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Submitted By :Name
Enroll No. : 07814802811
: 7ECE-123 (E-3)
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Page No.
1. Acknowledgement
2. Preface
3. Overview
Corporate Mission
Corporate Objectives
Manufacturing Units
Customer Profile and Product Range
4. BEL Ghaziabad Unit
Product Ranges
5. Rotation Program
Basic Block Diagram of RADAR
Echo Shift
Doppler Effect
7. Principle Of Working of RADAR
Radar Transmitter
Radar Receiver
Free Space Radar Equations
8. Types of RADAR
Primary RADAR
Secondary RADAR
Continuous Wave RADAR
9. IFF Unit (Identification Friend or Foe)
10. Working of a Simple RADAR
11. Applications of RADAR
12. Other Uses of RADAR
13. Conclusion
14. References







First of all I would like to thank Mr. B.K.PANT ( MANAGER Human Resource Development Deptt.) for granting me
the permission to work as a Trainee in this esteemed company & for providing me all the facilities.
I also remain grateful to Mr. RAGHUNANDAN TYAGI (DM-Human Resource Development Department), who
granted us the permission to take this project. This project could be accomplished in the time span of weeks only due to
the kind co-operation of Manager. I am thankful to him and his colleagues.
I would also like to thank Mr. GIRISH KUMAR (Gen. Manager, RADAR and Unit Head) under whom I took this
project of Study of RADAR.
I pay my special thanks to Mr. AMIT VOHRA (Dep. Engineer) who guided me on my project and without who I was
not able to complete my project.
I am also thankful to other BEL staff that helped me during the summer training.

With the ongoing revolution in electronics and communication where innovations are taking place at the blink of eye, it
is impossible to keep pace with the emerging trends.
This six weeks training is a part my 4-year degree course. Practical industrial training mainly aims at making one aware
of industrial environment, which means that, gets to know the limitation, constraint and freedom under which an
engineer works. One also gets opportunity to see from close quarter that indicates management relation. This training
mainly involves industrial and complete knowledge about designing, assembling and manufacturing of equipments.
Excellence is an attitude that the whole of the human race is born with. It is the environment that makes sure whether
the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. A well planned, properly executed and evaluated industrial training
helps a lot in inculcating a professional attitude. It provides a linkage between the us and industry to develop an
awareness of industrial approach to problem solving, based on a broad understanding of process and mode of operation
of organization.
During this period, I got the real experience for working in the actual environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge
that has been gained during the course of my studies is put to test here. Apart from this, I get an opportunity to learn the
latest technology, which immensely helps them in building my career.
I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures, which increased my sphere of knowledge to a great
extent. I got a chance to learn many new technologies and was also interfaced to many new instruments and all the
credit goes to organization BHARAT ELECTRONICS LTD.

Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was established in 1954 as a public-sector enterprise under the administrative control
of Ministry of Defense as the fountain head to manufacture and supply electronics components and equipment. BEL,
with a noteworthy history of pioneering achievements, has met the requirement of state-of-art professional electronic
equipment for defense, broadcasting, civil defense and telecommunications as well as the component requirement of
entertainment and medical X-Ray industry. Over the years, BEL has grown to a multi-product, multi-unit, and
technology driven company with track record of a profit earning PSU.
The company has a unique position in India of having dealt with all the generations of electronic component and
equipment. Having started with a HF receiver in collaboration with T-CSF of France, the companys equipment designs
have had a long voyage through the hybrid, solid state discrete component to the state of art integrated circuit
technology. In the component arena also, the company established its own electron valve manufacturing facility. It
moved on to semi-conductors with the manufacture of germanium and silicon devices and then on to manufacture of
integrated circuits. To keep in pace with the components and equipment technology, its manufacturing and product
assurance facilities have undergone sea change. From quality check control machines to multi-dimensional profile
measurement machines, Automatic testing machines, environmental labs to check extreme weather and other
operational conditions. All these facilities have been established to meet up the stringed requirements.
Today BELs infrastructure has spread over nine locations with 29 production divisions having ISO-9001/9002
accreditation. Product mix of company is spread over the entire Electro-magnetic (EM) spectrum ranging from tiny
audio frequency semiconductor to huge radar systems and X-Ray tubes o the upper edges of the spectrum .Its
manufacturing units have special focus towards the product ranges like defence communication, Radars, Optical &
Opto-electronics, Tele-communications, Sound and vision and broadcasting, Electronic components ,etc.
Besides manufacturing and supply of a wide variety of products, BEL offers a variety of services like Telecom and
Radar Systems Consultancy, Contract Manufacturing, Calibration of Test & Measuring Instruments, etc. At the
moment, the company is installing MSSR radar at important airports under the modernization of airports plan of
National Airport Authority (NAA).
BEL has nurtured and built a strong in-house R&D base by absorbing technologies from more than 50 leading
companies worldwide and DRDO Labs for a wide range of products. A team of more than 800 engineers is working in
R&D. Each unit has its own R&D Division to bring out new products to the production lines. Central Research
Laboratory (CRL) at Bangalore and Ghaziabad works as independent agency to undertake contemporary design work
on state-of-art and futuristic technologies. About 70% of BEL's products are of in-house design.
BEL was among the first Indian companies to manufacture computer parts and peripherals under arrangement with
International Computers India Limited (ICIL) in 1970s. BEL assembled a limited number of 1901 systems under the
arrangement with ICIL. However, following Government's decision to restrict the computer manufacture to ECIL, BEL
could not progress in its computer manufacturing plans. As many of its equipment were microprocessor based, the
company continued to develop computers based application, both hardware and software. Most of its software
requirements are in real time. EMCCA, software intensive naval ships control and command system is probably one of
the first projects of its nature in India and Asia.

BEL has production units established at different parts of the country. The year of establishment and location are as


Year of establishment





To be the market leader in Defence Electronics and in other chosen fields and products.


To become a customer-driven company supplying quality products at competitive prices at the expected time
and providing excellent customer support.


To achieve growth in the operations commensurate with the growth of professional electronics industry in the


To generate internal resources for financing the investments required for modernization, expansion and growth
for ensuring a fair return to the investor.


In order to meet the nations strategic needs, to strive for self-reliance by indigenization of materials and


To retain the technological leadership of the company in Defence and other chosen fields of electronics
through in-house Research and development as well as through collaboration/co-operation with
Defence/National Research Laboratories, International companies, Universities and Academic Institutions.


To progressively increase overseas sales of its products and services.


To create an organizational culture this encourages members of the organization to realize their full potential
through continuous learning on the job and through HRD initiatives.

Bangalore (Karnataka):
It was the first centre as already been given, being established in 1954. Since then, the Bangalore complex has grown to
specialize in communication and Radar/Sonar systems for army, navy, air force etc.

Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh):

Its the second largest unit to manufacture special types of Radars for the Air Defence Ground Environment System. It
provides Communication systems to the Defence forces and Microwave users.

Pune (Maharashtra):
This unit manufactures Image Converter tubes. Subsequently, Magnesium Manganese-dioxide batteries, Lithium
sulphur batteries and X-Ray Tubes/cables were added to the product range. At present unit manufactures Laser sub-unit
for tank fire control systems and Laser Range finders for the defence services.

Machilipatnam (Andhra Pradesh):

The product line includes Passive Night vision equipment, Binoculars, Goggles periscopes for tank fire control
systems. This unit also meets up demands of professional grade radio-communication equipment in VHF and UHF

Chennai (Tamil Nadu):

It was established to manufacture gun control equipment required for the integration and installation in the Vijayanta
Tanks. The unit now is manufacturing Stabilizer systems for T-72 tanks, Infantry Combat Vehicles BMP-II etc.

Kotdwar (Uttar Pradesh):

This unit manufactures Tele-communication equipment for both defence and civilian.

Taloja (Maharashtra):
For the manufacture of B/W TV Glass bulbs, this plant was established in collaborating with coming, France in 1986.
The unit is now fully mobilized to manufacture 20 Glass bulbs indigenously.

Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh):

To coordinate with the major Defence R&D Laboratories located in Hyderabad, DLRL, DRDL, and DMRL, BEL
established a unit in Hyderabad in 1986. Force Multiplier systems are manufactured here for the Defence services.

Customer Profile & BEL Product Range


Tactical and Strategic Communication Equipment and Systems,

Secrecy Equipment, Digital Switches, Battlefield Surveillance
Radar, Air Defence and Fire Control Radar, Opto-Electronic
Instruments, Tank Fire Control Systems, Stabilizer Systems,
Stimulators and Trainers.


Navigational, Surveillance, Fire Control Radar, IFF, SONAR

Systems, Torpedo Decoys, Display Systems, EW Systems,
Simulators, Communication Equipment and Systems.

Air Force

Surveillance and Tracking Raiders, Communication Equipment

and Systems, IFF and EW Systems.


Communication Equipment and Systems.

Space Department

Precision Tracking Radar, Ground Electronics, Flight and OnBoard Sub-systems.

All India Radio

MW, SW & FM Transmitters.

(TV Network)

Low, Medium and High Power Transmitters, Studio Equipment,

OB Vans, Cameras, Antennae, Mobile and Transportable Satellite


TV Studios on Turnkey Basis for Educational Programs.

Department of

Transmission Equipment (Microwave and UHF) and PCM

Multiplex, Rural and Main Automatic Exchanges, Flyaway Satellite
Terminals, Solar Panels for Rural Exchanges.

Videsh Sanchar

MCPC VSAT, SCPC VSAT, Flyaway Earth Stations. Hub Stations,

Up/Down Converters, LNA Modems

Nigam and other

Corporate Bodies
Civil Aviation

Airport Surveillance Radar, Secondary Surveillance Radar.


Cyclone Warning and Multipurpose Meteorological Radar.

Power Sector

Satellite Communication Equipment.

Oil Industry

Communication Systems, Radar.

Forest Departments,

Communication Systems.

Irrigation &
Electricity Boards
Medical &

Clinical and Surgical Microscope with Zoom, Linear Accelerators.

Health Care

Communication Equipment for Metros, Microwave Radio Relays,

And Digital Microwave Radio Relays.

Equipment Components

Transmitting Tubes, Microwave Tubes, Lasers, Batteries,

Semiconductors-Discrete, Hybrid and Integrated Circuits.

All India Radio,

Transmitting Tubes, Microwave Tubes, and Vacuum Tubes.

Doordarshan(TV Network),
Department of
Entertainment Industry

B/W TV Tubes, Silicon Transistors, Integrated Circuits,

Bipolar and CMOS, Piezo Electric Crystals, Ceramic
Capacitors and SAW Filters.

Telephone Industry

Integrated Circuits, Crystals.

Switching Industry

Vacuum Interrupters.

Instrumentation Industry

Liquid Crystal Displays.

Medical &Health Care

X-ray Tubes.

Identity Card Systems Software, Office Automation
Software, LCD On-line Public Information Display Systems
and Communication Networks / VSAT Networks.



The main equipment made by BEL includes: Radar, Antennas, Satellite Communication Equipment (for use in the
upcoming BELNET which all the units are being linked up) and other command & control support equipment.
The various department of BEL are: Human Resource & Development

Plant and Service

Work Maintenance
Test Equipment and Automation
Works Assembly
Microwave Component
Environment and Testing Laboratory
Personal and Administration
Finance and Account
Management Service
Production control
Material Management
Central Services
Antenna Fabrication
Machine Shop
Fabrication Shop
P.C.B Fabrication
Q.C Works


In the mid 60s, while reviewing the defense requirement of the country, the government focused its attention to
strengthen the air defense system, in particular the ground electronics system support, for the air defense
network. This led to the formulation of a very major plan ADGES with Prime Minister as the presiding officer
of the apex review committee on the development and production of electronic equipment. The ministry of
defense immediately realized the need to establish production capacity for meeting the electronic equipment
requirements for its plan ADGES.
BEL was then entrusted with the task of meeting the development and production requirement for the plan
ADGES and in view of the importance of the project it was decided to create additional capacity at a second unit
of the company.
In December 1970 the Govt. sanctioned an additional unit for BEL. In 1971 the industrial license for
manufacture of radar and microwave equipment was obtained; 1972 saw the commencement of construction
activities and production was launched in 1974.
Over the years, the unit has successfully manufactured a wide variety of equipment needed for defense and civil
use. It has also installed and commissioned a large number of systems on turnkey basis. The unit enjoys a
unique status as manufacturer of IFF systems needed to match a variety of Primary Radars. More than 30
versions of IFF have already been supplied traveling the path from vacuum technology to solid state to latest
Microwave Component based system.


The product ranges today of the company are:

Radar Systems:
1) 3-Dimensional High Power Static and Mobile Radar for the Air Force.
2) Low Flying Detection Radar for both the Army and the Air force.
3) Tactical Control Radar Systems for the Army
4) Battlefield Surveillance Radar for the Army
5) IFF Mk-X Radar systems for the Defence and Export
6) ASR/MSSR systems for Civil Aviation.
7) Radar & allied systems Data Processing Systems.

1) Digital Static Tropo scatter Communication Systems for the Air Force.
2) Digital Mobile Tropo scatter Communication System for the Air Force and Army.
3) VHF, UHF & Microwave Communication Equipment.
4) Bulk Encryption Equipment.
5) Turnkey Communication Systems Projects for defence & civil users.
6) Static and Mobile Satellite Communication Systems for Defence
7) Telemetry/Tele-control Systems.

1) Antennae for Radar, Terrestrial & Satellite Communication Systems.
2) Antennae for TV Satellite Receive and Broadcast applications.
3) Antennae for Line-of-sight Microwave Communication Systems.

Microwave Component:
1) Active Microwave components like LNAs, Synthesizer, Receivers etc.
2) Passive Microwave components like Double Balanced Mixers, etc


Under this I was introduced to the company by putting them under a rotation program to various departments.
The several departments where I had gone under my rotational program are:

Test Equipment and Automation

P.C.B. Fabrication

Quality Control Works Radar

Works Assembly Communication


Microwave Lab

Rotation period was to give me a brief insight of the companys functioning and knowledge of the
various departments. A brief idea of the jobs done at the particular departments was given. The
cooperative staff at the various departments made the learning process very interesting, which
allowed me to know about the company in a very short time.

Test Equipment And Automation

Testing equipment and automation laboratory is the most important laboratory of the BEL. Basically in this lab
testing, calibration, maintenance and repairing takes place. This lab is responsible for all these activities which
lead to the maintenance of all the instruments made by BEL. There are 300 equipments and they are of 16 types.

A calibration is basically testing of equipment with a standard parameter. It is done with the help of standard
equipment should be of some make, model and type.
BEL is basically recognized by the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories
(NABL). The testing lab of BEL has direct link with the National Physics Laboratory (NPL) i.e. some products
made in the NPL are also tested and calibrated here.
The national physical laboratory (NPL), New Delhi provides the standard values yearly. BEL follows
International Standard Organization (ISO) standard. The test equipments are calibrated either half yearly or
yearly. After testing different tags are labeled on the equipment according to the observations.

Green O.K , Perfect

Yellow Satisfactory but some trouble is present.
Red Cant be used, should be disposed off.


P.C.B. stands for Printed Circuits Board. Its an integral part of the Electronics equipment as well as all the
components are mounted on it. It consists of the fiberglass sheet having a layer of copper on both sides.
Types Of PCBs
1. Single Sided Board
2. Double Sided Board
3. Muti-layer Board

: Circuits on one side.

: Circuit on Both sides.
: Several layers are interconnected through whole metallization.

BEL-Ghaziabad produces only single-sided and double-sided PCBs.

Fabrication of single sided PCBs:

A copper clad sheet is taken. It is cleaned and scrubbed.


The sheet is laminated with a photosensitive solution.


Positive photo paint of the required circuit is placed over the laminated sheet and it is subjected to the
UV light. As a result the transparent plate gets polymerized and the opaque part remains


The plate is dipped in solution in which the non-polymerized part gets dissolved.


Tin plating is done on the tracks obtained.


Lamination of the plate is removed.


The unwanted copper from the plate is also removed by dipping it in the solution that dissolves copper
but not tin (etching).


Now drilling is done on the paths where the components are to be mounted. This process fabricates

Raw material for PCBs

Most common raw material used for manufacturing of PCBs is copper cladded glass epoxy resin sheet. The
thickness of the sheet may vary as 1.2, 2.4 and 3.2mm and the standard size of the board is 610mm to 675mm

According to some laid down standards, the quality control department ensures the quality of the product. The
raw materials and components etc. purchased and inspected according to the specifications by IG department.
Similarly QC work department inspects all the items manufactured in the factory. The fabrication department
checks all the fabricated parts and ensures that these are made according to the part drawing, painting , plating
and stenciling etc are done as per BEL standards.
The assembly inspection departments inspects all the assembled parts such as PCB , cable assembly ,cable form
, modules , racks and shelters as per latest documents and BEL standards.
The mistakes in the PCB can be categorized as:

D & E mistakes
Shop mistakes
Inspection mistakes


The process card is attached to each PCB under inspection. Any error in the PC is entered in the process card by
certain code specified for each error or defect.

After a mistake is detected following actions are taken:


Observation is made.
Object code is given.
Division code is given.
Change code is prepared.
Recommendation action is taken

This department plays an important role in the production. Its main function is to assemble various components,
equipments and instruments in a particular procedure.
It has been broadly classified as:






The stepwise procedure followed by work assembly department is:

1) Preparation of part list that is to be assembled.
2) Preparation of general assembly.
3) Schematic diagram to depict all connections to be made and brief idea about all components
4) Writing lists of all components.


In this department different types of transformers and coils are manufactured , which are used in the
various defense equipments i.e. radar , communication equipments.
This department basically consists of three sections:
1)PRODUCTION CONTROL:- Basic function of production control is to plan the production of
transformer and coils as per the requirement of respective division (Radar and Communication). This
department divided into two groups :
(a) Planning
(b) Planning store.
2)WORKS(PRODUCTION):- Production of transformers and coils are being carried out by the works

3)QUALITY CONTROL:- After manufacturing the transformer/coils the item is offered to the inspection
department to check the electrical parameters(DCR , No load current , full load current , dielectric
strength , inductance , insulation resistance and mechanical dimension as mentioned in the GA drawing
of the product.

Microwave lab deals with very high frequency measurements or very short wavelength measurements. The
testing of microwave components is done with the help of various radio and communication devices. Phase and
magnitude measurements are done in this section. Power measurements are done for microwave components
because current and voltage are very high at such frequencies.

Different type of waveguides is tested in this department like rectangular waveguides, circular waveguides.
These waveguides can be used to transmit TE mode or TM mode. This depends on the users requirements. A
good waveguide should have fewer loses and its walls should be perfect conductors.
In rectangular waveguide there is min. distortion. Circular waveguides are used where the antenna is rotating.
The power measurements being done in microwave lab are in terms of S- parameters. Mainly the testing is done
on coupler and isolators and parameters are tested here.

There are two methods of testing:


Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP)

Production Test Procedure (PTP)


RADAR is acronym for Radio Detection and Ranging.
Today, the technology is so common that the word has become standard English noun. The development of
RADAR accelerated and spread in middle and late 1930s with first successful demonstration in 1936. It uses
electromagnetic waves in microwave region to detect location, height, intensity and movements of targets. It
operates by radiating energy into space and detecting the echo signals reflected from an object, or target. The
reflected energy that is reflected to radar not only indicates the presence of target, but by comparing the received
echo signals with the signals that were transmitted its location can be determined along with the other target
related information.
Radar is an active device. It utilizes its own radio energy to detect and track the target. It does not depend on
energy radiated by the target itself. The ability to detect a target at great distances and to locate its position with
high accuracy are two of the chief attributes of radar.
Earlier radar development was driven by military necessities. But now it enjoys wide range of application. One
of the most common is the police traffic radar used for enforcing speed limits. Another is color weather radar,
other most famous application is air traffic control system.

1)RADAR is an electromagnetic system for detection and location of reflecting objects such as aircraft,
ships, spacecraft, vehicles, people, and the natural environment.
2)It operates by radiating energy into space and detecting the echo signal reflected from an object or target.
3)The reflecting energy that is returned to the radar not only indicates the presence of a target, but also by
comparing the received echo signal with the signal that was transmitted, its location can be determined along
with other target-related information.
4)Radar can perform its function at long or short distances and under conditions impervious to optical and
infrared sensors.
5)Its can operate in darkness, haze, fog, rain, and snow.
6)Its ability to measure distances with high accuracy and in all weather is one of its most important attributes.


The Basic Block Diagram Of Radar





Radar consists of a transmitter and a receiver each connected to a directional antenna.

A transmitter (in the upper left portion of the figure) is capable of sending out a large UHF or
microwave power through the antenna.
A portion of transmitted energy is intercepted by the target and reradiated in many directions.
The receiver receives, analysis, and displays the information in the reflected echoes picked up by the
antenna. There it is processed to detect the presence of the target and determine its location.
The single antenna is used for transmitter and reception with the help of a switch called duplexer.


Echo Shift
In audio signal processing and acoustics, an echo (plural echoes) is a reflection of sound, arriving at the listener
sometime after the direct sound. Typical examples are the echo produced by the bottom of a well, by a building,
or by the walls of an enclosed room and an empty room. A true echo is a single reflection of the sound source.
The time delay is the extra distance divided by the speed of sound.
Echo is something you experience all the time. If you shout into a well or a canyon, the echo comes back a
moment later. The echo occurs because some of the sound waves in your shout reflect off from a surface (either
the water at the bottom of the well or the canyon wall on the far side) and travel back to your ears. The length of
time between the moments you shout and the distance between you and the surface that creates the echo
determines the moment that you hear the echo.

Doppler Effect
The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift), named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who proposed it in
1842 in Prague, is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to
its source.
Doppler shift is a common phenomenon. Doppler shift occurs when sound is generated by, or reflected off of, a
moving object. Doppler shift in the extreme creates sonic booms. Heres how to understand Doppler shift
Lets say there is a car coming toward you at 60 miles per hour (mph) and its horn is blaring. You will hear the
horn playing one note as the car approaches, but when the car passes you the sound of the horn will suddenly
shift to a lower note. Its the same horn making the same sound the whole time. The change you hear is caused
by Doppler shift.



Radar involves the transmission of pulses of electromagnetic waves by means of a directional antenna. A radar
system has a transmitter that emits radio waves called radar signals in predetermined directions. Some of the
pulses are reflected by objects that intercept them. When these come into contact with an object they are
usually reflected or scattered in many directions.

Transmitted signal




Echo signal

Range to target

Target detection and ranging

The working of basic radar is shown in figure. Radar signals are reflected especially well by materials of
considerable electrical conductivity. The reflections are picked up by a receiver, processed electronically, and
converted into visible form by means of a cathode-ray tube. The range of the object is determined by measuring
the time it takes for the radar signal to reach the object and return. The object's location with respect to the radar
unit is determined from the direction in which the pulse was received. In most radar units the beam of pulses is
continuously rotated at a constant speed, or it is scanned (swung back and forth) over a sector, also at a constant
rate. If the object is moving either toward or away from the transmitter, there is a slight equivalent change in the
frequency of the radio waves, caused by the Doppler effect. The velocity of the object is measured by applying
the Doppler principle, if the object is approaching the radar unit, the frequency of the returned signal is greater
than the frequency of the transmitted signal, if the object is receding from the radar unit, the returned frequency
is less and if the object is not moving relative to the radar unit, the return signal will have the same frequency as
the transmitted signal
Radar receivers are usually, but not always, in the same location as the transmitter. Although the reflected radar
signals captured by receiving antenna are usually very weak, they can be strengthened by electronic amplifiers.


More sophisticated method of signal processing are also used in order to recover useful radar signals.
The general requirement for any radar system is summarized as below:

The radar transmitter should remain silent during the echo period.


The transmitted pulse should be quite powerful to counter the attenuation during forward and return


The received echo pulse being weak, the receiver should be extremely sensitive and at the same time
immune to noise signals. It should have necessary amplification, signal processing circuitry.


The radar antenna should be highly directive and have a large gain so it can radiate a strong signal and
receive a weak pulse.


Pulse repetition frequency (prf) of radar should be high.

Radar transmitter
The radar transmitter produces the short duration high-power RF pulses of energy that are radiated into space by
the antenna. The radar transmitter is required to have the following technical and operating characteristics:
1) The transmitter must have the ability to generate the required mean RF power and the required peak
2) The transmitter must have a suitable RF bandwidth.
3) The transmitter must have a high RF stability to meet signal processing requirements.
4) The transmitter must be easily modulated to meet waveform design requirements.
5) The transmitter must be efficient, reliable and easy to maintain and the life expectance and the cost of
the output device must be acceptable.

Radar receiver
The function of radar receiver is to detect the desired echo signals in the presence of noise, interference and
clutter, clutter is defined as any unwanted radar echo. These clutter make difficult the detection of wanted
signals. The design of radar receiver will depend not only on the type of waveform to be detected but also on the
nature of noise interference and clutter echoes.
The radar receiver is required to:
1) Amplify the received signals without adding noise or introducing any form of distortions.
2) Reject interfering signals so that the required can be optimally detected.
3) Receiver should be designed to have sufficient gain, amplification, stability.
4) Receiver should provide large dynamic range to accommodate large clutter signals.
5) Timing and reference signals are needed to properly extract target information.


Free Space Radar Equations

The radar range equation relates the range of a radar to the characteristics of the transmitter, receiver, antenna,
target and the medium. Free space actually means that there are no obstacles between radar antenna and the
target. Also the free space medium is transparent and homogenous with respect to the refractive index at radar
If the power of a radar transmitter is denoted by Pt and if an isotropic antenna (one which radiates uniformly in
all the directions) then the power density at a distance R from the radar is equal to the transmitted power divided
by the surface area of sphere of radius R i.e. power density at a distance R from the isotropic source,
= Pt / 4R2watts/m2
Radar usually employ directive antennas to direct the transmitted power Pt into one particular direction. The
gain G of an antenna is a measure of the increased power radiated in the direction of the target as compared with
the power that would have been radiated from an isotropic antenna.
Power density at a distance R from directive antenna of power gain
= Pt G / 4R2


The target intercepts the portion of transmitted power and radiates it in various directions. A measure of the
incident power intercepted by the target and reradiated back in the direction of radar is denoted as the radar
cross-section of the target ().
The total power intercepted by a target having an area is,
= (Pt G / 4 R2). watts
Where is also defined as the area of the target as seen by the radar. It has units of area in m2.
is a characteristic of a particular target and is a measure of its size and shape. The power density of echo signal
at the radar station is
= (PtG / 4R2) . (1/4R2) = PtG/ (4R2)2 watts
The radar antenna captures the portion of of the echo power.if the effective area of the receiving antenna is
denoted byAe, the power Pr received by the radar is given by,
Pr = PtGAe / (4R 2)2watts
Maximum radar range is the distance beyond which the target cannot be detected. It occurs when the received
echo signal power Pr, just equals the minimum detectable signal (Smin).
i.e. when Pr = Smin, R = Rmax and when substituted in Eq. 11.5 we get,
Smin = PtGAe / (4)2 R4max


Rmax = [PtGAe /(4)2Smin]1/4

From the antenna theory, we know that
G = 4Ae / 2
Where, = wavelength of the radiated energy,
Ae = effective area of receiving antenna,
G = transmitter gain

Since radar generally use the same antenna for both transmitter and receiver, the above expression
for G can be substituted in Rmax relation. Then,

Rmax =

[Pt Ae / (4)2Smin]1/4

Rmax = [PtAe2 / 42Smin]1/4


A e = G2 / 4,
Rmax = [Pt(G2/4)2 / 42Smin]1/4
Rmax = [Pt G2 / (4)2 Smin]1/4


Depending on the desired information, radar sets must have different qualities and technologies. One such
different qualities and techniques radar sets are classified as shown.

A Primary Radar transmits high-frequency signals toward the targets. The transmitted pulses are
reflected by the target and then received by the same radar. The reflected energy or the echoes are further
processed to extract target information. This means, unlike secondary radar a primary radar unit receive
its own emitted signals as an echo again.

Secondary radar units work with active answer signals. In addition to primary radar, this type of radar
uses a transponder on the airborne target The ground unit, called interrogator, transmits coded pulses
(after modulation) towards the target. The transponder on the airborne object receives the pulse, decodes
it, induces the coder to prepare the suitable answer, and then transmits the interrogated information back
to the ground unit. The interrogator/ground unit demodulates the answer. The information is displayed on
the display of the primary radar. The secondary radar unit transmits and also receives high-frequency



Continuous wave radars continuously transmit a high-frequency signal and the reflected energy is also
received and processed continuously. These radars have to ensure that the transmitted energy doesnt
leak into the receiver (feedback connection). CW radars measures radial velocity of the target using
Doppler Effect. If there is relative motion between the radar and the target, the shift in carrier frequency
(Doppler shift) of the reflected wave becomes a measure of targets relative velocity. The block diagram
of continuous wave radar is shown.




CW Transmitter

f0 f d

Beat frequency


The transmitter generates a continuous oscillations of frequency fo which is radiated by radar antenna. A portion
of this radiated energy is intercepted by target and reradiated energy is collected by the receiver antenna. If the
target is moving with the velocity vr relative to the radar, the received signal will be shifted in frequency from
the transmitted frequency fo by the amount fd. The plus sign for an approaching target and minus sign for a
receding target. The receivedecho signal (fofd) enters the radar via the antenna and is mixed in a detector mixer
with a portion of a transmitter signal fo to produce the Doppler frequency fd. The purpose of using a beat
frequency amplifier is to eliminate echo from stationary targets and to amplify the Doppler echo signal to a level
where it can operate an indicating device such as frequency meter.
1) It uses low transmitting power, low power consumption.
2) It has simple circuitry and it is small in size.
3) Unlike pulse radar CW radar is able to detect an aircraft inspite of fixed objects.
1) Practical application of CW radar is limited by the fact that several targets at a given bearing tend to
cause confusion.
2) Range discrimination can be achieved only by introducing very costly complex circuitry.
3) It is not capable of indicating the range of target an can show only its velocity.


An example of unmodulated CW radar is speed gauges used by the police. The transmitted signal of these
equipments is constant in amplitude and frequency. CW radar transmitting unmodulated power can measure the
speed only by using the Doppler-effect. It cannot measure a range and it cannot differ between two reflecting

Unmodulated CW radars have the disadvantage that they cannot measure range, because run time measurements
is not possible (and necessary) in unmodulated CW-radars. This is achieved in modulated CW radars using the
frequency shifting method. In this method, a signal that constantly changes in frequency around a fixed
reference is used to detect stationary objects. Frequency is swept repeatedly between f1 and f2. On examining
the received reflected frequencies (and with the knowledge of the transmitted frequency), range calculation can
be done.


IFF is basically radar bacon system employed for the purpose of general identification of military targets. The
bacon system when used for the control of civil air traffic is called SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR
The Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) system is a good example of a secondary radar system that is in wide use
in the military environment. A great deal of valuable information can be provided to the secondary radar by the
targets transponder. The transponder provides an identifying code to the secondary radar that then uses the code
and an associated data base system to look up aircraft origin and destination, flight number, aircraft type and
even the numbers of personnel onboard. This type of information is clearly not available from a primary radar
Primary radar locates an object by transmitting a signal and detecting the reflected echo. A Secondary radar
system is basically very similar in operation to primary radar except that the return signal is radiated from a
transmitter on board the target rather than by reflection. In other words, secondary radar operates with a cooperative active target while the primary radar operates with a passive target.
Secondary radar system consists of an INTERROGATOR and a TRANSPONDER. The interrogator transmitter
in the ground station interrogates transponder equipped aircraft, providing a two way data link to separate
transmit and receive frequencies. The transponder, on board the aircraft, on receipt of a chain of pulses from the
ground interrogator, automatically transmits a reply. The reply, coded for purposes of Identification is received
back at the ground interrogator where it is decoded and displayed on a radar type presentation.


1.Reply pulses are stronger than the echo signals of primary radar.
2.Separate transmitting and receiving frequencies eliminate ground clutter and weather return problems.
3.Reply signal is independent of target cross section.
4.Interrogation and reply path coding provide discrete target identification and altitude data.
The interrogator transmitter operates in L Band at 1030 MHz and the airborne transponder operates at 1090
MHz.The SSR operates in the same frequency channel for both military and civil air traffic control by using
compatible airborne devices in the aircraft.

Operating Frequencies
The interrogator transmitter operates in L Band at 1030 MHz and the airborne transponder operates at 1090
The SSR operates in the same frequency channel for both military and civil air traffic control by using
compatible airborne devices in the aircraft.


Basic Radar System

A basic radar system is spilt up into a transmitter, switch, antenna, receiver, data recorder, processor
and some sort of output display. Everything starts with the transmitter as it transmits a high power
pulse to a switch, which then directs the pulse to be transmitted out an antenna. Just after the antenna
is finished transmitting the pulse, the switch switches control to the receiver, which allows the antenna
to receive echoed signals. Once the signals are received the switch then transfers control back to the
transmitter to transmit another signal. The switch may toggle control between the transmitter and the
receiver as much as 1000 times per second.
Any received signals from the receiver are then sent to a data recorder for storage on a disk or tape.
Later the data must be processed to be interpreted into something useful, which would go on a Pulse
Width and Bandwidth.
Some radar transmitters do not transmit constant, uninterrupted electromagnetic waves. Instead, they
transmit rhythmic pulses of EM waves with a set amount of time in between each pulse. The pulse
itself would consist of an EM wave of several wavelengths with some dead time after it in which there
are no transmissions. The time between each pulse is called the pulse repetition time (PRT) and the
number of pulses transmitted in one second is called the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The time
taken for each pulse to be transmitted is called the pulse width (PW) or pulse duration. Typically they
can be around 0.1 microseconds long for penetrating radars or 10-50 microseconds long for imaging
radars (a display). Microsecond is a millionth of a second.
PRT = 1 / PRF
PRF = 1 / PRT



A simple RADAR system, as found on many merchant ships, has three main parts. These are:1) The antenna unit or the scanner.
2) The transmitter/receiver or transceiver and
3) The visual display unit.
The antenna is about 2 or 3 meters wide and focuses pulses of very high frequency radio energy into a narrow
vertical beam. The frequency of the radio waves is usually about 10,000 MHz. the antenna is rotated at the
speed of 10 to 25 revolutions per minute so that the radar beam sweeps through 300 degrees all around the ship
out to a range of about 90 kilometers.
In all RADARS it is vital that the transmitting and receiving in the transceiver are in close harmony. Everything
depends on accurate measurement of the time which passes between the transmission of the pulse and the return
of the ECHO about 1,000 pulses per second are transmitted. Though it is varied to suit requirements. Short
pulses are best for short-range work, longer pulses are better for long range.
An important part of the transceiver is the modulator circuit. This keys the transmitter so that it can oscillate, or
pulses, for exactly the right length of time. The pulses so generated are video pulses. These pulses are short
range pulses and hence cannot serve out purpose of long-distance communication. In order to modify these
pulses into radio frequency pulses or RF pulses, we need to generate power. The transmitted power is generated
in a device called magnetron, which can handle these very short pulses and very high oscillations.
Between each pulse, the transmitter is switched off and isolated. The weak echoes from the target are picked up
by the antenna and fed into the receiver. To avoid overlapping of these echoes with the next transmitted pulse,
another device called duplexer is used. Thus, by means of a duplexer, undisturbed, two-way communication is
established. The RF echoes emerging from the duplexer are now fed into the mixer where they are mixed with
pulses of RF energy. These pulses are generated by means of a local oscillator. Once the two are mixed, a signal
is produced in the output witch is of intermediate frequency range or IF range. The IF signals is received by a
receiver where it is demodulated to video frequency range, amplified, and then passed to the display unit.
The display unit usually carried all the controls necessary for the operation of the whole radar. It has a cathode
ray tube, which consist of an electron gun in its neck. The gun shoots a beam of electron at a phosphorescent
screen at the far end. The phosphorescent screen glows when hit by the electrons and, the resulting spot of light
can be seen through a glass surface. The screen is circular and is calibrated in degrees around its edge. The
electron beam travels out from the center to the edge. This random motion of the electron beam, known as the
trace, is matched with the rotation of the antenna. So, when the trace is at zero degrees on the tube calibration,
the antenna is pointing dead ahead. The beginning of each trace corresponds exactly which the moment at which
the radar energy is transmitted.

When an echo is received it brightens up the trace for a moment. This is a blip, and its distance from the center
of the tube corresponds exactly with the time taken for the radar pulse to travel to the target and return. So that
blip on the screen gives the range and bearing of the target. As the trace rotates, a complete picture is built up
from the coating of the tube. This type of display is called a PPI (plane position indicator) and is the most
common form of presenting radar information.


The amount of power Pr returning to the receiving antenna is given by the radar equation:

Pt = transmitter power
Gt = gain of the transmitting antenna
Ar = effective aperture (area) of the receiving antenna
= radar cross section, or scattering coefficient, of the target
F = pattern propagation factor
Rt = distance from the transmitter to the target
Rr = distance from the target to the receiver.

In the common case where the transmitter and the receiver are at the same location, Rt = Rr and the term Rt2 Rr2
can be replaced by R4, where R is the range. This yield:

This shows that the received power declines as the fourth power of the range, which means that the reflected
power from distant targets is very, very small.
The equation above with F = 1 is a simplification for vacuum without interference. The propagation factor
accounts for the effects of multipath and shadowing and depends on the details of the environment. In a realworld situation, pathloss effects should also be considered.


Radar has been employed on the ground, in the air, on the sea and in space. Ground based radar has been
applied chiefly to the detection, location, and tracking of the aircraft or space target. Shipboard radar is used as a
navigation aid and safety device to locate buoys, shorelines and other ships as well as for observing aircraft.
Airborne radar may be used to detect other aircraft, ships, or land vehicles or it may be used for mapping of
land, storm avoidance, terrain avoidance and navigation. In space, radar has assist in the guidance of spacecraft
and for remote sensing of the land and sea.
The major use of radar, and contributor of the cost of almost all of its development, has been the military;
although there has been increasingly important civil application, chiefly for marine and air navigation. The
major areas of radar application are briefly described below:
Air Traffic Control (ATC): Radar is employed throughout the world for the purpose of safely controlling air
traffic route and in the vicinity of Airport. Aircraft and ground vehicular traffic at large airport are monitored by
means of high - resolution radar. Radar has been used with GCA (ground control approach) system to guide
aircraft to a safe landing in bad weather.
Ship Safety: Radar is used for enhancing the safety of ship travel by warning of ship potential collision with
other ships, and for detecting navigation buoys, especially in poor visibility. Automatic detection and tracking
equipment are commercially available for use with radar for the purpose of collision avoidance. Shore based
radar of moderately high resolution is also used for the surveillance of harbors as an aid to navigation.
Space: Space vehicles have used radar for rendezvous and docking and for landing on the moon. Some of the
largest ground based radar is for the detection and tracking of satellite.
Remote Sensing: All radar is a remote sensor. Radar has been used as a remote sensor of the weather. It is also
used to probe the moon and planets. The ionospheric sounder, an important adjunct for HF (short wave)
communications, is radar. Remote sensing with radar is also concerned with earth resources, which include the
measurement and mapping of sea condition, water resources, ice cover, agriculture, forestry condition,
geological information and environmental pollution.
Law Enforcement: In addition to the wide use of radar to measure the speed of automobile traffic by highway
police, radar has also been employed as a means for the detection of intruders.
Military: Many of the civilian application of the radar are also employed by the military. The traditional role of
radar for military application has been for surveillance, navigation and for the control and guidance of weapon.



Apart from the above mentioned uses, radar may be employed for other purposes as well. Most missiles to their
respective destination by means of a radar mounted on their nose. Radars using continuous wave transmission
rather than pulses are fitted in devices such as the proximity fuse which causes the missile or shell to explode
when closed to the target.
Radars are also fitted on board of some aircraft to warn the pilot of air turbulence and thunderstorms. They now
play an important role in weather forecasting and are also found on board spacecraft, mapping the surface of the
earth below. Some of the radars that have been manufactured by Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) listed below:

TRS -2215
CAR (RohniRewhti)
TCR (Akash)

All the above are used for air traffic control and surveillance. Mark-I to Mark-XI is a series of radars used for
navigation purposes.
Another radar manufactured by BEL is the CWR or Cyclone Warning Radar.

GTC FUNCTION The GTC generator produces a discharging waveform which rises with GTC trigger and
discharge at a rate of 6 dB/octave.
Interrogate channel video is compared with GTC curve. The comparison gives an output only if the video is
greater than the GTC circuit.

RSLS FUNCTION The RSLS circuit compares the signals received from the two channels i.e., interrogate and
control, and gives the output if the level of the interrogate channel is higher than control channel. This
comparison is done only for a short time (RSLS stroke) started with rushed output of interrogate channel.

ECHO SUPRESSION Each reply pulse in the interrogate channel from a threshold that dies out at 3.5
dB/microsecond. This causes suppression of reflections with small levels.


The practical training aims at familiarizing the students with the working condition in a professional
firm as well as to apply their theoretical knowledge acquired in the institute into practice. This
training was helpful to me in various direct and indirect ways, like understanding of machines as well
as procedure followed in manufacturing a product. A good insight into inspection and Quality check
of products.
Through this internship, a well handled and followed way of professionalism as an engineer was
being experienced. BEL is one of the NAVRATNAS companies in India, and training in such
organization added a whole new dimension to my observation and practical approach as well as
introducing me to organizational hierarchy.



Bharat Electronics Limited