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Judul Asli: A Solution Technique for Cathodic Protection With Dynamic Boundary Conditions by the Boundary Element Method

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www.elsevier.com/locate/advengsoft

conditions by the boundary element method

J.A.F. Santiago*, J.C.F. Telles

COPPE / Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Programa de Engenharia Civil, Caixa Postal: 68506, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Received 3 March 1997; accepted 2 August 1998

Abstract

This article is concerned with the application of the Boundary Element Method to cathodic protection problems of submerged structures

using polarization curves depending upon time and formation potential. These curves have been adjusted from potentiostatic data obtained

from in-situ experiments, yielding a nonlinear functional representation. The solution technique adopts stepwise linearized polarization

curves and is employed for sufficiently small time steps. The influence of varying formation potential is introduced into the analysis under

two alternative hypotheses here designated fictitious time and fictitious potential. q 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd and Civil-Comp Ltd. All

rights reserved.

Keywords: Boundary elements; Cathodic protection; Dynamic polarization curves; Potential

1. Introduction

The physical, chemical and biological phenomena, taking

place on a cathodic surface in seawater is quite complex,

being presently subject to study in many research centres

around the world. The parameters which have major influence in this phenomenon are potential, electric current, time,

temperature, pressure, seawater chemistry, relative water

velocity close to the cathodic surface and surface conditions

[1].

For offshore structures, the behavior of cathodic surfaces

is modeled by a time dependent polarization curve, different

at each surface point, which describes the nonlinear relation

between potential and current density.

Dynamic polarization curves are influenced by scale

deposition, which is strongly influenced by the current

potential history on the surface. This history may be quite

complex, being impossible to cover all of the existing situations by experiments. However, information about the

polarization curve can be retrieved from potentiostatic

polarization data (or galvanostatic polarization data),

obtained from experiments in which a potential (or current

density) is maintained constant in time. These curves can be

used with adequate time marching schemes to simulate the

time history of the varying potential and current density

during the life of the cathodic protection system.

* Corresponding author.

conjunction with two different time marching schemes to

analyze cathodic protection systems of offshore structures

[24]. These are, fictitious potential and fictitious time

procedures and they are used with polarization curves determined from potentiostatic data obtained from in-situ experiments. The solution routine adopted employs a new step by

step linearization technique which reduces considerably the

burden associated to the nonlinear polarization curve as

boundary conditions.

2. Mathematical model

Considering that the cathodic protection technique is

developed within a homogeneous region V, surrounded by

a boundary G and with electric conductivity k, the problem

is governed by the Laplace equation:

72 f 0

a:1

f f

a:2

i

on G1 ;

on G2 ;

i vf 1 d

i Fff f; t

0965-9978/99/$ - see front matter q 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd and Civil-Comp Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S0965-997 8(98)00121-5

on G3 ;

on G4 ;

664

3. Numerical analysis

In order to solve numerically Eq. (4), the boundary G is

discretized into a number of boundary elements whose

geometry, current density and potential are approximated

as functions of the nodal values. The following algebraic

system is obtained [5]:

Hf Gi:

When the boundary conditions are of type (a) of Eq. (2), Eq.

(6) can be reorganized and written as Eq. (7) whose solution

gives the vector of unknowns y

Ay f:

Fig. 1. Polarization curve.

potential and current density, respectively, v and d are

known constants and Ff f is a nonlinear function which

depends on the formation potential f f and describes a

nonlinear relation between (i, f ) at time t.

In addition, from Ohms law

iX k

2fX

2nX

X[G

outward normal to the boundary G.

The starting equation to represent the electrical field

problem using boundary elements [5] is

cjfj

Z

G

f*j; XiXd GX 2

Z

G

4

where f *(j ,X) and i*(j ,X) are the fundamental potential

and current density, in which the electric conductivity is

already incorporated. The coefficient c(j ) depends on the

boundary geometry at the source point j .

The application of Eq. (4) to external problems in infinite

regions (e.g., seawater) requires a careful examination of the

behavior of the functions involved over the boundary at

infinity [6]. In this case, a term f 0 representing a constant

potential at infinity should be added to the right side of Eq.

(4), with the contour representing only the internal boundaries of the region. The inclusion of the unknown potential

f 0 makes it possible to impose a self-equilibrated current

density between the anodes and cathodes of the problem.

This is automatically obtained by satisfying the condition,

Z

G

iXdGX 0

X[G

generalization of this procedure, which ensures exact equilibrium of current density even for finite domains, can be

found in Telles and De Paula [7].

still has the form of Eq. (7). For instance, if all nodes have

this boundary condition, one can write in matrix form

i Vf 1 d;

given by Eq. (8) is substituted into Eq. (6) and the resulting

system of equations is reorganized, matrix A and vector f

presented in the Eq. (7) can be rewritten as follows:

A H 2 GV;

9a

f Gd:

9b

system of equations can be solved by a tangent Newton

Raphson Method, which can be formulated considering only

the first order terms in a Taylor series expansion, i.e.:

ik ik21 1 Jk21 fk ;

where

Jk21

2i

2f

10

k21

The mathematical model adopted to represent the

dynamic polarization curves has been the one by Nisancioglu [8]. In this representation, the evolution of the curves

with respect to time start with an initial inverse S shape

and ends with the approximate straight line indicated in Fig.

1. All the parameters needed to define this model have been

obtained from potentiostatic experiments in seawater,

carried out in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [9].

A solution method to deal with the nonlinear boundary

condition (c) has already been devised and tested in other

references of the present authors [2,3]. In doing so, two

alternative hypotheses had to be followed to simulate the

variation of the formation potential f f, based on curves

derived from constant f f experiments. These hypotheses

are designated fictitious time and fictitious potential. The

former follows the formation potential and current density

adopting a fictitious time curve as a reference, whereas the

latter keeps track of the time and current density and

665

ikj Ffkfj fk21

1 Dfj ; tjk21 1 Dt

j

1

ik21

j

1

2Ffkfj

2Ffkfj

2t

2f

fk21

; tjk21 fkj 2 fk21

j

j

fk21

; tjk21 Dt:

j

14

ik ik21 1 Ak21 Dfk 1 bk21 Dt;

curve. A key factor in both procedure is that they adopt

Eq. (4) in the solution routine, requiring a certain number

of iterations to obtain the solution after each time step. The

present article discusses an alternative solution procedure

based on the series expansion of the nonlinear polarization

curve also with respect to time:

2Fff

fs ; ts t 2 ts :

2t

bk21 ) bk21

j

2Ffkfj

2t

fk21

; tjk21

j

16

form

Ak21 ) ak21

mj

2Ffkfj

2fm

fk21

; tjk21 ;

j

Dfk fk 2 fk21 :

2Fff

fs ; ts f 2 fs

i Fff f; t Fff fs ; ts 1

2f

1

15

17

18

11

potential is produced, removing the need for iterations after

each time step. This new solution technique is also dependent on the two previous hypotheses (fictitious time or

potential) and is subject to time step size limiting considerations.

Hfk Gik :

19

curves as boundary conditions, substitution of Eq. (15) in

Eq. (19), yields

Hfk Gik21 1 Ak21 Dfk 1 bk21 Dt:

20

H 2 GAk21 fk Gik21 2 Ak21 fk21 1 bk21 Dt:

21

4. Solution technique

general solution step k, Eq. (11) can be written as a series

expansion around the k 2 1 step solution, for a nodal point i,

in the following form

1

ikj ik21

j

1

2Ffkfj

2Ffkfj

2t

2f

fk21

; tjk21 fkj 2 fk21

j

j

fk21

; tjk21 tjk 2 tjk21 ;

j

12

where,

ikj Ffkfj fkj ; tjk ;

13a

Ffkfj fk21

; tjk21 :

ik21

j

j

13b

22

discrete form, the time and space behavior of cathodic

protection systems subjected to time varying current density

and potential. The solution is approximated and the smaller

the time-step, the better the respective hypothesis representation. Dynamic polarization curves obtained from potentiostatic data are required in order to apply the algorithms

discussed.

In the initial stage compute initial current and potential

distribution by solving the Laplace equation (Eq. (1))

through the Boundary Element Method, subjected to the

boundary conditions presented in Eq. (2), for t 0.

It must be observed that the polarization curve used in

this stage is the same for the whole cathodic surface (see

Fig. 2).

The current density and potential obtained in this stage,

for a boundary element j, are denoted by i0j and f0j

respectively.

666

considered to be constant in the subsequent stage, playing

therefore the rule of a formation potential. In this work the

time interval selected for a stage is the same for all nodal

points.

In what follows, the solution routines for this stepwise

linearized polarization curve technique are illustrated for the

two time varying dynamic hypotheses; i. e. fictitious potential and fictitious time.

Step

1

2

3

Nt Total time of Analysis=Dt

uT {1; 1; 1; 1; ; 1}

H and G are standard Boundary Element matrices

generated at this point.

4

5

6

7

8

9

Initial stage (k 0)

Initialization of vectors

t0 0

i0 0

f 0 fc u, fc is the corrosion potential of the

material in seawater

n0

nn11

Compute matrix

n21 ; tj0

An21 ) an21

mj 2F 0 =2fm f j

fj

10

11

n21

1n Gn21 2 Hf

n

n21

D H 2 GA

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

n 1n to

Solve system of linear equations Dn Df

n

obtain Df

n Df

n 1 f

n21

f

n

n21

n21 n

1 A Df

Repeat steps 814, until Df n ) 0

n

f0 f

0

n

i

Compute parameters (tO2 ; tH2 ; and f ) dependent

on the formation potential

t0O tO2 f0

t0H tH2 f0

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

f 0 f f0

Subsequent stages

Initial Time ) t^k21 , Final Time ) tk

^t0 0

Do k 1 until Nt

Update vectors

fkf fk21

k21

tk ^t

1 Dtu

k

t0 tk21

0

tkH tk21

H

f k f k21

667

668

35

36

37

38

39

tk0 tO2 fk

tkH tH2 fk

f k f fk

Find fictitious time t^kj as a nonlinear solution to

ikj Ffkj fkj ; t^kj for a fixed pair fkj ; ikj and a

formation potential fkj

End Do

Step

13

28

Compute matrix

Ak21 ) ak21

mj

29

33

34

2fm

fk21

; tjk21

j

Compute vector

bk21 ) bk21

j

30

31

32

2Ffk fj

2Ffkfj

2t

fk21

; tjk21

j

Dk H 2 GAk21

Solve system of linear equations Dk Dfk f k to

obtain Dfk

fk Dfk 1 fk21

ik ik21 1 Ak21 Dfk 1 bk21 Dt

Compute parameters (tO2,tH2 and f) dependent on

the formation potential

See 13 of FTM

Initial stage (k 0)

420 See 420 of FTM

Subsequent stages

Initial time ) k 2 1Dtu, Final time ) kDtu

21

f^ 0 f0

22

Do k 1 until Nt

Update vectors

23

fkf fk21

24

tk kDtu

2537 See 2537 of FTM

38

Find fictitious potential f^ kj as a nonlinear solution to ikj Ff^ k f^ kj ; tjk for a fixed pair f^ kj ; ikj and

j

a formation potential f^ kj

39

End Do

These methods are illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4, where the

notations employed are:

im

fkfj

fkj

ikj

f^ kj

t^kj

ikcj

polarization

formation potential (Kept constant within the time

intervals) for boundary element j and stage k

potential for boundary element j and stage k

current density for boundary element j and stage k

fictitious potential for boundary element j at stage k

fictitious time for element j at stage k

current density of element corresponding to

potential kept constant for k

.

5. Application

The application presented was the simplest possible so as

to better illustrate the behavior of the time dependent variables. More elaborate engineering applications will be

carried out in future works.

5.1. Cylindrical tank

axis. Therefore the analysis is two-dimensional as shown

in Fig. 5. Internal and external radii are equal to 100 cm

and 500 cm, respectively, and the conductivity of the electrolyte is taken to be 0.04 V 21 cm 21.

669

shown in Fig. 6. The internal wall is anodic with an

impressed current density equal to 20.30 mA/cm 2. The

external wall is cathodic with known dynamic polarization

curves. Notwithstanding the initial potential, the current

density prescribed was enough to start cathodic polarization.

A series of test analyses was carried out in order to assess

the sensitivity of the solution with respect to the selected Dt

size.

Fig. 7a depicts the fictitious time against true time for two

time-step values and Figs. 7bd present the time dependent

cathodic potential for different Dt # 5 days.

After 700 days, the resulting potential steadily

approached 21.33 V. This was observed for every Dt

selected in both methods. In addition, they all predicted an

initial potential drop (directly dependent on the Dt adopted)

in the solution. But soon after, the calculated cathodic

potential follows closely the respective (fictitious time or

routine [2,3].

Fig. 8 shows the CPU time for this technique and the full

nonlinear solution technique.

6. Conclusions

In this article the fictitious time and fictitious potential

hypothesis were used in order to simulate actual dynamic

polarization curves in cathodic protection systems of

offshore structures. Physical characteristics of the seawater

were represented by dynamic polarization curves for

constant polarization potential fitted from potentiostatic

in-situ experiments.

The new solution techniques presented stem from a linearization of the cathodic polarization curve, with respect to

time, in much the same way as originally done for the

670

Fig. 7 (continued).

nonlinear potential relationship [2]. This produces a stepwise linear boundary condition with respect to both, time

and potential.

The solution techniques studied indicate no special

within limits, lead to the same results as their full nonlinear

solution [2,10] counterparts, requiring less CPU time as

presented Fig. 8.

The application carried out illustrates the difference in

time response of the two hypotheses, for simple problems,

especially during intermediate time of analysis, converging

to approximately the same long-term final potential distribution.

These differences are expected and consistent with the

respective hypotheses of FTM and FPM. Further comparisons with experimental results should ultimately define the

most appropriate procedure to simulate time varying formation potential effects in dynamic polarization curves.

Acknowledgements

Fig. 8. The CPU time for alternative techniques.

CENPES/PETROBRAS for providing financial support to

the research project Numerical Simulation of Cathodic

Protection Systems of Pipelines and Offshore Structures,

which originated the present work.

[5]

[6]

[7]

References

[1] Hartt WH, Culberson CH, Smith SW. Calcareous deposits on metal

surfaces in seawatera critical review. Corrosion 1984;40(11):609

618.

[2] Santiago JAF, Telles JCF. On boundary elements for simulation of

cathodic protection systems with dynamic polarization curves. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1997;8:7678.

[3] Santiago JAF. Static and dynamic simulation of cathodic protection

systems with boundary element method (in Portuguese). D. Sc.

Thesis, Rio de Janeiro, RJ: COPPE/UFRJ, 1991.

[4] Mansur WJ, Telles JCF, Santiago JAF. PROCAT system: recent

advances and future developments in numerical simulation of

cathodic protection problems boundary element techniques.

[8]

[9]

[10]

671

Publications, 1987.

Brebbia CA, Telles JCF, Wrobel LC. Boundary element techniques:

theory and applications in engineering, New York: Springer, 1984.

Telles JCF, Mansur WJ, Wrobel LC. On boundary elements for external potential problems. Mechanics Research Communications

1984;11(6):373377.

Telles JCF, de Paula FA. Boundary elements with equilibrium satisfaction a consistent formulation for potential and elastostatic

analysis. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering

1991;32(3):609621.

Nisancioglu K. Predicting the time dependence of polarization on

cathodically protected steel in seawater. Corrosion 1987;43(2):100

111.

Sathler L. Studies on cathodic polarization of steel in seawater (in

Portuguese). COPPETEC Report ER-150398C. Rio de Janeiro, RJ:

COPPE/UFRJ, 1990.

Santiago JAF, Telles JCF, Mansur WJ. Boundary element method in

cathodic protection: simulation of polarization curves depending

upon time and formation potential. XIVth boundary element method

(Field Problems and Applications), vol. 1, London: Computational

Mechanics Publications and Elsevier, 1992.

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