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Cambridge International Examinations

Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

* 8 1 6 5 7 7 9 0 4 7 *

0680/12

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Paper 1

May/June 2014
1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates answer on the Question Paper.


Additional Materials:

Ruler

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
Answer all questions.
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 13 printed pages and 3 blank pages.


DC (CW/SW) 80700/3
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1

(a) (i)

Animals and plants of different species live in populations within communities. Describe
the difference between populations and communities.
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(ii)

The changes in population size of a species of organism over time can be plotted on a
graph.
Sketch a typical population growth curve on the axes below.

population
number

time
[2]

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(b) The diagram below is a model of changes in birth and death rates during the development of
a human population.
birth rate
and
death rate

birth rate

death rate

stage 1

stage 2

stage 3

stage 4

time
(i)

State the name of the model shown in the diagram above.


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(ii)

Describe and explain the changes in human birth rate and death rate over time, using
the above model to help you.
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2

(a) (i)

The following is a list of some gases in the atmosphere.


CFCs

methane

nitrogen

ozone

carbon dioxide

From this list identify:


a gas not produced by a natural process .......................................
a gas not affected by human activity ..............................................
(ii)

[2]

Oxides of nitrogen from car exhausts can interact with UV light to give rise to air pollution
that gets trapped near the ground by a temperature inversion.
Look at the left-hand diagram below, which shows no temperature inversion above
a valley town. Complete the diagram on the right to show the same area during a
temperature inversion.

dense, cool
air sinks

light, warm
air rises
dense, cool
air sinks
fumes
and smoke

town in valley

town in valley

no temperature inversion

temperature inversion
[2]

(iii)

Suggest how these trapped pollutants might affect economic activity.


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(b) (i)

Another problem caused by gases emitted from car exhausts and factories is the
formation of acid rain. Use the diagram below and your own knowledge to explain how
acid rain is formed.

SO2
SO2

SO2 NOx

NOx

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(ii)

Explain why countries need to work together to solve the problem of acid rain.
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3

The diagram below shows a supercontinent on Earth called Pangaea, which existed about
250 million years ago, and the Earth as it is today.

Earth, 250 million years ago

Eurasia

North
America
Africa
South
America
India
Australia
Antarctica

Earth, today
North
America

Asia
India
Africa

South
America

equator
Australia

Antarctica

(a) (i)

Identify and describe the process which explains how the change shown above occurred.
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(ii)

Suggest the type of plate boundary found in Pangaea between Africa and South America.
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(b) (i)

Explain why fewer people are injured or killed in volcanic eruptions than in earthquakes.
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(ii)

Describe ways in which governments might reduce the death toll during an earthquake.
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4

Water is vital to life. However, its availability around the world is very variable, due mainly to
different precipitation levels.
The map below shows how precipitation varies around the world.

Arctic Circle

Tropic of Cancer

equator
Tropic of Capricorn

Antarctic Circle
Key
under 250 mm
251500 mm
(a) (i)

5011000 mm
10011500 mm

15012000 mm
over 2000 mm

The places with the least precipitation are called dry deserts. They are defined as those
places where precipitation is less than 250 mm / year. Use this information and the map
to describe the distribution of dry deserts in the world.
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(ii)

Explain how countries with low rainfall could obtain supplies of water.
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(b) (i)

In some countries, water is plentiful but may not be safe to drink. In 2000, the United
Nations set out a series of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), one of which was to:
halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to
safe drinking water
In 2000, 77 % of world population had access to safe water.
In 2012, 89 % of world population had access to safe water.
Has the MDG for safe water been achieved early? Show your working and explain your
answer.

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(ii)

Bilharzia, typhoid, cholera and malaria are water-related diseases. Which two of these
could be transmitted by drinking contaminated water? Explain your choice.
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5

Read this information about the forests of Bangladesh.


The remaining forests of Bangladesh cover slightly less than 10 percent of the land area. The
natural forest cover continues to reduce. Valuable resources are being lost. Serious risks are being
taken with the environment.
Study the diagram below which shows Bangladesh and surrounding areas.
spring snow melt

monsoon climate

deforestation in mountains
Rive
r Bra
hma

Tibet

putra

Bangladesh
Nepal
India

rG
Rive

s
ange

Bay of
Bengal
not to scale
Key
international border
(a) (i)

Using the diagram and your own knowledge, explain why deforestation in the mountains
causes problems in Bangladesh.
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(ii)

Suggest how these problems might be reduced.


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(b) (i)

State one forest resource and identify what it is used for.


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(ii)

Explain how forests help to maintain the balance of some of the gases in the Earths
atmosphere.
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6

The map below shows various climates and some places in the world where they are found. The
features of the climate are shown in the graphs on the map.

400
350 temperature range 30 C
300
250
200
150
100
precipitation 490 mm
50
0
J FMAM J J ASON D

40
30
20
10
0
10
20

temperature
/ C

precipitation
/ mm

A
Hebron
height 15 m

precipitation
/ mm

40
30
20
10
0
10
20

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C
In Salah
height 280 m
400 temperature range 23 C 40
30
350
20
300
10
250
0
200
10
150
20
100
50
precipitation 18 mm
0 J FMAM
J J ASON D

temperature
/ C

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400
temperature range 2 C
350
300
precipitation 1811 mm
250
200
150
100
50
0 J FMAM J J ASON D

temperature
/ C

precipitation
/ mm

B
Manaus
height 44 m

13
(a) (i)

Match the climate letter, A, B and C, with its type below:


equatorial

..............................

tundra

..............................

hot desert

..............................
[2]

(ii)

Describe and explain two ways in which plants growing in area C are adapted to the
climate.
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(b) (i)

Suggest why few people live in area A.


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(ii)

Suggest the possible problems of farming in area C.


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reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

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