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GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

Recent innovations in geographic information system (GIS) technology together with


growing use of geomatics technologies for non-traditional surveying applications is
leading towards new uses for these technologies. This is being prompted by the creation of
new architectural designs, sustainable designs incorporating more complex geometries and
construction operation requirements. Spatial technologies are capable of monitoring
design workflows and can often be used to validate that projects are constructed within
design specifications.
Many world-class design projects also involve the use and application of parametric
design technology, 3D city models and advances in architectural design. These projects
often include ecodesign elements, that directly involve the use and application of spatial
analysis and geo-processing techniques.
As architectural designs and projects become more creative, intricate and demanding in
terms if geometry, energy and related material use, the ability to assess whether or not
they are meeting their design specifications as they move from planning to as-built
represents a challenge. In some cases, the designs may be so intricate that they necessitate
the use and applications of highly accurate measurement tools and technologies as they are
constructed. Planning drawings and as-built drawings are rarely the same, as construction
proceeds then the designs often change.
Efficiency in BIM
The changing nature of infrastructure as it moves from drawing to as-built is well-known.
Indeed, many have commented on the fact that building information modeling (BIM),
with its inclusion of 3D capabilities is one of the major advances for implementing BIM
since it more directly represents the as-built structure, thus avoiding the problems of
moving from 2D to 3D and the subsequent differences between planning and as-built
phases.
This is a major and significant reason for considering to implement BIM in the first place
as it can represent large savings in time and cost. But it does not necessarily follow that
construction personnel can translate documents into practice where large complex

building structures are involved particularly in countries where many are experiencing
these projects for the first time.
Use of laser scanning and GIS
Some of the benefits for using laser scanning as a tool during the building phase of a
construction project owe to the quick and accurate ability to assess and monitor project
evolution, thus ensuring poured cement, erected steel and bending surfaces can all be
evaluated with respect to their intended construction accuracy and performance. While
complex plans involving single or double curved surfaces, for example, may arise over
large distances where two ends must meet and join, it follows that assessment of of
independent sections helps to ensure that they do.