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Digestion of carbohydrates in the mouth

Starch will be metabolized in the mouth

by the salivary -amylase.
Salivary -amylase will act specifically on
the -1,4 glycosidic band, hydrolyzing it.
The reaction will be partial hydrolysis
and starch will be turned into -dextrin.

The digestion of the disaccharides

lactose and sucrose, as well as further
digestion of maltose, maltotriose and
limit dextrins, occurs through
disaccharidases attached to the
membrane surface of the brush border
(microvilli) of intestinal epithelial cells.

Digestion of carbohydrates in the

Salivary -amylase is inactivated by the
acidity of the
stomach (HCl).

> Glucoamylase hydrolyzes the -1,4

bonds of dextrins

Digestion of carbohydrates in the

The -dextrin will be acted upon by the
pancreatic - amylase, secreted by the
exocrine pancreas. It will be broken
down into the disaccharides (maltose),
trisaccharides (maltotriose), and
oligosaccharides called limit dextrin
(oligosaccharide containing four to nine
glucosyl residue and an isomaltose

> Sucraseisomaltase complex

hydrolyzes sucrose, most of maltose,
and almost all of the isomaltose formed
by glucoamylase from limit dextrins
> Lactase-glycosylceramidase (glycosidase) hydrolyzes the -glycosidic
bonds in lactose and glycolipids
> Trehalase hydrolyzes the bond (an 1,1 glycosidic bond) between two
glucosyl units in the sugar trehalose
The monosaccharides produced by
these hydrolases (glucose, fructose, and
galactose) are then transported into the
intestinal epithelial cells.

Absorption by the Intestinal Epithelium
> Brush border of the small intestine
> Monosaccharides require transporters
in order to be transported across the
intestinal epithelial cells.
Na+-Dependent Transporters (SGLT)
> Na+-dependent glucose transporters,
which are located on the luminal side of
the absorptive cells, enable these cells to
concentrate glucose from the intestinal
low intracellular Na+ concentration is
maintained by a Na+K+-ATPase on the
serosal (blood) side of the cell that uses
the energy from ATP cleavage to pump
Na+ out of the cell into the blood
transport of glucose from a low
concentration in the lumen to a high
concentration in the cell is promoted by
the co-transport of Na+ from a high
concentration in the lumen to a low
concentration in the cell (secondary
active transport)
Facilitative Glucose Transporters

> Facilitative glucose transporters, which

do not bind Na+, are located on the
serosal side of the cells.
> Glucose moves via the facilitative
transporters from the high concentration
inside the cell to the lower concentration
in the blood WITHOUT the expenditure
of energy
> In addition to the Na+-dependent
glucose transporters, facilitative
transporters for glucose also exist on the
luminal side of the absorptive cells.

Galactose And Fructose Absorption

Through Glucose Transporters

> same mechanisms as glucose.

It enters the absorptive cells on the
luminal side via the Na+-dependent
glucose transporters and facilitative
glucose transporters and is transported
through the serosal side on the
facilitative glucose transporters.
> Fructose both enters and leaves
absorptive epithelial cells by facilitated
diffusion, apparently via transport
proteins that are part of the GLUT family
The transporter on the luminal side
has been identified as GLUT 5.
(Although this transporter can transport
glucose, it has a much higher activity
with fructose)
Other fructose transport proteins also
may be present
For reasons as yet unknown, fructose
is absorbed at a much more rapid rate
when it is ingested as sucrose than when
it is ingested as a monosaccharide.

Other Glucose Transporters

Action of Insulin

> In muscle and adipose tissue, the

transport of glucose is greatly stimulated
by insulin



1. Increase in insulin secretion
2. Insulin binds to the insulin receptor at
the cell membrane
3. GLUT 4 goes out of its vesicle into the
cell wall
4. Glucose molecules will be attracted to
5. Excess glucose will be stored as
1. Insulin secretion will not be activated
2. GLUT 4 will also not attract the sugar

Glucose Transport in Neural Tissues and

Non- neural Tissues
The glucose goes into the brain slowly,
the reason is because of the continuous
basement membrane and that the
intracellular space is narrow and tight
junction is present.
Glucose enters the brain with the help
of GLUT 3