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7-3-16 [BKO] Ex: 7-3 A 4-cylinder SI engine with a cylinder displacement of 0.

5 L
and a clearance volume of 62.5 mL is running at 3000 rpm. At the beginning of the
compression process, air is at 100 kPa and 20oC. The maximum temperature during
the cycle is 1800 K. Employing the cold-air standard Otto cycle, determine (a) the

power developed (W net) by the engine, (b) the thermal efficiency (th), and (c) the MEP.
(d)What-if Scenario: What would the thermal efficiency be if the maximum
temperature were raised to 2200 K? (e) What would the thermal efficiency be if the
ideal gas model were used?

Answers: (a) 30.6 kW, (b) 58.5%, (c) 613 kPa, (d) 58.5%, (e) 53.55%

7416
[B
KS
] Ex:
75 An air

is

1500

standard Diesel cycle has a


compression ratio of 18. The heat
transferred to the working fluid per cycle
2000 kJ/kg. At the beginning of the
compression process, pressure is at 100
kPa and temperature is at 25oC.
Employing the perfect gas (PG) model
for the working fluid, determine (a) the pressure
(p) at each point in the cycle, (b) the cut-off
ratio, (c) the thermal efficiency (th), (d) the net
work per unit mass (wnet), and (e) the MEP.
(f) What-if Scenario: What would the
thermal efficiency be if the heat transfer were
kJ/kg?
Answers: (a) 5729 kPa, 487.8 kPa, (b) 3.1, (c) 58.6%, (d)
1171.5 kJ/kg, (e) 1450 kPa, (f) 60.7%

7-521 [BKA
] Ex: 76 The
Diesel
cycle described
in
Example Ex: 7-5 is modified into a

Dual cycle by breaking the heat addition process into two equal
halves so that 1000 kJ/kg of heat is added at constant volume
followed by 1000 kJ/kg of heat addition at constant pressure.
Determine (a) the temperature (T) at
each point in the cycle, (b) the thermal
efficiency (th), (c) the net work per unit
mass (wnet), and (d) the MEP. (e) What-if
Scenario: What would the thermal efficiency be if
75% of the total heat transfer took place at
constant volume?
1209

Answers: (a) T2 = 947 K, T3 = 2340 K, T4 = 3335 K, T5 =


K, (b) 67.3%, (c) 1346 kJ/kg, (d) 1667 kPa, (e)68.3%

7-5ideal

22 [BKH] Ex: 7-7 An


Stirling cycle running on a
closed system has air at
100
kPa, 300 K at the beginning
of the
isothermal compression
process. Heat supplied from
a source of 1700 K is 800 kJ/kg. Determine (a) the efficiency (th), (b) the net work
output per kg of air (wnet). Assume variable specific heats. (c) What-if Scenario: What
would the efficiency be if the argon were the working fluid?
Answers: (a) 82.3%, (b) 658.8 kJ/kg, (c) 82.3%

10-1-

37 [BKW] Ex:
10-1 An ideal

vaporcompression refrigeration

cycle uses R-12 as


the working fluid with a mass flow rate
of 0.1 kg/s. The temperature of the
atmosphere, the warm region where heat rejection from
the condenser takes place, is 25oC and that of
the refrigerated space is
-10oC. If a temperature
difference of 5oC is
maintained between the
refrigerant and the
surroundings in the
evaporator and
condenser, determine (a) the
cooling power in tons,
(b) the net power input,
and (c) the COP. (d) What-if
Scenario: What would
the answers be if the R-12
were replaced with more
environmentally friendly R-134a?
Answers: (a) 3.3 tons, (b) 2.48 kW, (c) 4.7, (d) 4.19 tons, 3.2 kW, 4.6

10-1-39 [BPO] Ex: 10-3 A

refrigerator with a cooling capacity of 5 ton uses ammonia as the


refrigerant. The condenser and evaporator

maintain a pressure of 1500


kPa and 200 kPa
respectively. The compressor
has an isentropic efficiency of
80%. If the vapor leaving the evaporator is superheated by 5oC and the liquid leaving
the condenser is supercooled by by 5oC, determine (a) the compressor power, (b) the
mass flow rate of ammonia, and (c) the COP. (d) What-if Scenario: What would the
COP be if the vapor ere superheated 10oC above the saturation temperature at the
evaporator exit?

Answers: (a) 6.26 kW, (b) 0.016 kg/s, (c) 2.81, (d) 2.78

10-1-40 [BPS] Ex: 10-5 A two-stage cascade refrigeration plant uses R-22 as the
working fluid in both the stages. The lower cycle operates between the pressure limits
of 120 kPa and 380 kPa and the topping cycle has a condenser pressure of 1200 kPa.

The heat exchanger that couples the two cycles requires a minimum temperature
difference of 5oC between the heating and the heated streams. If the mass flow rate in
the lower cycle is 0.08 kg/s, determine (a) the mass flow rate in the upper cycle, (b)
the cooling capacity, and (c) the COP. (d) What-if Scenario: What would the COP be if
a single cycle operated between 1200 kPa and 120 kPa?
Answers: (a) 0.11 kg/s, (b) 4.53 tons, (c) 2.7, (d) 2.58

10-1-41 [BPA] Ex: 10-6 A two-stage compression refrigeration plant uses R-22 as the
working fluid and operates between the pressure limits of 120 kPa and 1200 kPa with
the intermediate pressure being 380 kPa. Assuming the cycle operates ideally,
determine (a) the fraction of refrigerant that flows through the evaporator, and (b) the
COP. (c) What-if Scenario: How would the COP vary if the intermediate pressure is
varied from one extreme, 120 kPa, to another, 1200 kPa?
Answers: (a) 0.78, (b) 2.96, (c) 2.58-increase-decrease-2.5

10-2-19 [BPH] Ex: 10-7 An ideal gas refrigeration based on the reverse Brayton cycle
is used to maintain a cold region at 10oC while rejecting heat to a warm region at 40oC.
The minimum temperature difference between the working fluid, which is air, and the
cold or warm region is 5oC. Air enters the compressor, which has a compression ratio of

3, at 101 kPa with a volumetric flow rate of 100 m3/min. Using the perfect gas model,
determine (a) the cooling capacity in ton, (b) the net power input, and (c) the COP.
(d) What-if Scenario: What would the COP be if the ideal gas model were used?
Answers: (a) 27.5 ton, (b) 35.8 kW, (c) 2.71, (d) 2.72