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Review

1. Journal 1st
The purpose of this research was to compared students accuracy and
efficiency in using our virtual models with their accuracy and efficiency in
using concrete models to perform typical stereochemistry tasks that involve
relating diagrams and models. Finally, we would expect equivalent
performance with concrete and virtual models.
Methodology of this research,

ACD/ChemSketch (Toronto, Canada)


and Blender (Amsterdam, The
Netherlands) were used to create the
3D molecular models. Vizard (Santa
Barbara, California) virtual reality
software was used to display the virtual
models and diagrams.

This research have 29 student (13 males and 16 females) as participants.


Participants were randomly assigned to perform the tasks either with virtual
models first, followed by concrete models (14 students, 6 males and 8
females) and with concrete models first, followed by virtual models (15
students, 7 males and 8 females).
Concrete models used a concrete ball-and-stick model. Virtual models used
ACD/ChemSketch (Toronto, Canada) and Blender (Amsterdam, The
Netherlands) were used to create the 3D molecular models. Vizard (Santa
Barbara, California) virtual reality software was used to display the virtual
models and diagrams.

This research has 2 study, in study 1 students were asked to make the three types
of diagram used in this study were Dash-Wedge, Newman, and Fischer diagrams.
In study 2 students were asked to judge whether the model (same as in study 1)
and diagram represented (a) the same molecule, (b) diastereomers, or (c)
enantiomers, The concrete models.
.
Some report of this research were matching accuracy, response time and
report based on questionnare.
1. Matching accuracy

Table a

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Berikut ini hasil matching accuracy in study 2 :

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2. Response time

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Berikut ini hasil matching accuracy in study 2 :

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3. Questionnaire
In study 1, when asked to rate the similarity of virtual and concrete
models, 17% of participants rated them as extremely similar, 69% rated
them as very similar, 14% rated them as slightly similar, and no students
rated the models as being not at all similar. When asked which model type
they preferred, 12 students (41%) said they preferred using the virtual
models, while 13 (45%) preferred the concrete models and 4 (14%)
students had no preference.
In study 2, when asked to rate the similarity of the virtual and concrete
models, 19.5% of participants rated them as extremely similar, 64.5%

rated them as very similar, 16% rated them as slightly similar, and no
students rated the models as being not at all similar. When asked which
model type they preferred, 18 students (58%) said they preferred using
virtual models, while 11 (35.5%) preferred concrete models and 2 (6.5%)
students had no preference.
Conclusion of the result was two experiments demonstrate that when important
perceptual differences between concrete and virtual models are controlled,
differences in the haptic cues provided by the different media do not affect
accuracy in an important representation translation task. So, concrete and virtual
models has similarity performance.