Application Requirements. Stephen


W. Duda. P.42. July.

Yoshida, Jimmy
Small Building, Vast Potential. P.64. Mar.

ASHRAE JOURNAL

90.1 and Designing High Performance Commercial


Kitchen Ventilation Systems. Don Fisher, Rich
Swierczyna. P.12. Nov.

Luftwaffe, Ballast and Shipping Containers. Joseph W.


Lstiburek. P.46. July.

Codes
Overlooked Code Requirements. Stephen W. Duda. P.32.
Dec.

148

Commercial Kitchens
60 Years of Commercial Kitchen Fire Suppression. Bill
Griffin, Mike Morgan. P.48. June.

How Buildings Stack Up. Joseph W. Lstiburek. P.42. Feb.

Chillers
Air-Cooled Chillers for Las Vegas Revisited. Ronald H.
Howell, Donald W. Land, John M. Land. P.36. Dec.
Constant-Speed vs. Variable-Speed Chillers. Brian Sullivan. P.64. Dec.

Wentz, Timothy G.
Putting bEQ in Practice. P.62. May.

Saving Energy With Cooling Towers. Frank Morrison.


P.34. Feb.

Dampers
Codes & Damper Testing. Larry Felker. P.76. Oct.

Tailor Made. Joseph W. Lstiburek, P.46. Sept.


Walking the Plank. Joseph W. Lstiburek. P.44. Nov.

Wang, Weimin
Improving Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps. P.36. Mar.

Effect of Heat Rejection Load and Wet Bulb on Cooling


Tower Performance. Mick Schwedler. P.16. Jan.

D ECEM BER 2014

Global Data Centers. Donald L. Beaty. P.74. Jan.

IT Equipment Load Trends, Part 1. Donald L. Beaty. P.74.


Mar.
IT Equipment Load Trends, Part 2. Donald L. Beaty. P.84.
Apr.
IT Equipment Load Trends, Part 3. Donald L. Beaty. P.95.
May.
IT Equipment Load Trends, Part 4. Donald L. Beaty. P.82.
June.
Liquid Cooling Guidelines. Donald L. Beaty. P.82. Oct.
X-Factor Explained. Donald L. Beaty. P.83. Nov.
Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems
Do All DOAS Configurations Provide the Same Benefits?
Shihan Deng, Josephine Lau, Jae-Weon Jeong. P.22.
July.
Variable Volume DOAS Fan-Powered Terminal Unit. Dan
Int-Hout, Lilli Wilbar. P.70. Aug.

Duct
The Deal About Duct Lining. Dan Int-Hout. P.98. May.
Economizers
How to Design & Control Waterside Economizers. Steven
T. Taylor. P.30. June.
Select & Control Economizer Dampers in VAV Systems.
Steven T. Taylor. P.50. Nov.

IAQ
CO and Portable Generators. Steven J. Emmerich, Andrew K. Persily, Liangzhu (Leon) Wang. P.92. Sept.

Retail

Hazards of E-Cigarettes. Francis (Bud) J. Offermann.


P.38. June.

Salaries

IAQ at Construction Sites. Lan Chi Nguyen Weekes,


Donald Weekes. P.94. Apr.

Waterside Economizers & 90.1. Daniel H. Nall. P.46. Aug.

Ventilation, Crowds and the Common Cold. Yuexia Sun,


Jan Sundell. P.62. Feb.

Energy
Shaping the Next...Building and Energy. P.24. Jan.

What ASHRAE Says About Infectious Disease. Larry


Schoen. P.86. Nov.

Energy Modeling
Buildings of the Future. Javad Khazaii. P.68. Dec.

Laboratories
Crime Lab Deconstruction. David Shumway. P.66. Apr.

Improving Infiltration in Energy Modeling. Lisa C. Ng,


Andrew K. Persily, Steven J. Emmerich. P.70. July.

Efficient Labs for University. Nicolas Lemire, Pierre-Luc


Baril, milie Litalien Le Blanc. P.70. Nov.

Modeled vs. Real Utility Data. Jared A. Higgins. P.93. Apr.

Energy-Efficient HVAC Systems for Labs. Daniel H. Nall.


P.58. Apr.

Modeling Real vs. Imaginary. Javad Khazaii. P.96. Mar.


New 90.1 and Modeling. Jared A. Higgins. P.68. Feb.
Performing Probabilistic Energy Modeling. Javad Khazaii.
P.65. Jan.
Exhaust Systems
Restroom Exhaust Systems. Steven T. Taylor. P.28. Feb.
Fans
Adding More Fan Power Can Be a Good Thing. Ronnie
Moffitt. P44. May.
Return Fans in VAV Systems. Steven T. Taylor. P.54. Oct.
Fault Detection
Detecting Faults in Hong Kong High-Rise. Youming Chen,
Haitao Wang, Cary W.H. Chan, Jianying Qin. P.46. Jan.
Geothermal
Ground Source Heat Pumps in Texas School District.
Steve Kavanaugh. P.34. Oct.
Performance of HVAC Systems at ASHRAE HQ, Part 1.
L.E. Southard, Xiaobing Liu, J.D. Spitler. P.14. Sept.
Performance of HVAC Systems at ASHRAE HQ, Part Two.
L.E. Southard, Xiaobing Liu, J.D. Spitler. P.12. Dec.
Health Care
Bioaerosols in Health-Care Environments. Kevin Grosskopf, Ehsan Mousavi. P.22. Aug.
Current Trends for Health-Care Ventilation. Paul Ninomura, Chris Rousseau, Tyler Ninomura. P.32. Apr.

Low Energy Science Building. Steven Hamstra. P.82.


May.
Manufacturing
Cheese Factory: Biogas Heats Production. Gheorghe
Mihalache. P.80. Aug.
Design Build Manufacturing Plant. Charles E. Gulledge III,
Rich S. Conyers, Bradley M. Poe, Charles M. Kibby.
P.32. July.
Packaged Air Conditioners
Improving Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air
Conditioners & Heat Pumps. Srinivas Katipamula, Weimin
Wang, Mira Vowles. P.36. Mar.
Piping
Controlling Condensation on CWP Insulation. Ed Light,
James Bailey. P.24. Dec.
Underground Piping Systems. Kent W. Peterson. P.54.
Sept.
Radiant Systems
VAV vs. Radiant: Side-by-Side Comparison. Guruprakash
Sastry, Peter Rumsey. P.16. May.
Refrigeration
Bring on the Subsidy. Andy Pearson. P.46. Dec.
Happy Birthday, Mr. Midgley. Andy Pearson. P.60. May.
Heat Pumps: The Brutal Truth. Andy Pearson. P.76. Nov.
How Low Can You Go? Andy Pearson. P.69. Aug.

Energy Savings for Senior Care Center. Pascal Michaud,


Sebastian Maynard. P.60. June.

Rattling the Chain. Andy Pearson. P.74. Feb.

Improving Operating Room Contamination Control. Jennifer A. Wagner, Kevin J. Schreiber, Ralph Cohen.
P.18. Feb.

Still Water. Andy Pearson. P.46. June.

Hydronic Heat Recovery in Health Care. Jeremy McClanathan. P.24. June.


Heat Recovery
Heat Recovery for Canadian Building. Genevive Lussier.
P.48. Dec.
HVAC
Alternatives to Vapor-Compression HVAC Technology.
William Goetzler, Robert Zogg, Jim Young, Caitlin
Johnson. P12. Oct.

Revamping Ho-Hum Strip Mall. Shawn Oram. P.64. Nov.


Understanding Salaries in the A/E Industry. Kate Allen.
P.12. Feb.
School
Climate-Adapted Design for California School. Brent
Eubanks, Glenn Friedman. P.72. May.
Specifying
Proper Specification of Air Terminal Units. David A. John.
P.26. Sept.
Specifying... Or Equal. Kenneth M. Elovitz. P.54. Aug.
Standards
Aligning IECC and Standard 90.1. Steve Ferguson. P.56.
Mar.
Celebrating 100 Years of ASHRAE Standard 15. Douglas
T. Reindl. P.36. Nov.
Compliance to Standard 55. Dan Int-Hout. P.90. Apr.
Standard 62.1 Update & Plans. Roger Hedrick. P.86. Aug.
Sustainability
Designing for Sustainability. Jacques Lagac. P.22. Apr.
Future Climate Impacts On Building Design. Scott
Schuetter, Lee DeBaillie, Doug Ahl. P.36. Sept.
High-Rise Energy Efficiency. Shengwei Wang, Wai-Keung
Pau. P.60. July.
Learning by Experiencing. Tim McGinn. P.74. Sept.
Lessons Learned from ASHRAE HQ Renovation. Michael
R. Vaughn. P.14. Apr.
Small Building, Vast Potential. Fred Betz, Jimmy Yoshida,
Scott Easton. P.64. Mar.
Sustainable Stewardship. Scott Bowman, Carey Nagle.
P.70. Oct.
Variable Air Volume
VAV Coils, Fan Coil Devices. Dan Int-Hout. P.58. Jan.
VAV vs. Radiant: Side-by-Side Comparison. Guruprakash
Sastry, Peter Rumsey. P.16. May.

Sparkling Water. Andy Pearson. P.58. July.


Strangeness and Charm. Andy Pearson. P.73. Sept.

Return Fans in VAV Systems. Steven T. Taylor. P.54. Oct.

Totally Absorbing. Andy Pearson. P.74. Apr.

Variable Frequency Drive

Understanding Performance. Andy Pearson. P.86. Oct.

Overestimating Energy and Cost Savings of Installing


VFDs. Adam K. Wolfe. P.16. July.

Water, Water Everywhere. Andy Pearson. P.62. Mar.


What Does Safety Cost? Andy Pearson. P.64. Jan.

Variable Refrigerant Flow

Residential
Residential Energy Efficiency. Darren Dageforde. P.62.
Aug.

Performance of HVAC Systems at ASHRAE HQ, Part 1.


L.E. Southard, Xiaobing Liu, J.D. Spitler. P.14. Sept.

Affordable and Efficient. Andrew Pape-Salmon, Ed


McNamara, Ariel Levy. P.56. Dec.

Performance of HVAC Systems at ASHRAE HQ, Part 2.


L.E. Southard, Xiaobing Liu, J.D. Spitler. P.12. Dec.

D ECEM BER 2014

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outlines, detailed cost estimation, and calculations
of heat gain/loss.
Submit a letter of interest and resume in strict
confidence to:
Human Resource Director
H. F. Lenz Company
1407 Scalp Avenue,
Johnstown, PA 15904
FAX (814) 269-9400 | E-mail: rmciver@hflenz.com
AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY/AFFIRMATIVE
ACTION EMPLOYER (M,F,Vets,Disabled)

HVAC PRODUCTS
SALES ENGINEER
KEES Incorporated is a leading manufacturer of a
wide variety of ventilation and heating equipment for
the commercial HVAC market. Due to sales growth,
we have an immediate opening for an experienced
sales engineer. Responsibilities include providing
technical and quotation assistance to our sales
representatives plus a wide variety of sales support
activities and cost estimating. Our ideal candidate
will have an engineering degree plus HVAC sales
experience. We offer an excellent compensation and
benefit package commensurate with experience.
Please send your resume in confidence to:
Bob Norman
400 S. Industrial Drive
Elkhart Lake, WI 53020
bnorman@kees.com

Senior Mechanical Engineer in Saudi Arabia


Syrian HVAC Engineer, ASHRAE member since
1982, having over 30 years experience in HVAC, Fire
Fighting, BMS & Electrical work, having medium scale
Engineering Company in Saudi Arabia specialized as
MEP designer and contractor. Seeking a position with
U.S. company interested in his experience, his presence
in Saudi Arabia and his company to extend its activity
there, and willing to apply for him permanent work
permit in USA to join the company. Interested
company may use this e-mail address for contact:
tamouhraslan@gmail.com.

D ECEM BER 2014

HVAC ENGINEERS
All levels. JR Walters Resources, Inc., specializing in
the placement of technical professionals in the E & A
field. Openings nationwide. Address: P. O. Box 617, St.
Joseph, MI 49085-0617. Phone 269-925-3940. E-mail:
jrwawa@jrwalters.com. Visit our web site at www.
jrwalters.com.

Hiring Announcement
The Department of Construction Management and
Engineering (CM&E) at North Dakota State University
(NDSU) invites applications for a faculty position in
building mechanical systems/building energy efficiency
at the rank of assistant professor or associate professor.
The anticipated start date is on August 16, 2015. NDSU
is an ADVANCE Institution and a Carnegie Very High
Research Activity Institution. Minimum qualifications
include a Ph.D. degree in architectural engineering,
civil engineering, or mechanical engineering; 0-3 years
of relevant industry experience; and demonstrated
teaching and research skills. Preferred qualifications
include 5-years of relevant industry experience;
relevant professional registration (e.g., PE); college
level teaching and research experience; and knowledge
about ABET accreditation. Applicants should go to the
website https://jobs.ndsu.edu/, create an account, click
on Search Jobs, and follow the instructions to submit
the required documents via Internet. Screening will
begin on December 15th, 2014 until the position is
filled. More information about the CM&E Department
can be found at www.ndsu.edu/construction.

Quality Assurance Manager


Hays Fluid Controls, an innovative manufacturer of
valves with engineering capability for the HVAC,
OEM and Industrial markets, is seeking a Quality
Assurance Manager for our Dallas, NC manufacturing
facility. The position supervises 2 direct reports, audits
vendor performance, and interacts with customers to
identify improvement opportunities. This position also
has responsibility for implementing and maintaining
quality systems and SPC programs. Six Sigma
certification is a plus.
Compensation includes competitive salary and
a comprehensive benefit package plus profit sharing.
Forward resume and references to Hays Fluid
Controls, PO Box 580, Dallas, NC 28034 or e-mail
lisa.burch@haysfluidcontrols.com

FOR RENT

SOFTWARE

Everything Your Reps Need


...to increase sales

For All HVAC Products


Selection
Pricing / Configuration
Submittals
Parts
Customer Support
More...
www.bcatech.com
407407-659659-0653

ADIBATIC AIR INLET COOLING


Improving the performance of Air Cooled Chillers, Dry Coolers and
Condensers and Refrigeration Plants. EcoMESH is a unique mesh and
water spray system that improves performance, reduces energy
consumption, eliminates high ambient problems, is virtually maintenance
free and can payback in one cooling season.

Standard
Installation

ASHRAE Journal
EcoMESH
BenefitsAds
Classified
EcoMESH
Addition

Water
Spray

The Foremost Medium


for Reaching Engineering
Professionals

EcoMESH Adia batic Sys tems Ltd.

www.ecomesh.eu

(1) STORAGE
THERMAL ENERGY

Phase Change Materials between 8C(47F) and 89C(192F)


release thermal energy during the phase change which releases
large amounts of energy) in the form
of latent heat. It bridges the gap between
energy availability and energy use and
load
shiftingthe performance of Air Cooled Chillers, Dry Coolers and
Improving
Condensers and Refrigeration Plants. EcoMESH is a unique mesh and
capability.
water spray system that improves performance, reduces energy
consumption, eliminates high ambient problems, is virtually maintenance
free and can payback in one cooling season.

ADIBATIC AIR INLET COOLING

+8C
To place an ad (47F)
contact:
Vanessa Johnson
EcoMESH
Water
Cooler
Advertising
&Air Intake
Addition Production
Spray
Operations
Coordinator
EcoMESH
Benefits

Standard
Installation

BENEFITS

Reduced Running Cost


Reduced
EASY RETROFIT
GREENNE
SOLUTION
Maintenance
1791 Tullie Circle
LOWEasy
RUNNING
REDUCED MAINTENANCE
Retrofit COST
Atlanta,
GA 30329
REDUCED
MACHINERY
FLEXIBLE SYSTEM
Improved Reliability
Phone:
678-539-1166
INCREASED
CAPACITY
STAND-BY CAPACITY
Increased
Capacity
Fax:Filter
678-539-2166
Self Cleaning
Shading
Benefit vjohnson@ashrae.org
Email:
No Water Treatment
Longer Compressor Life

PCM Products

www.pcmproducts.net

(1)

www.ecomesh.eu

ADIABATIC AIR INLET COOLING

ADIABATIC AIR INLET COOLING

Before

Before

Improving the performance of Air Cooled Chillers, Dry Coolers and Condensers
and Refrigeration Plants. EcoMESH is a unique mesh and water spray system
that improves performance, reduces energy consumption, eliminates high
ambient problems, is virtually maintenance free and can payback in one cooling
season.

Improving the performance of Air Cooled Chillers, Dry Coolers and


Condensers and Refrigeration Plants. EcoMESH is a unique mesh and water
spray system that improves performance, reduces energy consumption,
eliminates high ambient problems, is virtually maintenance free and can
payback in one cooling season.

Cooler
Air Intake

Reduced Running Cost


Reduced Maintenance
Easy Retrofit
Improved Reliability
Increased Capacity
Self Cleaning Filter
Shading Benefit
No Water Treatment
Longer Compressor Life

EcoMESH Adia batic Sys tems Ltd.

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES

After

EcoMESH Benefits

After

EcoMESH Benefits

Reduced Running Cost


Reduced Maintenance
Easy Retrofit
Improved Reliability
Increased Capacity
Self Cleaning Filter
Shading Benefit
No Water Treatment
Longer Compressor Life

Reduced Running Cost


Reduced Maintenance
Easy Retrofit
Improved Reliability
Increased Capacity
Self Cleaning Filter
Shading Benefit
No Water Treatment
Longer Compressor Life

EcoMESH Adia ba tic Sy stem s Ltd.

EcoMESH Adia ba tic Sy stem s Ltd.

www.ecomesh.eu

www.ecomesh.eu

(2)COOLING
PASSIVE

Over-night cool energy is stored in the form of +27C (80F)


Phase Change Material (PCM) containers and later the stored
energy is utilised to absorb the internal and solar heat gains
during day-time for an energy free passive cooling system.

ADIABATIC AIR INLET COOLING

Improving the performance of Air Cooled Chillers, Dry Coolers and Condensers
and Refrigeration Plants. EcoMESH is a unique mesh and water spray system
that improves performance, reduces energy consumption, eliminates high
ambient problems, is virtually maintenance free and can payback in one cooling
season.

Cells

+27C
(80F)
Before

After

Classified ads
are ALWAYS
PCM
Products
productive.
www.pcmproducts.net

EcoMESH
Benefits
FREE
COOLING
BENEFITS

No
Running
Cost
Reduced
Running
Cost
Reduced Maintenance
Maintenance
Free
Easy Retrofit
Cost
Effective
Improved
Reliability
Increased Capacity
Self Cleaning Filter
Shading Benefit
No Water Treatment
Longer Compressor Life

Easy Retrofit
No Moving Parts
Green Solution

www.pcmproducts.net

(2)

EcoMESH Adia ba tic Sy stem s Ltd.

www.ecomesh.eu

(3) STORAGE
THERMAL ENERGY

Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is the temporary storage of cold


energy for later use. It bridges the gap between energy availability
and energy use.

ADIABATIC AIR INLET COOLING

Improving the performance of Air Cooled Chillers, Dry Coolers and Condensers
and Refrigeration Plants. EcoMESH is a unique mesh and water spray system
that improves performance, reduces energy consumption, eliminates high
ambient problems, is virtually maintenance free and can payback in one cooling
season.

Eutectic
TES within the
cold store can be
Charged using the
excess capacity during
Before
off-peak periods / over-night ambient
conditions to shift the peak loads.

Eutectic TES is a
static system offering a full
stand-by capability in case of any
After mechanical failures and a
maintenance free back-up facility.

EcoMESH Benefits
FREE COOLING BENEFITS

Reduced Running Cost


15~25%
Power Saving
Reduced
Maintenance
Retrofit Free
Easy
Maintenance
Improved
QuickReliability
Payback
Increased Capacity
.
Self Cleaning Filter
Shading Benefit
No Water Treatment
Longer Compressor Life

Easy Retrofit
Running Cost Saving
Stand-by / Back-up

PCM Products

www.pcmproducts.net

(3)

D E C E M b E r 2 0 1EcoMESH
4 a s h r aAdia
e . o rba
g tic ASySstem
H R As Ltd.
E JouRnAl

www.ecomesh.eu

151

ADVERTISING SALES

Advertisers Index/Reader Service Information

ASHRAE JOURNAL

Two fast and easy ways to get additional information on


products & services in this issue:

1. Visit the Web address below the advertisers name for the ad in this issue.
2. Go to www.ashrae.org/freeinfo to search for products by category or
company name. Plus, link directly to advertisers Web sites or request
information by e-mail, fax or mail.
*Regional

Company

Web Address

Page

Web Address

AAON, Inc .........................................................15


info.hotims.com/49818-1
AAON, Inc ...................................................... 134
info.hotims.com/49818-38
ACREX India 2015 ...........................................35
info.hotims.com/49818-2
Acutherm ............................................................2
info.hotims.com/49818-3
Acutherm ....................................................... 117
info.hotims.com/49818-39
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc ..........52
info.hotims.com/49818-4
Aerco International Inc ..........................90 91
info.hotims.com/49818-40
AHR-Expo Chicago 2015 ................................11
info.hotims.com/49818-5
A-J Mfg Company, Inc....................................23
info.hotims.com/49818-6
Alcoil, Inc ....................................................... 120
info.hotims.com/49818-41
Armacell, LLC ................................................ 122
info.hotims.com/49818-42
*ASHRAE 90.1 Users Manual ........................41
info.hotims.com/49818-102
*ASHRAE Climate Data ..................................45
info.hotims.com/49818-103
*ASHRAE e-Learning ......................................47
info.hotims.com/49818-104
*ASHRAE KBIM .......................................38 39
info.hotims.com/49818-101
ASHRAE Commercial Bldg Audits ................69
info.hotims.com/49818-106
ASHRAE District Guides ............................. 141
info.hotims.com/49818-107
ASHRAE HVAC Control System .....................66
info.hotims.com/49818-105
*Avista Utilities........................................38 39
info.hotims.com/49818-7
BadgerMeter, Inc ....................................84 85
info.hotims.com/49818-43
Bosch Thermotechnology Corp........ 100 101
info.hotims.com/49818-44
Bryan Steam LLC.....................................86 87
info.hotims.com/49818-45
Captiveaire .......................................................27
info.hotims.com/49818-8
Captiveaire .......................................................51
info.hotims.com/49818-9
Carrier Corp..............................................72 73
info.hotims.com/49818-46
Carrier Corp......................................... 104 105
info.hotims.com/49818-47
Carrier Corp..............................................94 95
info.hotims.com/49818-48
ClimaCool Corp ............................................. 115
info.hotims.com/49818-49
Climatemaster .............................................. 125
info.hotims.com/49818-10
Climatemaster .................................................31
info.hotims.com/49818-50
*Con Edison......................................................45
info.hotims.com/49818-11
Contemporary Control ................................. 110
info.hotims.com/49818-51

152

Company

ASHRAE JOURNAL

Page

Daikin North America LLC .............. 2nd Cvr-1


info.hotims.com/49818-12
Daikin North America LLC ......................... 138
info.hotims.com/49818-52
ebm-papst, Inc ................................................17
info.hotims.com/49818-13
ebm-papst, Inc ............................................. 140
info.hotims.com/49818-91
Ebtron, Inc ...............................................3rd Cvr
info.hotims.com/49818-14
Ebtron, Inc ..................................................... 129
info.hotims.com/49818-53
Foam Supplies .............................................. 121
info.hotims.com/49818-74
Fulton Companies, The...........................82 83
info.hotims.com/49818-54
Genesis International .................................. 119
info.hotims.com/49818-55
Goodway Technologies ...................................61
info.hotims.com/49818-16
Greenheck.................................................78 79
info.hotims.com/49818-56
Greentrol Automation Inc. .............................53
info.hotims.com/49818-15
Heat Pipe Technology .................................. 128
info.hotims.com/49818-58
Hurst Boiler & Welding Co. Inc........ 108 109
info.hotims.com/49818-90
Ice Western Sales Ltd ................................. 114
info.hotims.com/49818-59
International Copper Assoc: MicroGroove........
....................................................................88 89
info.hotims.com/49818-60
ISCO ..................................................................43
info.hotims.com/49818-17
ISCO ............................................................... 139
info.hotims.com/49818-61
Kees Inc ............................................................70
info.hotims.com/49818-18
LG .........................................................................7
info.hotims.com/49818-19
LG .................................................................... 123
info.hotims.com/49818-62
Loytec Electronics GmbH............................ 131
info.hotims.com/49818-63
M&G DuraVent, Inc ...................................... 136
info.hotims.com/49818-64
Marley Engineered Products.........................67
info.hotims.com/49818-65
Messe Frankfurt Inc .......................................59
info.hotims.com/49818-31
Mestek/KN Series ...................................96 97
info.hotims.com/49818-66
METALAIRE ......................................... 106 107
info.hotims.com/49818-67
Milwaukee Electric Tool Corp .......................65
info.hotims.com/49818-68
*Mitsubishi Electric Sales Canada, Inc ......45
info.hotims.com/49818-21
*Modular Framing Systems ..........................47
info.hotims.com/49818-22
MSA Instrument Division ......................98 99
info.hotims.com/49818-37

ashrae.org

D ECEM BER 2014

Company

Web Address

Page

Munters Corp./Dehumidification Div. ..........21


info.hotims.com/49818-23
Munters Corp./Dehumidification Div. .4th Cvr
info.hotims.com/49818-24
Munters Corp./Dehumidification Div. ....... 124
info.hotims.com/49818-69
Navien .................................................................9
info.hotims.com/49818-25
Navien ............................................................ 130
info.hotims.com/49818-70
Nexus Valve ......................................................62
info.hotims.com/49818-32
Nexus Valve ......................................................34
info.hotims.com/49818-33
Panasonic Eco Solutions of N.A. ............... 111
info.hotims.com/49818-71
Parker Boiler Co ........................................... 113
info.hotims.com/49818-72
*Parker/Sporlan Valve ....................................41
info.hotims.com/49818-26
Performance Aire ......................................... 127
info.hotims.com/49818-73
Petra Engineering ...........................................63
info.hotims.com/49818-27
PoolPak International .................................. 133
info.hotims.com/49818-75
Rawal Devices Inc........................................ 132
info.hotims.com/49818-76
Reliable Controls Corp ...........................76 77
info.hotims.com/49818-77
Renewaire, LLC ............................................. 112
info.hotims.com/49818-78
Reznor LLC ...............................................92 93
info.hotims.com/49818-79
Rotor Source, Inc. ...........................................70
info.hotims.com/49818-28
Rotronic Instrument Corp ........................... 137
info.hotims.com/49818-80
Ruskin .......................................................74 75
info.hotims.com/49818-81
Schneider Electric ..........................................19
info.hotims.com/49818-93
Selkirk ............................................................ 135
info.hotims.com/49818-82
Shortridge Instruments Inc...........................30
info.hotims.com/49818-29
Specific Systems.......................................... 118
info.hotims.com/49818-83
SPX Cooling ........................................ 102 103
info.hotims.com/49818-84
Taco....................................................................55
info.hotims.com/49818-30
TandD US, LLC............................................... 126
info.hotims.com/49818-85
Trane ....................................................................5
info.hotims.com/49818-34
Trane ..................................................................29
info.hotims.com/49818-35
Unilux Advanced Mfg, LLC.......................... 116
info.hotims.com/49818-86
Vaisala Inc ................................................80 81
info.hotims.com/49818-87
Worcester Polytechnic Institute ..................60
info.hotims.com/49818-36

1791 Tullie Circle NE | Atlanta, GA 30329


(404) 636-8400 | Fax: (678) 539-2174
www.ashrae.org
Greg Martin | gmartin@ashrae.org
Associate Publisher, ASHRAE Media Advertising
Vanessa Johnson | vjohnson@ashrae.org
Advertising Production Coordinator
NORTHEAST
Nelson & Miller Associates
Denis OMalley; Jack OMalley
5 Hillandale Ave., Suite 101
Stamford, CT 06902
(203) 356-9694 | Fax (203) 356-9695
sales@nelsonmiller.com
SOUTHEAST
Millennium Media, Inc.
590 Hickory Flat Road
Alpharetta, GA 30004
Doug Fix (770) 740-2078 | Fax (678) 405-3327
Lori Gernand (281) 855-0470 | Fax (281) 855-4219
dfix@bellsouth.net; lg@lindenassoc.com
EASTERN CANADA
Nelson & Miller Associates
Denis OMalley; Jack OMalley
5 Hillandale Ave., Suite 101
Stamford, CT 06902
(203) 356-9694 | Fax (203) 356-9695
sales@nelsonmiller.com
OHIO VALLEY
LaRich & Associates Tom Lasch
512 East Washington St.
Chagrin Falls, OH 44022
tlasch@larichadv.com
(440) 247-1060 | Fax (440) 247-1068
MIDWEST
Kingwill Company Baird Kingwill; Jim Kingwill
664 Milwaukee Avenue, Suite 201
Prospect Heights, IL 60070
(847) 537-9196 | Fax (847) 537-6519
barry@kingwillco.com; jim@kingwillco.com
SOUTHWEST
Lindenberger & Associates, Inc.
Gary Lindenberger; Lori Gernand
7007 Winding Walk Drive, Suite 100
Houston, TX 77095
(281) 855-0470 | Fax (281) 855-4219
gl@lindenassoc.com; lg@lindenassoc.com
WEST
LaRich & Associates Nick LaRich, Tom Lasch
512 East Washington St.
Chagrin Falls, OH 44022
nlarich@larichadv.com
tlasch@larichadv.com
(440) 247-1060 | Fax (440) 247-1068
KOREA
YJP & Valued Media Co., Ltd YongJin Park
Kwang-il Building #905, Dadong-gil 5
Jung-gu, Seoul 100-170, Korea
+82-2 3789-6888 | Fax: +82-2 3789-8988
hi@YJPvm.kr
CHINA, HONG KONG & TAIWAN
China Business Media
Sean Xiao
6-310 Xinchao No.162 Liaoyuan Road
Fuzhou, Fujian, China
86 186 5099 7133
sean@cbmmedia.com
INTERNATIONAL
Steve Comstock
(404) 636-8400 | comstock@ashrae.org
RECRUITMENT ADVERTISING AND REPRINTS
ASHRAE Greg Martin
(678) 539-1174 | gmartin@ashrae.org

www.info.hotims.com/49818-14

www.info.hotims.com/49818-24