Anda di halaman 1dari 5

Arrival of the aeroplane

How did designers attain


success with the heavier
than air flying machines
they let their attention
dwell on true masters of
flight-birds.In the year
1889 engineer of Germany
Otto Lilienthal, infused
by the flight 'habits of
storks, published about'
Bird Flight as the Basis
of Aviation. Just in two
years he built his first
simple 'glider'. In 1896
after about 2,000 glider
flights, otto Lilienthal
was killed, while trying
with a monoplane. Octave
Chanute, the French-born
American engineer really
elaborated on Lilienthal
design thus he developed
a glider with two wings,
that again represented a
significant progress, in
the design of a heavier-
than-air flying machine.
Wright brothers entered.
The brothers Orville and
Wilbur Wright, began the
first gliding experiment
in 1900. Wright brothers
worked slowly and neatly
over three years, making
repeated flight tests at
K. Hawk, north Carolina.
New designs developed by
them with the aid of air
tunnels, first flight of
which was made for their
own use from the laundry
starch box. First, power
flight was built by them
on their own 4 cylinder,
12-horsepower engine and
mounted it, on the lower
wing of a new plane. The
engine, thus powered two
wooden propellers one on
each side of the plane's
rear rudder. On December
14, 1903 wright brothers
new invention rose above
it's wooden launch track
for the very first time!
And it stayed aloft, for
three and a half seconds
wrights flew the machine
once again after 3 days.
finally, it remained air
-borne for nearly a full
minute and also covering
a distance of 853 feet'.
The plane was a success.
its a Surprise that this
landmark accomplishment,
was given less attention
by the rest of the world
The world in general was
skeptical of aviation in
early years. However the
aviation technology, has
advanced very quickly in
the years after Wrights'
first flights. In a span
of five years the Wright
brothers had built a two
-person biplane that can
speed along at 44 miles,
[71 km] per hour and can
climb to the altitude of
140 feet [43 m]. In 1911
the first united states,
transcontinental airship
crossing was made; Short
journey from New York to
California took about 49
days! During World War I
the aircraft speeds were
pushed from 60 miles per
hour[100 kph]to over 145
miles per hour[230 kph].
Altitude records went up
soon to 30,000 feet. The
aviation records went on
and on to grab headlines
in the 1920's. The first
nonstop flight, from one
end to the other end, of
United states of america
was made by two american
army officers. They made
their journey from coast
to coast in less than 27
hours in 1923. Just four
years later, Charles A.,
Lindbergh gained instant
fame by a nonstop flight
from NewYork to Paris in
33 hours and 20 minutes.
Meanwhile, the fledgling
commercial airlines were
starting to attract many
customers. By the end of
1939, the air travel had
caught to the point that
U.S. airlines was at the
service of approximately
three million passengers
annually. Airliner known
as the standard airliner
of the late 1930's, the-
DC-3 carried just twenty
one passengers at cruise
speed of 170 miles /hour
[270 kph]; but after the
World War II, commercial
airplanes grew so larger
and very, very powerful,
achieving cruising speed
of over 300 miles /hour.
Then British introduced,
the commercial- turbojet
service in 1952. And the
jumbo jets, known as the
400-seat Boeing 747 made
their debut in 1970. And
another breakthrough was
in 1976. The British and
French team of engineers
introduced the Concorde,
a delta-winged- jetliner
capable of carrying, 100
passengers at double the
speed of sound-more than
1400 miles per hour. But
the steep operating cost
limits widespread use of
commercial, 'supersonic'
planes. Even if you have
never flown in airplane,
your life must have been
patterned by these rapid
-technological advances.
Operations of airfreight
span the globe; also the
food we eat, the clothes
we wear, the machines we
use at work and at home,
has flown in from across
the ocean or a continent
Letters and packages are
whisked, from country to
country through airmail.
Businesses rely heavily,
on air courier services,
to lead their day to day
transaction. These goods
and their quick services
that available to us and
the price we pay to them
have all been influenced
by man's ability to fly.
Aviation has brought the
profound social changes.
Without doubt, the world
has shrunk. Within a few
hours, you can be almost
anywhere in the world-if
you can pay for it. News
too travels fast, and so
do people. But such fast
progress is, at a price.
With the increase of air
traffic, some are afraid
of the sky becoming more
dangerous. Almost, every
year crashes involve the
private, commercial, air
planes, that engulf many
lives. Under competitive
pressures, many airlines
are forgoing, additional
safety margins that they
constantly maintained at
the time they could pass
extra cost on customers.
Additionally, increasing
number of environmental,
researchers, are alarmed
by enormous increases in
air and noise pollution,
that result from heavier
jet traffic. Dealing the
matter with related over
noise problems is "among
the more divisive issues
in world civil aviation"
said the Aviation Week &
Space' Technology. These
problems, are compounded
by the fact that the air
fleets are getting older
In 1990, 1 of every four
U.S. airliners was found
to be more than 20 years
old, and a third of them
had been used beyond the
limits that are fixed by
the manufacturer. Hence,
the aeronautic engineers
are facing extraordinary
challenge. The engineers
must develop a safer and
less expensive method to
carry more passengers as
the cost price, escalate
and environment concerns
increase. Some solutions
in cutting down the cost
has already begun. Hence
Jim Erickson, writing in
'Asiaweek' explains that
the Franco-British, team
Aerospatiale and British
Aerospace has planned to
develop a aeroplane that
can carry, three hundred
passengers, at twice the
speed of sound for sure.
How did designers attain
success with the heavier
than air flying machines
they let their attention
dwell on true masters of
flight-birds.In the year
1889 engineer of Germany
Otto Lilienthal, infused
by the flight' habits of
storks, published about'
Bird Flight as the Basis
of Aviation. Just in two
years he built his first
simple 'glider'. In 1896
after about 2,000 glider
flights, otto Lilienthal
was killed, while trying
with a monoplane. Octave
Chanute, the French-born
American engineer really
elaborated on Lilienthal
design thus he developed
a glider with two wings,
that again represented a
significant progress, in
the design of a heavier-
than-air flying machine.
Wright brothers entered.
The brothers Orville and
Wilbur Wright, began the
first gliding experiment
in 1900. Wright brothers
worked slowly and neatly
over three years, making
repeated flight tests at
K. Hawk, north Carolina.
New designs developed by
them with the aid of air
tunnels, first flight of
which was made for their
own use from the laundry
starch box. First, power
flight was built by them
on their own 4 cylinder,
12-horsepower engine and
mounted it, on the lower
wing of a new plane. The
engine, thus powered two
wooden propellers one on
each side of the plane's
rear rudder. On December
14, 1903 wright brothers
new invention rose above
it's wooden launch track
for the very first time!
And it stayed aloft, for
three and a half seconds
wrights flew the machine
once again after 3 days.