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Performance Analysis of Wideband Sum-of-Cisoids-Based

Channel Simulators with Respect to the Bit Error Probability


of DPSK OFDM Systems
Yuanyuan Ma and Matthias Pätzold
Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Agder
P.O. Box 509, NO-4898 Grimstad, Norway
Email: {yuanyuan.ma, matthias.paetzold}@uia.no

Abstract—In this paper, we analyze the performance of a density functions (PDFs) of the absolute value of the time-
wideband sum-of-cisoids (SOC) channel simulator w.r.t. the bit variant transfer function and the temporal-frequency correla-
error probability (BEP) of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) tion function (CF) of both channel models. Next, we derive the
orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems.
Analytical BEP expressions are derived for coherent and non- BEP expressions for the OFDM systems using coherent and
coherent DPSK OFDM simulation systems in the presence of a noncoherent DPSK schemes. For the coherent DPSK OFDM
wideband SOC channel simulator. We also study the degradations system, we demonstrate that the BEP of the simulation system
of the BEP introduced by an imperfect channel simulator. approaches to the reference BEP if the number of cisoids in
Using the deviation of the BEP as an appropriate measure, the SOC channel simulator tends to infinity. Based on the
we evaluate the performance of three parameter computation
methods, known as the method of exact Doppler spread (MEDS), analytical BEP results, we discuss the deviation between the
the randomized MEDS (R-MEDS), and the Monte Carlo method reference BEP and the BEP of the simulation system. Then,
(MCM). For coherent DPSK OFDM systems, it turns out that we compare the performance of three parameter computation
these three methods are equivalent. For noncoherent DPSK methods: the MEDS, the R-MEDS, and the MCM. We assume
OFDM systems, it is theoretically shown that both the MEDS isotropic scattering conditions here. However, it should be
and the R-MEDS outperform the MCM. The correctness of all
theoretical results are validated by simulations. mentioned that the obtained BEP expressions are general and
also applicable to non-isotropic scattering conditions.
I. I NTRODUCTION The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section II,
we first give a brief review of the frequency-selective ref-
Rice’s sum-of-sinusoids (SOS) principle has been accepted erence channel model and the corresponding SOC channel
as a proper method for modeling mobile fading channels [1]– simulator. Then, we study the statistical properties of both
[3]. By applying the SOS principle combined with the concept channel models. Section III provides an analysis of the BEP
of deterministic channel modeling [3], accurate and efficient performance of coherent DPSK OFDM systems. In Section IV,
SOS channel simulators can be easily designed for all kinds we concentrate on the noncoherent DPSK OFDM system
of channel models that can be derived from Gaussian random performance analysis. Finally, the conclusions are given in
processes. Such channel simulators have been commonly used Section VI.
in system simulations due to their low realization expenditure.
In recent years, the performance analysis of SOS channel II. F REQUENCY-S ELECTIVE C HANNEL M ODELS
simulators has been an important research subject. In [4], the In this section, a wide-sense stationary uncorrelated scatter-
performance of narrowband SOS channel simulators w.r.t. the ing (WSSUS) model [3], [7] is employed as an appropriate
BEP has been investigated. frequency-selective reference channel from which the SOC
The SOS method has been extensively employed in model- channel simulator is derived.
ing flat fading channels [3], frequency-selective channels [3],
and even wideband multiple-input multiple-output channels A. The Frequency-Selective Reference Channel Model
[5]. However, it has been shown in [6] that the SOS principle is The time-variant transfer function of the wideband reference
of advantage for developing mobile radio channels in isotropic channel model can be formulated as [3]
scattering environments, while in case of non-isotropic scat- L
 
τ
tering environments, the SOC method is more efficient. So far, H(f  , t) = a μ (t)e−j2πf , (1)
the performance of SOC channel simulators w.r.t. the BEP has =1
not been studied. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap. where L denotes the number of discrete propagation paths. The
In this paper, we study the performance of a DPSK OFDM quantities a and τ describe the path gain and the propagation
system in the presence of a stochastic wideband SOC chan- delay of the  th discrete propagation path, respectively. The
nel simulator w.r.t. the BEP of the simulation system. For symbol μ (t) in (1) represents a complexrandom Gaussian
L
comparison, we present the BEP of a DPSK OFDM system process. It is supposed that the constraint =1 a2 = 1 holds
using a reference channel model, which is known as the to ensure that the average power of the channel model is
reference BEP. As a starting point, we study the probability normalized to unity. We assume that the real and imaginary

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parts of μ (t) in (1) are uncorrelated Gaussian processes with 2) R-MEDS: Performing the modification on the R-MEDS
zero-mean and the same variance σ02 = 1/2. [12] results in the following equations
Let rHH (v  , τ ) = E{H ∗ (f  , t)H(f  + v  , t + τ )} be  
cn, = σ0 N2 , fn, = fmax cos N 2π
(n − 14 ) + αn, , (7a,b)
the temporal-frequency CF of H(f  , t). According to [8], 

rHH (v  , τ ) can be expressed in closed-form as where the quantities αn, are i.i.d. random variables with a
π
L
 uniform distribution over (− 2N , π ].
 2N
 
rHH (v  , τ ) = a2 rμ μ (τ )e−j2πv τ , (2) 3) MCM [13]: The application of the MCM allows us to
=1 compute the parameters cn, and fn, according to

where rμ μ (τ ) denotes the temporal autocorrelation function
cn, = σ0 N2 , fn, = fmax sin(2πun, ) , (8a,b)
(ACF) of the Gaussian process μ (t). If we consider isotropic
scattering conditions, the temporal ACF can be written as where un, are i.i.d. random variables uniformly distributed
rμ μ (τ ) = 2σ02 J0 (2πfmax τ ), (3) over the interval (0, 1].
To guarantee the uncorrelated scattering (US) condition,
where J(·) represents the zeroth-order Bessel function of the the processes μ̂ (t) must be uncorrelated for different paths,
first kind and fmax is the maximum Doppler frequency. i.e., for different values of . For the MEDS, the almost
According to (1), the real part and the imaginary part of uncorrelatedness of the processes μ̂ (t) can be ensured by the
H(f  , t) are statistically independent Gaussian processes, each convention N = N +  − 1, where N denotes the number
having the variance σ02 . Let us denote the envelope of the time- of cisoids used in the first process μ̂1 (t). Since the Doppler
variant transfer function H(f  , t) at a specific carrier frequency frequencies generated by the R-MEDS and the MCM are
f  = f0 as ζ(t) = |H(f0 , t)|. The PDF of the envelope ζ(t) random variables, the uncorrelatedness is guaranteed even by
can be described by the Rayleigh distribution [9] using the same number of cisoids for different paths. In this

⎨ r − 2σ r2 paper, we assume that the number of cisoids belonging to
2
pζ (r) = 2
σ0
e 0 , r ≥ 0, (4) different processes equals to N if the R-MEDS or the MCM

0, r < 0. is applied.
Similar to (1), we can express the time-variant transfer
B. Frequency-Selective SOC Channel Simulator function Ĥ(f  , t) of the stochastic SOC channel simulator as
L

In this subsection, we design a frequency-selective channel 
τ
simulator by making use of the SOC principle. Ĥ(f  , t) = a μ̂ (t)e−j2πf , (9)
=1
In the reference model described by (1), we replace the
Gaussian processes μ (t) by stochastic complex processes which can be interpreted as a family of sample functions
μ̂ (t) ( = 1, 2, . . . , L), which can be represented by a sum depending on the parameters θn, . If all phases θn, are fixed,
of N cisoids as follows [6] the stochastic process μ̂ (t) in (5) becomes a deterministic
N one. Hence, we obtain a single realization of Ĥ(f  , t), which

μ̂ (t) = cn, ej(2πfn, t+θn, ) , (5) is also deterministic and can be used in simulations.
n=1 The mathematical description of the channel simulator al-
where cn, , fn, , and θn, represent the Doppler coefficient, lows us to study the temporal-frequency CF of the channel
the Doppler frequency, and the Doppler phase of the  th path, simulator. Due to the US condition, the temporal-frequency
respectively. According to (5), the real part and the imaginary CF r̂HH (v  , τ ) = E{Ĥ ∗ (f  , t)Ĥ(f  +v  , t+τ )} is given by [3]
part of μ̂ (t) are correlated. However, such a correlation can L
  
be neglected under isotropic scattering conditions [6]. r̂HH (v  , τ ) = a2 r̂μ μ (τ )e−j2πv τ , (10)
The Doppler phases θn, are independent and identically =1
N 2 j2πfn, τ
distributed (i.i.d.) random variables, each having a uniform where r̂μ μ (τ ) = n=1 cn, e describes the temporal
distribution over [0, 2π). The Doppler coefficients cn, and ACF of the stochastic process μ̂ (t) [6].
the Doppler frequencies fn, are constant, which can be deter- The PDF p̂ζ (r) of the envelope ζ̂(t) =| Ĥ(f0 , t) | can be
mined in such a way that the statistical properties of μ̂ (t) are calculated similarly to [6]. According to Appendix A, we have
as close as possible to those of the Gaussian random processes

L N

μ (t). In this paper, three parameter computation methods
p̂ζ (r) = (2π)2 r J0 (2πa cn, y) J0 (2πry)ydy. (11)
will be applied for computing the primary model parameters.
0 =1 n=1
Since most of the parameter design methods proposed for SOS
models cannot directly be adopted to the SOC model, they The envelope PDF pζ (r) of the reference channel model as
need to be modified [10]. well as the envelope PDF p̂ζ (r) of the SOC channel simulator
1) MEDS [11]: The parameters cn, and fn, can be designed by the MEDS with L = 6 and N = 6 is depicted
determined by the MEDS as follows in Fig. 1. A good correspondence between the envelope PDFs
  of the reference model and that of the corresponding channel
cn, = σ0 N2 , fn, = fmax sin N 2π

(n − 1
4 ) . (6a,b) simulator can be observed. This figure shows also the simu-

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0
lation results of the PDF of ζ̂(t) =| Ĥ(f0 , t)| obtained from 10
Pb (Theory, eq. (12))

the simulation of Ĥ(f  , t) given by (9) and averaging over 50 P̂b (Theory, eq. (15)), MEDS, R-MEDS, MCM

Bit error probability


trials. Moreover, we prove in Appendix B that p̂ζ (r) → pζ (r) 10
−1 P̂b (Simulation), MEDS

for N → ∞. P̂b (Simulation), R-MEDS


P̂b (Simulation), MCM
−2
III. P ERFORMANCE OF THE SOC C HANNEL S IMULATOR 10
L=6
IN C OHERENT DPSK OFDM S YSTEMS N =6
−3
Section III analyzes the performance of the wideband SOC 10
channel simulator in a coherent DPSK OFDM system.
For the reference channel model, it is shown in Section II −4
10
that the absolute value of the time-variant transfer function 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
follows the Rayleigh distribution. Therefore, the reference Eb /N0 (dB)
BEP is given by [9] Fig. 2. Coherent DPSK OFDM system performance using the reference
1 model and the SOC channel simulators designed with the MEDS, the R-
Pb = , (12) MEDS, and the MCM.
2(1 + γ b )
where γ b = 2σ02 Eb /N0 is the average signal-to-noise ratio. In all simulations, we use the 6-path channel model with
The BEP of the simulation system P̂b can be calculated by the propagation delays τ ∈ {0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500} μs
the relation ( = 1, 2, . . . , L). The powers assigned to the 6 different paths

∞ equal to {0, −4, −8, −12, −16, −20} dB. We consider the
P̂b = Pb|r (r)p̂ζ (r)dr, (13) DPSK OFDM system consisting of K = 128 subcarriers with
a sampling duration of T = 100 μs.
0
We also prove in Appendix C that P̂b → Pb holds as N →
where 1 −r2 NEb
∞. However, the deviation of the BEP between P̂b and Pb
Pb|r (r) =
e 0 , (14)
2 cannot be ignored if the number of cisoids is small. Here, we
is the conditional BEP of the coherent DPSK system [9]. introduce the relative error of the BEP P̂b
If we substitute (11) and (14) in (13), we obtain the P̂b − Pb
following analytical expression for the BEP of the DPSK εBEP = (16)
Pb
OFDM system using the SOC channel simulator to evaluate the BEP deviation in terms of N .

∞ L N
π2 2 y2
− Eπ /N
 The influence of the number of cisoids N on the relative
P̂b = e b 0 J0 (2πa cn, y) y dy. (15) error is illustrated in Fig. 3. From this figure, we can conclude
Eb /N0
0 n=1 =1 that the absolute value of the relative error |εBEP | is less than
The derivation of the BEP P̂b can be found in Appendix C. 4.327% if N ≥ 5.
Note that the BEP P̂b is independent of the Doppler frequen- IV. P ERFORMANCE OF THE SOC C HANNEL S IMULATOR IN
cies fn, . The channel simulators designed with the MEDS, N ONCOHERENT DPSK OFDM S YSTEMS
the R-MEDS, and the MCM are equivalent w.r.t. the BEP, According to [14, pp. 193], the BEP of noncoherent DPSK
since the Doppler coefficients cn, calculated by these three in Rayleigh fading is given by
methods are the same. ⎡ ⎤
The BEP Pb computed according to (12) is presented in 1⎣ rhh (T ) ⎦
Pb = 1− , (17)
Fig. 2. This figure also illustrates the BEP performance of the 2 1 + γ1
b
coherent DPSK OFDM system using different SOC channel
simulators designed with the MEDS, the R-MEDS, and the where rhh(T ) denotes the value of the temporal ACF
L
MCM. The theoretical results are validated by simulations. rhh (τ ) = =1 a2 rμ μ (τ ) of the channel impulse response
0
0.7
pζ (r) (Theory, eq. (4))
Relative error εBEP (%)

0.6 p̂ζ (r) (Theory, eq. (11))


−2 N =8
0.5 p̂ζ (r) (Simulation)
PDF, pζ (r)

N =6
0.4 L=6
N =6 −4 N =5
0.3 N =4
0.2 −6
0.1 N =3

0 −8
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
r Eb /N0 (dB)
Fig. 1. Probability density function pζ (r) of the absolute value of the time- Fig. 3. Evaluation of the relative error of the BEP εBEP for the coherent
variant transfer function ζ(t) =|H(f0 , t)|. DPSK OFDM system for various values of the number of cisoids N .

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at τ = T . Different from [14], the channel response in this reference channel model and forNthe SOC channel simulator,
paper is described by a time-variant transfer function. Thus, we we obtain r̂¨μ μ (0) = −(2π)2 n=1

(cn, fn, ).
can express the BEP of a noncoherent DPSK OFDM system By making use of (2), (10), and (22), we can rewrite the
by replacing rhh (T ) in (17) with the temporal-frequency CF temporal-frequency CF r̂HH (fs , T ) in (10) as follows
rHH (v  , τ ) at v  = fs and τ = T , i.e., N
⎡ ⎤ T 2 

r̂HH (fs , T ) ≈ rHH (fs , T ) − a2 β e−j2πfs τ . (23)
1⎣ rHH (fs , T ) ⎦ 2 n=1 
Pb = 1− . (18)
2 1 + γ1 Putting (23) into (20) and taking the relation (19) into consid-
b
eration, the BEP P̂b can be expressed in closed-form as
Here fs = 1/(KT ) is the subcarrier spacing. Substituting
rHH (v  , τ ) given by (2) in (18), we have P̂b = Pb + Pb , (24)
⎡ ⎤
L
2 −j2πfs τ where
2σ 2
(2πf )  2 L
1⎢ ⎥
J
0 0 max T a e  2
⎢ ⎥ T 
Pb = ⎢1 − =1
⎥ . (19) a β e−j2πfs τ
2⎣ 1 + γ1 ⎦ 2 =1
b Pb = . (25)
1 + γ1
b

Assuming that the PDF p̂ζ (r) is close to the PDF pζ (r) of By making use of (25), we can express the relative error of
the reference channel model, the BEP of the simulation system the BEP as follows
L
P̂b for the DPSK OFDM system employing the wideband SOC T2  2 
channel simulator is similar to the expression in (18). We only a β e−j2πfs τ
2
need to replace rHH (fs , T ) in (18) by r̂HH (v  , τ ) at v  = fs εBEP = =1
. (26)
and τ = T [see eq. (10)]. Thus, we finally obtain 
L

⎡ ⎤ 1 + γ1 − 2σ02 J0 (2πfmax T ) a2 e−j2πfs τ
b
L
2 −j2πfs τ
N
2 j2πfn, T
=1

1⎢ ⎥
a e cn, e Since the model error β = 0 if the MEDS is applied [3],
⎢ n=1 ⎥
P̂b ≈ ⎢1 − =1 ⎥ . (20) it follows that the relative error εBEP = 0. Thus, we can say
2⎣ 1 + γ1 ⎦
b that the SOC channel simulator designed with the MEDS is
equivalent to the reference channel model in terms of the BEP.
Using the relative error εBEP in (16) as a criterion, we can The analytical results for the BEP Pb and P̂b are depicted in
now evaluate the performance of the MEDS, the R-MEDS, Fig. 4 for different maximum Doppler frequencies. This figure
and the MCM. In this paper, the inequality fn, T  1 holds. also shows the relevant simulation results, which match the
x
According to the approximation e ≈ 1 + x + x2 /2 (x  analytical results very well. All parameters are identical to the
N
1), the temporal ACF r̂μ μ (T ) = n=1 c2n, ej2πfn, T can be parameters used in Section III.
approximated as follows When designing the SOC channel simulator by the R-
N MEDS, we find the expected value E {β } of the model er-

r̂μ μ (T ) ≈ c2n, [1 + j2πfn, T − 2(πfn, T )2 ] ror β equals to 0 and the variance Var {β } is β2 /(4N2 ).
n=1
For the MCM, the model error β is approximately normally
T2 ¨ distributed, i.e., β ∼ N (0, β2 /(2N )) [3]. The BEP perfor-
= r̂μ μ (0) + T r̂˙μ μ (0) + r̂μ μ (0). (21) mances of the noncoherent DPSK OFDM system using the
2  
channel simulator designed with the R-MEDS and the MCM
Here, r̂˙μ μ (·) and r̂¨μ μ (·) denote the derivative and the are shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 (4 realizations of the BEP P̂b
second derivative of r̂μ μ (·), respectively. without averaging), respectively. For comparison, we replot in
For the special case, where the power spectral density (PSD) 0
10
is symmetrical, the value for the imaginary part of r̂μ μ (T ) Pb (Theory, eq. (19))
is zero. Since the power constraint r̂μ μ (0) = rμ μ (0) holds P̂b (Theory, eq. (20))
Bit error probability

for all the three methods mentioned above, we make a further −1 P̂b (Simulation)
10
simplification concerning (21) [4]
T2 ¨ N =8
r̂μ μ (T ) ≈ r̂μ μ (0) +
r̂μ μ (0)
2   −2
T2 T2 10 fmax · T = 0.05
= rμ μ (0) + r̈μ μ (0) − β
2 2
T2
= rμ μ (T ) − β . (22) fmax · T = 0.01
2 −3
10
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
In the preceding equation, β = r̈μ μ (0) − r̂¨μ μ (0) repre- Eb /N0 (dB)
sents the model error of the SOC channel simulator. For the Fig. 4. Noncoherent DPSK OFDM system performance using the reference
Jakes PSD, we have β = −r̈μ μ (0) = (2πσ0 fmax )2 for the model and the SOC channel simulator designed with the MEDS.

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these two figures the BEP Pb computed according to (19). realization expenditure to a lower bound without causing any
From these figures, it can be seen that the single realization obvious BEP distortion. We have compared the best determin-
of the BEP, denoted by P̃b , deviates from Pb in a random istic parameter design method (MEDS), the best stochastic one
manner. The reason is that the R-MEDS and the MCM are typ- (R-MEDS), and the MCM by employing the relative error of
ical stochastic parameter design methods. Different from the the BEP as an appropriate criterion.
MEDS, the discrete Doppler frequencies generated by these For coherent DPSK OFDM systems, it is shown by theory
two methods are random variables. It can be observed that and confirmed by simulations that the SOC channel simulators
the BEP degrades if the maximum Doppler frequency fmax designed by the MEDS, the R-MEDS, and the MCM are
changes from 100 Hz to 500 Hz. The approximation P̃b ≈ Pb equivalent w.r.t. the BEP performance. When the number of
is good when using the R-MEDS. However, comparing Fig. 5 cisoids tends to infinity, it has been proved that the BEP of the
and Fig. 6, we find that the deviation between P̃b and Pb in simulation system in the presence of a wideband SOC channel
Fig. 6 is large and cannot be neglected. The reason for this simulator converges to the reference BEP. The relative error of
observation is that the variance of the model error using the the BEP can be neglected if the channel simulator is designed
MCM is larger than that of using the R-MEDS. Therefore, using not less than 5 cisoids. For noncoherent DPSK OFDM
averaging over the BEP P̃b obtained from different realizations systems, a closed-form expression has been derived for the
is unavoidable if the MCM is used. relative error, which provides a powerful tool when discussing
the performance of different parameter computation methods.
V. C ONCLUSION From our results, we can conclude that the performance of
In this paper, the performance of the frequency-selective the MEDS and the R-MEDS is almost the same w.r.t. the
reference channel model and the corresponding SOC channel relative error of the BEP. However, both methods outperform
simulator have been analyzed w.r.t. the BEP of DPSK OFDM the MCM.
systems. Analytical expressions for the BEP have been derived A PPENDIX A
for both the coherent and noncoherent DPSK OFDM systems. D ERIVATION OF THE ENVELOPE PDF p̂ζ (r)
From the derivations of the BEP, the relative error of the This appendix is devoted to the derivation of the PDF of
BEP has been studied, which allows to reduce the channel the envelope ζ̂(t) =| Ĥ(f0 , t)|. Suppose that Ĥ1, (f0 , t) and
0
10
Pb (Theory, eq. (19)) Ĥ2, (f0 , t) represent the real part and the imaginary part of
 

P̃b (Theory)
the th component a μ̂ (t)e−j2πf0 τ of H(f0 , t), respectively.
·
Bit error probability

P̃b (Simulation)
For fixed values of t = t0 , the joint characteristic function
−1
10 Ψ̂H1, H2, (ν1 , ν2 ) of Ĥ1, (f0 , t0 ) and Ĥ2, (f0 , t0 ) can be ex-
N =8 pressed by the relation [6]
N

−2 Ψ̂H1, H2, (ν1 , ν2 ) = J0 (2πa cn, ν12 + ν22 ). (A.1)
10 fmax · T = 0.05
n=1
We denote the real and imaginary parts of H(f  , t) by
−3 fmax · T = 0.01 H1 (f  , t) and H2 (f  , t), respectively. As mentioned before,
10 the Doppler phases θn are i.i.d. random variables, which
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Eb /N0 (dB) leads to the fact that the terms Ĥi (f0 , t0 ) = Ĥi,1 (f0 , t0 ) +
Fig. 5. Noncoherent DPSK OFDM system performance using the reference Ĥi,2 (f0 , t0 ) + · · · + Ĥi,L (f0 , t0 ) are also i.i.d. random vari-
model and the SOC channel simulator designed with the R-MEDS (P̃b : ables (i = 1, 2). Thus, the joint characteristic function
realizations of P̂b in (20)).
0 Ψ̂H1 H2 (ν1 , ν2 ) of Ĥ1 (f0 , t0 ) and Ĥ2 (f0 , t0 ) can be formulated
10
Pb (Theory, eq. (19)) as the L-fold product of the joint characteristic functions
P̃b (Theory) Ψ̂H1, H2, (ν1 , ν2 ), i.e.,
·
Bit error probability

L N
P̃b (Simulation) 
−1
10 Ψ̂H1 H2 (ν1 , ν2 ) = J0 (2πa cn, ν12 + ν22 ). (A.2)
N =8 =1 n=1
Then, the joint PDF p̂H1 H2 (x1 , x2 ) is given by the inverse
−2
10
Fourier transform of Ψ̂H1, H2, (ν1 , ν2 ) [15, eq. (3.397-1,2)]
fmax · T = 0.05


p̂H1 H2 (x1 , x2 ) = Ψ̂H1 H2 (ν1 , ν2 )ej2π(ν1 x1 +ν2 x2 ) dν1 dν2
−3 fmax · T = 0.01 −∞
10
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
∞ N
L

Eb /N0 (dB)
= 2π J0 (2πa cn, y)
Fig. 6. Noncoherent DPSK OFDM system performance using the refer- =1 n=1
ence model and the SOC channel simulator designed with the MCM (P̃b : 0

realizations of P̂b in (20)). · J0 (2πy x21 + x22 ) y dy. (A.3)

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The transformation of the Cartesian coordinates (x1 , x2 ) into After some calculations, we finally obtain
polar coordinates (r, θ) with x1 = r cos θ and x2 = r sin θ
∞ L N
π2 2 y2
− Eπ /N

allows us to calculate the joint PDF p̂ζϑ (r, θ) of the envelope P̂b = e b 0 J0 (2πa cn, y) y dy. (C.3)
ζ̂(t) = | Ĥ(f0 , t) | and the phase ϑ̂(t) = arg{Ĥ(f0 , t)} as Eb /N0 n=1 =1
0
follows
Next, we prove that P̂b → Pb holds if N → ∞. If we
p̂ζϑ (r, θ) = r p̂H1 H2 (r cos θ, r sin θ) (A.4)
substitute the result in (B.2) into the right-hand side of (B.3),

∞ L N

we obtain
= 2πr J0 (2πa cn, y) · J0 (2πry) y dy,

=1 n=1 π2 2 2
− π y 2
0 P̂b = e Eb /N0 e−2(πσ0 y) y dy
for z ≥ 0 and | θ |≤ π. Integrating the joint PDF p̂ζϑ (r, θ) Eb /N0
0
over θ results in 1

∞ N
L
= Eb
2
2(1 + 2σ02 N )
p̂ζ (r) = (2π) r J0 (2πa cn, y) · J0 (2πry) y dy. 0
1
0 =1 n=1 = (C.4)
2(1 + γ b )
(A.5)
as N → ∞.
A PPENDIX B
P ROOF OF p̂ζ (r) → pζ (r) H OLDS I F N → ∞ R EFERENCES
In the following, we prove that the envelope PDF p̂ζ (r) [1] S. O. Rice, “Mathematical analysis of random noise,” Bell Syst. Tech.
of the SOC channel simulator converges to the Rayleigh J., vol. 23, pp. 282–332, Jul. 1944.
[2] ——, “Mathematical analysis of random noise,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.,
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N [3] M. Pätzold, Mobile Fading Channels. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons,
2 2002.
lim J0 (2πa cn, y) = e−2(πa σ0 y) . (B.1) [4] M. Pätzold and F. Laue, “The performance of deterministic Rayleigh
N →∞
n=1 fading channel simulators with respect to the bit error probability,” in
By Proc. 51th Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2000-Spring. Tokyo,
L using
2
the result in (B.1) and considering the relation
Japan, May 2000, pp. 1998–2003.
a
=1  = 1, we obtain [5] Y. Ma and M. Pätzold, “Wideband two-ring MIMO channel models
N
L 
L for mobile-to-mobile communications,” in Proc. 10th International
−2(πσ0 y)2 a2 2 Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, WPMC
J0 (2πa cn, y) = e =1 = e−2(πσ0 y) (B.2) 2007. Jaipur, India, Dec. 2007, pp. 380–384.
=1 n=1 [6] M. Pätzold and B. Talha, “On the statistical properties of sum-of-
cisoids-based mobile radio channel models,” in Proc. 10th International
as N → ∞. Thus, in the limit N → ∞, the envelope PDF Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, WPMC
p̂ζ (r) in (A.5) tends to 2007. Jaipur, India, Dec. 2007, pp. 394–400.

∞ [7] P. A. Bello, “Characterization of randomly time-variant linear channels,”
2
p̂ζ (r) = (2π)2 r e−2(πyσ0 ) · J0 (2πry) y dy
IEEE Trans. Commun. Syst., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 360–393, Dec. 1963.
[8] M. Pätzold, “System function and characteristic quantities of spatial
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0
Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2003-Spring. Jeju, Korea, Apr.
r2
r −
2σ02
2003, pp. 256–261.
=e , r ≥ 0, (B.3) [9] J. Proakis and S. Massoud, Digital Communications. New York:
σ02 McGraw-Hill, 5th edition, 2007.
which is known as the Rayleigh distribution. [10] C. A. Gutiérrez and M. Pätzold, “Sum-of-sinusoids-based simulation of
flat fading wireless propagation channels under non-isotropic scattering
A PPENDIX C conditions,” in Proc. 50th IEEE Global Communication Conference,
GLOBECOM 2007. Washington, D.C., USA, Nov. 2007, pp. 3842–
D ERIVATION OF THE BEP P̂b 3846.
Putting (11) and (14) into (13) results in the following [11] M. Pätzold and C. A. Gutiérrez, “Level-crossing rate and average
duration of fades of the envelope of a sum-of-cisoids,” in Proc. 67th
twofold integral for the BEP IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC2008-Spring. Singapore,


∞ May 2008, pp. 488–494.
2 Eb
P̂b =2π 2
re−r N0 J0 (2πry)dr [12] Y. R. Zheng and C. Xiao, “Simulation models with correct statistical
properties for Rayleigh fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51,
0 0 no. 6, pp. 920–928, Jun. 2003.
N
L
[13] P. Höher, “A statistical discrete-time model for the WSSUS multipath
channel,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. VT–41, no. 4, pp. 461–468,
· J0 (2πa cn, y) ydy. (C.1) Nov. 1992.
=1 n=1 [14] A. Goldsmith, Wireless Communications. Cambridge University Press,
The integral over r can be solved by using the relation [15, 2005.
[15] I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Tables of Integrals, Series, and
eq. (6.631.4)] Products. Academic Press, 6th edition, 2000.

∞ β2
−αr 2 e− 4α
re J0 (βr)dr = , Re{α} > 0, β > 0. (C.2)

0

6
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