Anda di halaman 1dari 102

GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED

BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION
USING PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS
PCI NORTHEAST BRIDGE TECHNICAL COMMITTEE
GUIDELINES FOR
ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

PCINER-06-ABC

First Edition

Cover Photo: Davis Narrows Bridge courtesy of the Maine Department of Transportation

116 Radcliffe Road | Belmont, MA 02478


Phone (888) 700-5670 | http://www.pcine.org
PCINER-06-ABC

Copyright © 2006

By Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute Northeast

First Edition, first printing, 2006

All rights reserved. This guide or any part thereof may not be reproduced in any form without the written
permission of the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute Northeast.

Information contain in this work has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. PCI or its memberships
shall not be responsible for any errors, omissions or damages arising out of this information. PCI has published
this work with the understanding that PCI is supplying information only. PCI is not rendering engineering or
other professional services through this guideline. If such services are required, please seek an appropriate
professional.

Printed in the U.S.A


FORWARD
This manual has been developed for the purposes of promoting a greater degree of uniformity among owners,
engineers and industry of the Northeast, with respect to planning, designing, fabricating and constructing
highway bridges with the FHWA’s philosophy of accelerated bridge construction.

In response to needs determined by Northeast Transportation Agencies, and Prestressed Concrete Producers, the
PCI Northeast Regional Bridge Technical Committee established a subcommittee comprised of a cross section
of its members representing academia, transportation engineers and producers to prepare this guide.
Contributors were:

Accelerated Bridge Construction Sub Committee:


Rita Seraderian, PCI Northeast Executive Director (PCINE)
Michael P. Culmo, Vice President of Transportation and Structures, CME Associates, Inc.
Peter Stamnas, Project Manager, New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT)
Charles Goodspeed, University of New Hampshire, FHWA
Eric Calderwood, Principal, Calderwood Engineering etc.
George W. Colgrove III, Project Engineer, Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans)

The PCI-NE Bridge Tech Committee:


Eric Thorkildsen, Collins Engineering
Vartan Sahakian, Commonwealth Eng. & Consult.
Joe Carrara, J. P. Carrara & Sons
Ernie Brod, J. P. Carrara & Sons
Ed Barwicki, Lin Associates
Michael Kane, Mabey Bridge
Nate Benoit, Maine DOT
Robert Bulger, Maine DOT
Maura Sullivan, Mass. Highway Department
Alex Bardow, Mass. Highway Department
Edmund Newton, Mass. Highway Department
David Scott, New Hampshire DOT
Duane Carpenter, NYSDOT
Matthew Royce, NYSDOT
Mike Savella, State of Rhode Island DOT

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE

v
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE

vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FORWARD............................................................................................................................................................ V
TABLE OF CONTENTS .....................................................................................................................................VII
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................. XI
SECTION 1: APPLICATION OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................1-1
1.1 When to Use Accelerated Construction..............................................................................................1-1
1.2 Rehabilitation PROJECTS..................................................................................................................1-2
1.3 Examples of Prefabricated Components.............................................................................................1-2
1.4 Architectural Treatments ....................................................................................................................1-5
1.5 Definitions ..........................................................................................................................................1-5
SECTION 2: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .....................................................................................................2-1
2.1 PARTIAL REPLACEMENT PROJECTS .........................................................................................2-1
2.2 Design .................................................................................................................................................2-1
2.3 Geometric Configurations...................................................................................................................2-1
2.3.1 Bridge Layout.................................................................................................................................2-1
2.3.2 Component Sizes and Shapes.........................................................................................................2-2
2.4 Tolerances...........................................................................................................................................2-2
2.5 Shipping and Handling .......................................................................................................................2-2
2.5.1 Lifting Devices ...............................................................................................................................2-3
SECTION 3: PRECAST COMPONENTS ..........................................................................................................3-1
3.1 Piling...................................................................................................................................................3-1
3.2 Substructure Components ...................................................................................................................3-1
3.2.1 Footings ..........................................................................................................................................3-1
3.2.1.1 Construction on Bedrock ...........................................................................................................3-1
3.2.1.2 Construction on Soil...................................................................................................................3-2
3.2.1.3 Construction on Piles .................................................................................................................3-3
3.2.1.4 Leveling Devices........................................................................................................................3-3
3.2.1.5 Grouting Under Footings ...........................................................................................................3-4
3.2.2 Wall Segments................................................................................................................................3-4
3.2.3 Columns..........................................................................................................................................3-6
3.2.3.1 Round vs. Rectangular ...............................................................................................................3-6
3.2.4 Girder Support Components...........................................................................................................3-6
3.2.4.1 Pier Caps ....................................................................................................................................3-7
3.2.4.2 Integral Abutment Pile Caps ......................................................................................................3-7
3.2.4.3 Seat Adjustment Beams .............................................................................................................3-8
3.3 Superstructure Components................................................................................................................3-9
3.3.1 Girders and Beams .........................................................................................................................3-9
3.3.2 Full Depth Deck Slabs....................................................................................................................3-9
3.3.3 Stay-in-Place Forms .....................................................................................................................3-10
3.4 PROPRIETARY Bridge Systems .....................................................................................................3-11
3.5 Bridge Railing...................................................................................................................................3-11
SECTION 4: JOINTS ..........................................................................................................................................4-1
4.1 General................................................................................................................................................4-1
4.2 Layout of Joints ..................................................................................................................................4-1
4.3 Structural Joints ..................................................................................................................................4-2
4.3.1 Moment Connections .....................................................................................................................4-2
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE

vii
4.3.2 Shear Connections..........................................................................................................................4-3
4.3.3 Pile Connections.............................................................................................................................4-5
4.3.4 Anchoring Devices .........................................................................................................................4-7
4.4 Non-Structural Joints ..........................................................................................................................4-8
SECTION 5: GROUTING ...................................................................................................................................5-1
5.1 Sub-Footings.......................................................................................................................................5-1
5.2 Component to Component grouting ...................................................................................................5-1
5.2.1 Horizontal Surfaces ........................................................................................................................5-1
5.2.1.1 Area Below Precast Footings .....................................................................................................5-1
5.2.1.2 Recessed Key Connection..........................................................................................................5-1
5.2.1.3 Recommended Grouting Procedure ...........................................................................................5-2
5.2.1.4 Non Recessed Connection .........................................................................................................5-3
5.2.2 Vertical Surfaces ............................................................................................................................5-3
5.2.3 Mechanical Grouted Splices...........................................................................................................5-3
5.3 Pile Caps .............................................................................................................................................5-4
5.4 Post Tensioning Ducts ........................................................................................................................5-4
5.5 Blockouts for Anchoring Devices.......................................................................................................5-5
SECTION 6: SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS ....................................................................................................6-1
6.1 General Criteria ..................................................................................................................................6-1
6.2 Connection of Superstructure to Substructure ....................................................................................6-1
6.2.1 Keeper Blocks ................................................................................................................................6-1
6.2.2 Pilasters ..........................................................................................................................................6-2
6.2.3 Abutment Backwall ........................................................................................................................6-2
6.2.4 Anchor Rods...................................................................................................................................6-2
6.2.5 Integral Connections.......................................................................................................................6-3
6.3 Column Connections ..........................................................................................................................6-3
6.3.1 Column Base and Cap Connections ...............................................................................................6-3
6.3.2 Splices Along Column Length .......................................................................................................6-4
6.3.3 Confinement Reinforcement ..........................................................................................................6-5
6.4 Footings ..............................................................................................................................................6-5
6.4.1 Internal reinforcement ....................................................................................................................6-5
6.4.2 Pile Uplift .......................................................................................................................................6-5
SECTION 7: FABRICATION/CONSTRUCTION .............................................................................................7-1
7.1 Contractor Options..............................................................................................................................7-1
7.2 Lifting Devices ...................................................................................................................................7-1
7.2.1 Corrosion Protection.......................................................................................................................7-1
7.3 Equipment...........................................................................................................................................7-1
7.3.1 Handling and Shipping...................................................................................................................7-1
7.3.2 Skidding..........................................................................................................................................7-1
7.4 Assembly Plan ....................................................................................................................................7-2
7.5 Coordination .......................................................................................................................................7-2
7.6 Tolerances...........................................................................................................................................7-3
7.6.1 Fabrication......................................................................................................................................7-3
7.6.2 Vertical Control in the Field...........................................................................................................7-3
7.6.3 Horizontal Control in the Field.......................................................................................................7-3
7.7 Inspection............................................................................................................................................7-3
7.7.1 Grouting of Horizontal Post-Tensioning Ducts..............................................................................7-3
7.7.2 Mechanical Grouted Splices...........................................................................................................7-4
7.8 Backfill ...............................................................................................................................................7-4
7.8.1 Flowable Fill...................................................................................................................................7-4
7.8.2 Compacted Granular Fill ................................................................................................................7-4
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE

viii
7.8.3 Foam Products................................................................................................................................7-4
SECTION 8: CASE STUDY 1, UPTON, MAINE ..............................................................................................8-1
SECTION 9: CASE STUDY 2, BROOKSVILLE, MAINE................................................................................9-1
SECTION 10: CASE STUDY 3, EPPING, NEW HAMPSHIRE .......................................................................... 1
REFERENCES.................................................................................................................................................... R-1
INDEX ..................................................................................................................................................................I-1

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE

ix
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE

x
INTRODUCTION

This guide is the current State of the Art report developed by the PCI Northeast Bridge Technical
Committee on the use of Precast/Prestressed Concrete Components to accelerate the construction of bridge
projects. The guide will assist designers in determining which means and methods would be appropriate for
considering accelerated construction techniques. This guide will offer solutions from deck replacement to
total reconstruction of a bridge.

Some of the considerations for accelerated construction are:


• Improved work zone safety.
• Minimizing traffic disruption during bridge construction.
• Maintaining and/or improving construction quality.
• Reducing the life cycle costs and environmental impacts.

Precast components produced off-site can be quickly assembled, and can reduce design time, cost,
minimize forming, minimize lane closure time and/or possibly the need for a temporary bridge.

In 2002, the PCI Technical Committee developed a report for full-depth precast-prestressed deck panels.
This system is used to replace bridge decks during off-peak traffic hours and can be a good solution in terms
of minimizing traffic disruption.

Prefabrication has also been extended to the bridge’s substructure by means of precast abutments. Several
projects in the Northeast have already been built.

The use of precast components such as abutments, pier caps, pier columns and precast footings can
effectively minimize construction time, traffic disruption and the impact of construction activities on the
environment.

This guide is organized in the customary order of bridge construction; essentially from the ground up. The
manual starts with general information that applies to the whole structure. Following this, the reader will find
specific information regarding the different precast components used in accelerated bridge construction. Joints
and grouting considerations may then be reviewed as the structures design becomes more defined. The final
step then becomes construction. The reader will find recommendations regarding fabrication and inspection of
each component used in the structure. Therefore, the reader will find the guide is divided into the following
six sections:
1. Application Overview.
2. General Requirements.
3. Precast Components.
4. Joints.
5. Grouting.
6. Seismic
7. Fabrication / Construction.

This guide is not intended as a stand-alone document and does not supersede the AASHTO
specifications.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE

xi
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE

xii
GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 1-1

SECTION 1: APPLICATION OVERVIEW

1.1 WHEN TO USE ACCELERATED CONSTRUCTION

Accelerated construction techniques should be used where the benefits of accelerated construction have a
positive effect on the construction costs and impacts of the project. In many cases accelerated construction
techniques can reduce overall project costs. At this time, the bridge specific costs on small accelerated
construction projects are more than conventional construction (This is not necessarily the case with large scale
projects.) It is also anticipated that costs will come down as more accelerated projects are let. The savings in
accelerated construction projects are found in other aspects of the project such as time, equipment use and labor
savings.

Decisions to use accelerated construction techniques should be made after considering the following issues:
• Temporary Roadways and Bridges
• Reductions in Environmental Impacts
• User Costs
• Political Pressures
• Long Detours

For additional guidance, refer to the Federal Highway Administration report entitled “Decision-Making
Framework for Prefabricated Bridge Elements and Systems (PBES), May 2006”.

Accelerated construction should always be considered in cases where temporary bridges and roadways are
anticipated. This is especially true where a reasonable detour is available. It may be desirable to close a
roadway completely, build the bridge quickly, and live with a detour. In this case, the cost of the accelerated
construction is far outweighed by the savings of not building a temporary roadway. Recent accelerated
construction projects have shown that commuters and businesses prefer a significant short-term impact over a
long-term moderate impact.

For bridges over water courses, impacts to the environment can be lessened by the elimination of a
temporary bridge.

The cost of construction to highway users is significant. Savings to commuters are not typically reflected in
construction budgets for highway projects; however there is a significant financial impact to the entire
community due to travel delays. In many cases, the cost of accelerated construction techniques can be offset by
reductions in user costs.

Often the need for accelerated construction can be driven by political pressures. The impacts of
construction on commuters and businesses in urban areas can be devastating. Accelerated construction can be
used to limit the time frames for construction projects in these areas.

On some projects, the use of staging and temporary bridges is not feasible due to limited right of way and
environmental issues. In these cases detours are the only option. Accelerated construction techniques should
be considered if there are issues with traffic volumes on detours and access for emergency vehicles.

Though the intent of this manual is to provide information that applies to precast/prestressed components
used in bridge construction, using these components in non-prestress concrete structures is encouraged. The
designer may wish to use precast substructure with steel girders and precast deck panels for example.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
1-2 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

1.2 REHABILITATION PROJECTS

Many bridge rehabilitation projects may benefit from accelerated construction methods. This guide focuses
on precast components that could replace the entire bridge; however portions of existing bridges can also be
constructed using these methods. The designer in these cases should balance the cost savings of not
constructing new components to the costs of rehabilitating existing components. Costs should include both
financial resources and time.

1.3 EXAMPLES OF PREFABRICATED COMPONENTS

Prefabricated components in accelerated bridge construction are comprised of separately shipped pieces which
are assembled in the field to form a larger structural component of the completed bridge. Figure 1.3-1 and
Figure 1.3-2 are examples of what components are used to construct a pier and a bridge deck. Figure 1.3-3 and
Figure 1.3-4 further demonstrates the assembly of an abutment structural component and the superstructure.
Figure 1.3-5 demonstrates what components are necessary to assemble an integral abutment bridge.
Figure 1.3-6 shows the assembly completed.

Pier Cap [ 3.2.4.1 ]

Moment Connection [ 4.3.1 ]


Anchoring Devices [ 4.3.4 ]

Column [ 3.2.3 ]

Footing [ 3.2.1 ]

Figure 1.3-1 Assembly of Substructure Prefabricated Components

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 1-3

Rail [ 3.5 ]

Deck Slab [ 3.3.2 ]

Girder [ 3.3.1 ]

Figure 1.3-2 Assembly of Superstructure Prefabricated Components

Superstructure [ 3.3 ]

Substructure [ 3.2 ]

Figure 1.3-3 Assembly of Girder Superstructure Structural Component.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
1-4 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Walls [ 3.2.2 ]

Figure 1.3-4 Assembly of Butted Box Beam Superstructure Structural Component resting on a Cantilever
Abutment Substructure Structural Component.

Pile Cap [ 3.2.4.2 ] Post-tensioning Duct


[5.4]

Post Tensioning
Strands [5.4]

Wall Segments [ 3.2.2 ]

Pile [ 3.1 ]
Construction on Piles [ 3.2.1.3 ]
Figure 1.3-5 Assembly of Integral Abutment Prefabricated Components.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 1-5

Figure 1.3-6 Full Assembly of Integral Abutment Structural Component supporting a Butted Box Beam
Superstructure Structural Component..

1.4 ARCHITECTURAL TREATMENTS

An accelerated construction environment does not preclude the idea of having an attractive bridge. In fact
the very opposite is the reality. With some careful planning, the resulting bridge can be built quickly, and also
be aesthetically pleasing.

In most cases, cost will not be a limiting factor. Precast components allow for architectural enhancements
at a relatively lower cost than cast in place concrete. All treatments are made at the precast plant where
repetitive use of standardized forms lowers the costs to individual projects. Precast plants are well suited for
applying aggregate surfaces through means of blasting or the use of retardants.

Chapter 5 of the PCI Bridge Design Manual and the Minnesota Department of Transportation’s Aesthetic
Guidelines for Bridge Design offer guidance on this topic. These guidelines may be used to proportion
components to fit together to meet the function of the structure as well as to enhance aesthetics.

1.5 DEFINITIONS

Box Beam – Rectangular shaped beam with a single rectangular shaped void. These beams have depths up to
four feet and are used for short to moderate length spans. Prestressed strand is typically placed in the bottom
flange in a 2 inch by 2 inch grid.

Deck Slab – A solid and very slender slab that may be used for extremely short spans in the longitudinal
direction or as a replacement for a cast-in-place deck over girders when placed transverse to the deck beams.

Cast-in-Place – Concrete that is formed and placed in the field.

Pile Cap – A structural component placed over piles which supports deck components.

Prefabricated Component – A part of a larger structural component of a bridge such as a footing, column or
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE
GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
1-6 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

wall. These components are fabricated offsite and shipped in separate pieces to the project site for eventual
assembly.

Precast Component – A structural component that is cast in a plant and shipped to the project site.

Prestressed Component – A structural component that is cast with pretensioned steel strands causing
compressive stresses in the component section. The compressive stresses are typically eccentric and are used to
compensate for tensile stresses caused by loading of the component.

Propriety Precast Products – Precast components that a single entity holds the patents to. These products tend to
be specialized and may require special installation equipment or connectors.

Accelerated Bridge Construction – A construction process that has been optimized for speed.

Structural Component – A major part of a structure comprised of several precast components. Completed
abutments or piers are examples of substructure structural components. The completed deck would be a
superstructure structural component.

Voided Slab – A rectangular beam shape with 2 or 3 circular voids running its length. These beams typically
range in thickness from 15 inches to 21 inches. Prestressed strand is typically placed in the bottom flange in a 2
inch by 2 inch grid. Typically, these are used for very short spans.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 2-1

SECTION 2: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


Guidelines Commentary

2.1 PARTIAL REPLACEMENT PROJECTS

If existing substructure is to be reused, There is adjustability in precast components;


complete dimensions and elevations should be however the tolerances at interfaces are limited.
obtained to ensure compatibility with the new The field survey is recommended.
precast components.

2.2 DESIGN

A prefabricated system is designed using the Providing a safe design to meet the site
same design approach as cast-in-place concrete requirements is paramount in all bridge
structures. replacement projects. Designs should not be
compromised in order to utilize precast concrete
structures. The engineer must focus on ease of
fabrication, repetition, and ease of assembly to
create a cost effective, precast concrete solution.

In general, the design of precast substructures Designers should refer to the ACI 550.1R-01,
involves emulation of traditional cast-in-place Emulating Cast-in-Place Detailing in Precast
concrete structures with discrete precast Concrete Structures for specifications on
components. The connections between emulation design.
components are designed to emulate traditional
construction joints.

Designers may take advantage of post- It may be advantageous to design complex


tensioning technologies to facilitate construction structures such as tall piers using post tensioning
of complex structures. strand or high strength rods to simplify the
connections.

The design and detailing of beams and girders


is generally not affected by accelerated
construction techniques.

2.3 GEOMETRIC CONFIGURATIONS

2.3.1 Bridge Layout

Non-skewed designs are preferred. Angles between abutment and wingwalls


should be limited to in-line, and 90 degrees.
Bridge skew angles should be minimized. In
cases where they are unavoidable, the skew angle
added to the wing angle should be kept to simple
geometric angles such as 30, 45, and 60 degrees.
Odd angles will complicate formwork and
increase cost.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
2-2 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Guidelines Commentary

2.3.2 Component Sizes and Shapes

The designer should detail components sizes to Footing widths may be detailed such that there
promote repetition of forming with consideration are common dimensions on each bridge project.
given to transportation, fabrication and For instance on a particular bridge, all footings for
construction. wingwalls that are of approximately equal height
could be kept identical (dimensions and
reinforcing). The economies of repetition may
outweigh the perceived benefits of individually
sized components.

Battered components should be avoided. Batters on abutment and wing stems should be
eliminated and the overall thickness of the stems
should be minimized to reduce the overall weight
of the component. Components typically are cast
horizontally as slabs.

2.4 TOLERANCES

Designers should specify and account for All precast concrete products are constructed
tolerances in layout of components. within a specified tolerance. Designers should
refer to the PCI Tolerance Manual MNL 135-00
for guidance on setting appropriate tolerances for
each component.

Base the layout of components on the


nominal center to center of joints as opposed to
the actual component size.

Nominal joint widths should be set based on At a minimum, the joint width should account
the specified tolerances. for the width tolerance and sweep tolerance of the
components.

2.5 SHIPPING AND HANDLING

Precast substructure components should be The weight of precast substructure components


detailed so that the pieces can be shipped using weighing on the order of 30 tons should be
normal shipping equipment. anticipated.

In special cases, very large pieces can be It is possible to ship pieces in excess of 30
detailed; however the shipping costs can be tons, however the equipment required and
excessive. limitation of local bridge capacities may limit this.
Off-loading of pieces can also be problematic.
Larger pieces may be feasible if the pieces can be
fabricated in close proximity to the bridge and
shipped a short distance.

The designer should consider each State’s In general, components should have a
requirement for allowable shipping widths. maximum width of 12 feet to avoid cost
premiums typically associated with shipping of
large components over the road. Components

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 2-3

Guidelines Commentary

with widths in excess of 12 feet typically require


special trucking permits, which can be supplied at
a premium.

2.5.1 Lifting Devices

The design and detailing of lifting devices is The designer should specify the level of
the responsibility of the fabricator. Lifting devices corrosion protection for lifting devices.
should be placed to avoid being visible once
precast component is placed. Lifting devices that
are located in areas that will be visible or exposed
to the components should be detailed with
recessed pockets that can be patched after
installation. The patching material shall match the
appearance of the surrounding concrete and
provide corrosion protection. See Section 7.2

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
2-4 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 3-1

SECTION 3: PRECAST COMPONENTS


Guidelines Commentary

3.1 PILING

The Designer may choose to use Precast Practice has shown that a minimum of 14 inch
prestressed concrete piles as an alternative to steel prestress pile sections has been successfully used
‘H’-piles. Consult a Geotechnical Engineer for in severe driving conditions. For more
specific limitations regarding the project site information regarding precast/prestressed
before selecting the pile type and size. concrete piles, refer to the PCI Bridge Design
Manual BM-02-04 chapter 20.

3.2 SUBSTRUCTURE COMPONENTS

Substructure components include footings,


wall segments, columns used in piers, and girder
support beams.

3.2.1 Footings

The transfer of footing loads to the underlying It is unreasonable to assume that proper
soils should be made via a grout filled gap below interface can be achieved between compacted soil
the footings. and a precast component. The unevenness of
compacted soil combined with the tolerances of
precast will lead to point of localized support. An
effective means of providing this support is a
grout-filled gap.

The bottom of the footings should be


roughened to a ¼” amplitude profile during
fabrication.

3.2.1.1 Construction on Bedrock


A more extensive soils boring program should As with any construction on bedrock, large
precede construction of precast footings so that the variations in rock elevations can affect the layout
degree of variation of top of rock elevations can and design of precast substructure components. It
be assessed prior to construction. may be desirable to step footings where rock
variations are significant. The contractor will also
need this information to plan the work.
Unknowns in rock elevations are always difficult
to address. It is essential that most of this be
addressed prior to construction on an accelerated
project. The owner should balance the need for
more borings with cost constraints.

The uneven nature of construction of footings The reason for over-blasting is to ensure that
on bedrock may require preparation of the site the removal of rock will be a one-time process,
prior to installation of precast footings. Over- and the amount of post-blast clean-up removal
blasting of rock by approximately 12” to provide will be kept to a minimum.
room to prepare for a relatively level work area is
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE
GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
3-2 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Guidelines Commentary

recommended. This will facilitate the installation


of grout under the footings. See Section 3.2.1.5.

Once the area is made roughly level, there are The concrete sub-footing need not be high
two recommended methods for preparing the area strength. The typical range of footing pressures
for installation of precast footings. The first is to are magnitudes less than the strength of the sub-
pour a low-strength concrete sub-footing to footing concrete. The sub-footing concrete need
provide room for grouting. The second method is not be formed. In most cases, the concrete can be
to provide small level concrete surfaces under the cast against the footing excavation limits.
proposed leveling devices. See Section 3.2.1.4. Experience has shown that a low-strength
concrete sub-footing does not slow construction
and provides a very good work platform for
installation of precast components.

3.2.1.2 Construction on Soil


Prior to construction on soil, the area must be See Section 3.2.1 commentary.
excavated, and prepared as in normal cast-in-place
construction.

Once the area is prepared, there are two


recommended methods for preparing the area for
installation of precast footings. The first is to pour
a low-strength concrete sub-footing to a level that
is just below the proposed bottom of footing
elevation as shown in Figure 3.2.1.2-1. The
second method is to provide small level areas
under the proposed leveling devices. See Section
3.2.1.4. Temporary load distribution plates will be
required under the leveling devices when a sub-
footing is not used in order to spread the loads to
the soil.

Figure 3.2.1.2-1 Placing footing segment on a


sub-footing.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 3-3

Guidelines Commentary

Figure 3.2.1.2-2 Completed footing.

3.2.1.3 Construction on Piles


Construction on piles will in general follow the See Section 3.2.1 commentary.
guidelines for construction on soil. A concrete
sub-footing may be used, or the footing can be
temporarily supported on load distribution plates
on soil.

Provisions should be made in the footing


design for grouting of the areas around the pile
tops. Grout placement is demonstrated in Figure
3.2.4.2.1-1 with an integral abutment section. A
footing slab would be similar.

3.2.1.3.1 Construction Clearances


Provide clearance around each pile to account Six inches minimum clearance is
for driving tolerances. recommended. Refer to state standards for
additional guidance.

3.2.1.4 Leveling Devices


Leveling devices are critical in maintaining Experience has shown that these leveling
proper vertical grade control on precast concrete devices provide fast and easy grade adjustment at
substructures. Cast-in embedded leveling devices a minimal cost. The use of leveling shim packs is
should be used to allow for adjustment of the discouraged since there is no way to adjust the
footing grade and elevation during installation. grades without removing the component.

A minimum of four leveling devices should be During installation, there is a tendency for the
specified for each spread footing component. piece to rock on the diagonal corner supports,
Each device should be designed to support half the therefore each device should be designed to
self weight of the footing component. support half the weight of the component.

The component should be leveled prior to The effort to adjust the leveling devices is
release of the piece from the crane. A thorough greatly reduced if the component is partially
greasing of the leveling device is recommended. supported by the crane, or if it is greased.

Figure 3.2.1.4-1 shows a leveling screw detail.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
3-4 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Guidelines Commentary

Once the installation of the component is


complete, the leveling bolt shall be backed out and
the shaft filled with grout.
4"Ø BLOCKOUT

REMOVE BOLT AFTER


BASE HAS BEEN GROUTED.
TAPERED GROUT BLOCKOUT AFTER
BLOCKOUT
REMOVAL OF BOLT

1"Ø BOLT
PIPE SLEEVE

REINFORCING
WELDED TO
SUBFOOTING OR
STRUCTURAL FILL

LEVEL CONCRETE
SUPPORT

LEDGE
3" MIN.
GROUT BED
Figure 3.2.1.4-1 Leveling Screw Detail

3.2.1.5 Grouting Under Footings


The purpose of grouting under spread footings There are several methods that have been
is to distribute the foundation pressures from the successfully used. The contractor should be
precast footing to the underlying soil or rock. A allowed to use a method that best suits the
gap that is grouted is recommended to achieve experience of the workers and the available
this. Exact grouting methods can be left up to the equipment.
discretion of the general contractor. The plans and
specifications should give certain guidelines on
grouting procedures. See Section 5.

The strength of the grout is secondary to its Footing pressures are magnitudes lower than
ability to properly fill the gap under the footing. the compressive strength of grout; therefore
strength of grout is not a concern. A minimum
grout strength of 1000 psi is recommended.

The grout should be placed in the void through Placement may be accomplished by pumping
ports cast in the footing. Attempting to flow the or gravity feed through grout ports. The ports
grout from one side to another is not should be arranged so that the grouting operation
recommended unless the footing is relatively progresses in a single general direction to avoid
narrow. air pockets.

3.2.2 Wall Segments

There are several wall options available to Designers should refer to each State’s
designers for accelerated construction projects. specifications for a listing of the approved
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE
GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 3-5

Guidelines Commentary

Many States maintain approved proprietary proprietary walls.


precast concrete retaining wall systems. Another
option is to use a precast concrete cantilever wall.
The following options should be evaluated for
each wall:

Precast Cantilever Cantilever retaining walls can be detailed


using the techniques outlined in this guideline.
The wall stems and footings can be made with
precast concrete components. Often this type of
wall will use the least amount of width (normal to
wall face) when compared to other proprietary
retaining wall systems.

Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) Using precast facing panels in a MSE wall is
an ideal solution for accelerated construction.
The wall facing, reinforcing strips and backfill
can be constructed concurrently.

Precast Concrete Modular Block Gravity Wall A precast concrete modular block gravity wall
is another ideal solution for accelerated
construction. The blocks interlock using keys cast
into them. The dead weight of the blocking
system along with the interlocking keys
eliminates the need for mechanical connections
between precast units.

Figure 3.2.2-1 Placement of an abutment segments.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
3-6 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Guidelines Commentary

Figure 3.2.2-2 Precast abutment with pin


connection.

Figure 3.2.2-3 Fully assembled abutment.

3.2.3 Columns

3.2.3.1 Round vs. Rectangular


Round columns should be avoided. Round columns are difficult to fabricate.
Rectangular columns should be specified for These will likely have to be poured vertically
bridge structures. which may prove to be difficult in a precast plant.
This will likely result in higher component prices.

Rectangular columns can be poured on their


sides. Several can be poured at the same time –
side by side. This can enhance the efficiency and
therefore reduce the cost of the component.

3.2.4 Girder Support Components

Precast components can be used to distribute


girder loads to foundations. The most common
components are as follows:

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 3-7

Guidelines Commentary

3.2.4.1 Pier Caps


A Pier Cap is a beam that spans the columns it
is being set upon. The cap can be connected to the
columns by either grouted mechanical splices or
post tensioning.

3.2.4.2 Integral Abutment Pile Caps


Pile Caps are typically used in integral
abutment bridges. Though pile caps may also be
used as piers supported on a line of piles as well.
These are set over a line of piles then grouted.
The tolerance for this construction is the same for
footings. See Section 3.2.1.3. An example of a
pilecap in an integral abutment structure can be
seen in Figure 4.3.3-1.

Figure 3.2.4-1 Assembly of a pier cap.

Figure 3.2.4-2 Pier Construction.

3.2.4.2.1 Construction on Piles


Placing a pile cap over piles requires similar
details and tolerances as footings set on piles. See
Section 3.2.1.3. Grout placement is demonstrated
in Figure 3.2.4.2.1-1 with an abutment section.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
3-8 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Guidelines Commentary

Grout

Packed
Gravel,
Sub-Footing or
Concrete
Flow

Figure 3.2.4.2.1-1 Concrete flow in Abutment


Section

Figure 3.2.4.2.1-2 Completed integral abutment


assembly.

3.2.4.3 Seat Adjustment Beams


Seat adjustment beams may be precast
according to field measurements. These beams
may be used to elevate existing beam seat
elevations on existing abutments. The beams are
set on elastomeric sheets placed on the existing
abutment. Figure 3.2.4.3-1 demonstrates the use
of a seat adjustment beams to fill a portion of the
abutment where deeper steel girders once sat.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 3-9

Guidelines Commentary

Figure 3.2.4.3-1 A Seat Adjustment Beam was


placed on this abutment to level the bearing seats
for the new deck units on this bridge
rehabilitation.

3.3 SUPERSTRUCTURE COMPONENTS

3.3.1 Girders and Beams

Girders or beams shall be designed and


detailed according to conventional methodology.
Refer to the PCI Bridge Design Manual.

3.3.2 Full Depth Deck Slabs

Prefabricated decks offer advantages for deck General information on full depth deck slabs is
construction since bridge components can be presented here. For more information, refer to
prefabricated offsite and assembled in place. Other “Design Guidelines for the use of Full Depth
advantages include removing the deck placement Precast Deck Slabs used for new construction or
from the critical path of bridge construction for replacement of existing decks on bridges.”
schedules, cost savings, and increased quality due This document is available at the PCI Northeast
to controlled factory conditions. See Figure website (www.pcine.org).
3.3.2-1 .Figure 3.3.2-2 shows a typical placement
of deck slabs.

Re-decking with prefabricated modular deck


panels is a viable method of deck replacement that
minimizes traffic disruption. More importantly,
this construction method allows opening part of
the bridge under construction to traffic. In
addition, nighttime re-decking with prefabricated
concrete modular panels, although slightly more
costly than daytime re-decking, can further
minimize interruption of traffic. Also, the existing
composite concrete deck could be replaced in
stages. In each stage, a portion of the transverse
section is removed and replaced along the full
length of the bridge, while other lanes are
maintained open for traffic.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
3-10 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Guidelines Commentary

Figure 3.3.2-1 Schematic of precast deck assembly

Figure 3.3.2-2 Placing Deck Slabs

3.3.3 Stay-in-Place Forms

In situations where a cast-in-place deck will be


necessary, precast stay-in-place concrete panels
may be used to save time during construction.
These panels do not require the extensive shoring
and carpentry that conventional wood forms
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE
GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 3-11

Guidelines Commentary

require, nor do they need to be removed once the


deck has cured. Refer to the Precast Deck Panel
Guidelines from PCI-NE.

3.4 PROPRIETARY BRIDGE SYSTEMS

The use of proprietary bridge systems should Complete bridge systems are proprietary
be considered as an alternative for accelerated systems that can meet the needs of a design-build
bridge construction when the following situations project. The bridge system may include precast
arise: footings, abutments, wingwalls and the deck and
1. Construction is limited to a complete include all the connecting hardware. Some
bridge replacement only. Line and grade systems have arches rather than abutments and a
will remain unaltered. deck.
2. The time period for design and
construction is limited.

3.5 BRIDGE RAILING

The designer may use any available rail system The Northeast Precast Rail was designed and
that meets the State’s and AASHTO requirements. tested using a static load test conforming to
In addition to existing rail alternatives including AASHTO TL-3 requirements. See Figure 3.5-1 .
steel, aluminum and cast-in-place concrete, the
designer should also consider precast rail systems.
Refer to section 4.3.4 regarding details for
anchoring precast rail to the deck.

Figure 3.5-1 The Northeast Precast Concrete Rail

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
3-12 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 4-1

SECTION 4: JOINTS
Guidelines Commentary

4.1 GENERAL

Joints fall under two categories. The first are


structural connections that transmit moment, axial
or shear forces between components. The second
are non-structural connections that may be used
for thermal movements or to separate discrete
portions of the structure (e.g. abutment to
wingwall joint).

4.2 LAYOUT OF JOINTS

In general, the designer should show proposed Full height components with vertical joints are
layout plans of all joints that form connections in typically preferred over components that are
the structure. This layout plan will be used as a “stacked” with horizontal joints. However,
guide to determine sizes of components and horizontal joints may be incorporated in a design
general construction sequencing. if the weight or size of the pieces is excessive.

The designer should include contract Locations and configuration of joints should
provisions that allow different joint configurations be the contractor’s option based on boundary
within contract defined boundary conditions. conditions set by the designer.
Figure 4.2-1 shows the minimum recommended
distance between footing and wall joints. Figure Examples of boundary conditions are as
4.2-2 shows the potential layout of joints in a follows:
typical abutment.
CL FOOTING JOINT • The designer may specify that a vertical joint
CL STEM JOINT be placed away from bearing locations
1'-6" MIN AND • The designer may specify a minimum width
MIN OF 2 MECHANICAL SPLICES
of components
FOOTING • Horizontal joints may not be allowed near
normal water levels
8" • Stage construction joint locations may need
to be specific
ABUTMENT
OR WINGWALL

GROUTED
SPLICER (TYP)
2" FOOTING

Figure 4.2-1 Vertical Joint Offset Plan Detail

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
4-2 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

PILASTER
A
(TYP)
CONSTRUCTION JOINT CONSTRUCTION JOINT
BEARING
SEAT

APPROXIMATE
EXISTING GROUND
FILL LINE

4" Ø WEEPER OPTIONAL


(TYP
CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

GRANULAR
BACKFILL
2V:1H (TYP)

FLOWABLE GROUT
STRUCTURAL
BED (3" MIN.)
FILL (2' THICK) A
Figure 4.2-2 Abutment Elevation Showing Layout of Joints

4.3 STRUCTURAL JOINTS

4.3.1 Moment Connections

Components can be connected with a joint that


can transmit moment and shear using the
following methods. See section 5.2.1.3 for
grouting procedure.

• Embedded Mechanical Couplers as shown in The most common connector is a grouted


Figure 4.3.1-1 . sleeve for mild reinforcing that can develop in
excess of 125% of the specified yield strength of
2" STEM WIDTH 8"
MECHANICAL GROUTED
the bars. See ACI 550.1R-01, Emulating Cast-in-
SPLICES Place Detailing in Precast Concrete Structures.
FILL WITH APPROVED FLOWABLE For grouting sequence see section 5.2.1.3.
NON-SHRINK HIGH STRENGTH
GROUT
1 1/2 "
6"

TOE HEEL
2'
FOOTING FOOTING

6" x 6" PLASTIC SHIM AT


EACH END OF ABUTMENT COMPONENT
Figure 4.3.1-1 Stem Joint Detail

• Cast-in-place closure pours Closure pours are also effective; however


speed of construction is compromised. This is
often used for horizontal moment joints.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 4-3

CAST-IN-PLACE CLOSURE POUR

NARROW CLOSURE POUR


WITH GROUTED SPLICERS

PRECAST SECTION

Figure 4.3.1-2 Cast-In-Place Closure Pour

• Post Tensioning with match-cast components. Post Tensioning may be used for complex
See Figure 4.3.3-1. structures (tall piers), or to eliminate closure
pours for horizontal moment connections (integral
abutment stems, pier caps, etc.). In these cases
the components are match cast against each other
during production and an epoxy adhesive is
placed between the components during
installation. See Figure 4.3.1-2.

The designer shall address shear transfer Shear transfer can be accommodated by the
through moment connections. use of grouted shear keys within the joint, keyed
pockets, or by providing additional reinforcement
across the joint (shear friction design).

Separate unit Placing units together Units connected

Figure 4.3.1-2 Example of sections that were match cast for a tight fit. The right photo shows the sections
held together by the use of an epoxy adhesive.

4.3.2 Shear Connections

Certain components may need to be connected


with a joint that only transmits shear using the
following methods:

• Vertical Grouted Keys as shown in Figure Vertical shear joints are typically used in tall
4.3.2-1 and Figure 4.3.2-2 . vertical wall joints and transverse joints in one-

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
4-4 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

way footing designs.


SHEAR KEY FILLED
WITH APPROVED
1½" NON-SHRINK GROUT

6 ½" 1 ½"

3½"

1" CHAMFER
6 ½" 1 ½" (TYP)

1"

Figure 4.3.2-1 Footing Joint Detail


1 1/3
(TYP

1"
SHEAR KEY FILLED (TYP
1/3 W
APPROVED NON-SHRINK
GROUT

1/3

Figure 4.3.2-2 Detail of a Vertical Joint in Wall

• Horizontal Grouted Keys as shown in Horizontal shear joints are typically used in
column to bent cap. Shear transfer can be
developed by means of a grouted shear key within
the confines of the joint.

Bent

Horizontal
Grouted
Joint

Mechanical
Splice Shear Key
Column

Figure 4.3.2-3 Horizontal Grouted Joint

• Reinforced Dowels as shown in Error! Not a Shear transfer can be developed by means of
valid bookmark self-reference.. steel reinforcing bars or grouted mechanical
splices designed for shear friction. An example

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 4-5

of this would be an approach slab to abutment


connection. The detail shown is one state’s
typical approach slab. Other state details will
vary. For instance, some states do not require a
concrete overlay and others place the approach
slab at the roadway surface.
CLOSED CELL EXPANSION
JOINT MATERIAL
C
L BRG
CONCRETE
FILL VOID WITH
OVERLAY
AN APPROVED GROUT

BOX ROADWAY SELECT


BEAM MATERIALS

JOINT
FILLER

BURIED
APPROACH SLAB

BEARING SLEEVE
PAD
#5 ANCHOR DOWEL
1'-0" 9" 4" 10 ½"

½” CLOSED CELL
½"
FILLER MATERIAL

Figure 4.3.2-4 Beam End Detail with Approach


Slab

4.3.3 Pile Connections

Integral abutment pile connections can be


achieved by providing a blockout in the precast
component. This connection should be designed
to develop the full moment capacity of the pile.
Refer to Figure 4.3.3-1.

The connection for pile supported spread


footings can be achieved by providing a blockout
or recess in the precast component. This
connection may be designed to develop the full
moment capacity of the pile. The connection will
also depend on the need to prevent uplift on the
piles. See Figure 4.3.3-2 and Figure 4.3.3-3.

The size of the blockouts needs to The designer should refer to individual state
accommodate pile driving tolerances. construction specification tolerances.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
4-6 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Abutment and Wing C


L Brg.
segment mild
reinforcement for Slope to
temperature Match cast joints
shrinkage, handling, Bridge
quantity and location
and wing parapets vary as required Approach Slab

Galvanized metal duct


with deformations refer
to design
Galvanized deformed
considerations
anchor sleeve
Galvanized corrugated
fill/vent sleeve
refer to design
considerations
Galvanized thread bar
post tensioning
Pile refer to design
considerations
Abutment & Wing Shear Reinforcement Redundant Void
Location to be filled

Figure 4.3.3-1 Typical Integral Abutment Details

3/8 " Stone Concrete

Tapered grout port at each pile

2" gap over pile

Extend grouted dowels from


Pile into footing

1'-0“
Min. Leveling bolt

Precast concrete pile

Note: Steel pile details are similar. Weldable reinforcing steel


bars can be field welded to the pile web after installation.

Figure 4.3.3-2 Conceptual Elevation Pile Supported Precast Footing With Uplift On Piles

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 4-7

3/8 " Stone Concrete

Grout port at each pile

2" gap over pile

1'-0“
Min. Leveling bolt

Precast concrete pile

Figure 4.3.3-3 Conceptual Elevation Pile Supported Precast Footing Without Uplift On Piles

4.3.4 Anchoring Devices

Certain components will need to be connected


to others with pre-embedded anchoring devices.
Pre-embedded anchoring devices will require
additional quality control measures in the precast
plant to ensure the anchored component fits up to
the anchoring component.

To ensure accurate anchor layouts, anchor Though not required, having the same precast
templates should be used. Another plant fabricate both the anchored component and
recommendation is to dimension anchor locations the anchoring component will better ensure that
using running dimensions all measured from a each will fit up to the other.
common point.

In general, field drilling of anchors is not There is a high potential for conflicts with
recommended. internal reinforcements. If field drilling is used,
care should be taken in the layout of
reinforcement to prevent conflicts.

Examples of anchored components are:


• Bridge rail connections

Bridge rail will require anchors to be A precast concrete rail system may require
previously embedded in the precast measures such as:
component or bridge deck. Depending on • Setting the rail on a raised pedestal. Water
the type of rail, different measures should be and other corrosive materials will flow
employed to ensure a durable connection. along the edge of the pedestal and not seep
Figure 4.3.4-1 shows the detail used to in the joint of the rail and the deck sections.
anchor the Northeast Precast Rail. See • Stainless steel anchoring bolts.
Section 3.5. • An elastomeric bearing pad for the rail
section to set upon.
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE
GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
4-8 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

• A steel rail system may require galvanized or


Stainless Steel
stainless steel plates and anchor bolts.
Bolt, Plate Washer
and Anchor Bolt

Elastomeric Bearing Pad


Rail Base

Rail Pedestal 2” Above Wearing Surface

Deck

Figure 4.3.4-1 Bridge Rail Anchor Detail

• Beam Bearing Assemblies

The preferred method for supporting precast Tight tolerances or other construction concerns
components is to set the beams on may require the keeper block to be placed and
elastomeric bearings without anchorages at connected after the beams or girders are placed.
each bearing. Lateral forces can be resisted
by discrete keeper blocks, abutment
backwalls, or cheek walls. See Section 7 for
more information.

Certain conditions may require the use of Bearings and bearing assemblies for precast beams
bearing assemblies. and girders should not differ from conventional
bridge construction.

4.4 NON-STRUCTURAL JOINTS

Non-structural joints in substructures are Examples of non-structural joints include


primarily intended to allow for thermal or retaining wall expansion and contraction joints,
differential settlement movement of the adjacent joints between different substructure units
sections of the structure, and to provide (abutment to wingwall interface), and joints in
fabrication and construction tolerance. These long pier bents (where effects of thermal
joints do not transfer moment, axial or shear movement can cause large internal frame forces).
forces between adjacent components. See Figure
4.4-1 Non-structural joints may also be desirable
between substructure sections that may
potentially experience differential settlement. An
example of this would be the interface between a
pile supported integral abutment and a long u-
shaped wingwall supported on spread footings.

In most cases, these joints should be sealed to Sealing of the joint can be accomplished by
prevent moisture from penetrating the area injecting a foam sealant in the opening. The rear
between components where freezing action could face of the wall may be sealed with a membrane
spall the adjacent components. In some cases, the sheet, however foam fill is recommended near the
joints can be left open. ground line or water line. Grouting is also an
acceptable option. See Section 5.2.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 4-9


"

FILL WITH CLOSED


CELL MATERIAL
AFTER SETTING
STEMS STEM
WIDTH
WALL WALL
STEM STEM

BACKER ROD

Figure 4.4-1 Non-structural Vertical Joint

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
4-10 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 5-1

SECTION 5: GROUTING
Guidelines Commentary

5.1 SUB-FOOTINGS

Typical cast-in-place (CIP) concrete placement CIP concrete can be used to level an irregular
techniques and mix designs for footings are surface, such as bedrock. The assembly plan
usually more than adequate to support the should detail the compressive strength
proposed loadings. requirements as required to support the
anticipated load from the leveling screws. See
Section 7.4.

Plans should detail a roughened surface. The top surface should be roughened (raked,
broomed, etc.) to improve sliding resistance.

The sides of the pour need not be formed. The


concrete may be cast against the excavation.

5.2 COMPONENT TO COMPONENT


GROUTING

It is the Contractor’s responsibility to The assembly plan developed by the contractor


determine the specific type of grout to be used in should specify the type of grout and method of
each joint, and the methods of installation based installation for each joint. See Section 7.4.
on the notes on the plans and in the specifications.

A pre-packaged, shrinkage-compensating, The designer should include a note on the


flowable, grout is recommended for most plans or in the specifications describing the
connections. The strength of the grout should be required properties of the grout in each
equal to or greater than the strength of the joined connection.
components.
5.2.1 Horizontal Surfaces

5.2.1.1 Area Below Precast Footings

Figure 5.2.1.1-1 shows the assembly of an See Section 3.2.1.5.


abutment wall and footing.

5.2.1.2 Recessed Key Connection

This joint is typically found at the stem/footing The grout placed within this joint contributes
joint in abutments. Use of a recessed key will to the compressive side of the moment couple
improve the shear capacity and will create resisting overturning loads. It also provides
adequate head to help push a flowable grout corrosion protection for the connections within
through the joint minimizing the need to pump the the joint. Prepackaged grout shall be mixed
grout into place. Figure 4.3.1-1 shows an according to manufacturer’s recommendations.
example of the recessed key.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
5-2 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Guidelines Commentary

CL BRG.

GRANULAR BACKFILL

LEVELING
SCREW (TYP.)

2V : 1H
(TYP)

2'-0" STRUCTURAL FILL (SHOWN) 1'-0" (TYP)


OR 1'-0" SUBFOOTING CONCRETE
3"
ON 1'-0" STRUCTURAL FILL
GROUT BED
Figure 5.2.1.1-1 Abutment Section

5.2.1.3 Recommended Grouting Procedure

Step 1: Fill the key to just below the lower port Filling this joint from both sides and both ends
of the grouted mechanical splice (see Figure simultaneously will increase the chance for a void
4.3.1-1 ). The grout should be installed by pouring within the key. Pumping the grout into place
the grout into the key from the front face of the should be encouraged as it supplies a continuous
vertical component and moved through the joint to flow of grout making it easier to maintain a
the back-side of the key to promote complete continuous flow through the key.
filling of the joint. This procedure should be
started at one end of the joint and proceed
continuously along the joint.

The grout placed in step 1 shall be kept out of Washers placed over the rebar extensions
the mechanical splice by the use of a washer or provide the seal to keep the mechanical splice free
stopper. of step 1 grout.

See Section 5.2.3.


Step 2: Grout the mechanical splice.

Step 3: Fill the remainder of the key.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 5-3

Guidelines Commentary

5.2.1.4 Non Recessed Connection

This connection does not use a key. See If This joint is typically found in horizontal
shear and/or compression transfer is required connections between components where there is
through the grout, the grout should be a structural, significant load transfer. This grout may take
non-shrink material. See Section 4.3.2. many forms including pre-packaged grout, dry
pack, pre-placed pre-packaged mortar (buttered),
or grout placed under pressure.

The grout placed within this type of joint The designer should choose the most
should also provide protection from the appropriate type of grout for the anticipated
environment (freeze/thaw, corrosion, etc.). exposure conditions.

5.2.2 Vertical Surfaces

A flowable, cementitious grout should be used This surface is most typically found between
for vertical joints. It should be introduced at the vertical wall components. Significant hydraulic
top of the joint, filling it from bottom to top. head will be created due to the typical height of
the joints being filled. Backer rods placed at the
extremities of the joint will not be . Supplemental
formwork will be required to resist grout
pressures and prevent blowouts.

If shear transfer is not required, consider filling This treatment may be considered adequate if
this joint with expanding foam sealant or other the joint is deemed non-structural. The expanding
fillers. foam keeps the joint free of foreign material and
should be supplemented with a flexible joint
sealant (both sides) and membrane on the fill side
for waterproofing. (See Figure 4.4-1 ) There are
other specialized products such as a plastic bag
which is inserted in the joint and then filled with
grout.

Pre-applied rigid joint filler materials are not Experience has shown that tolerance between
recommended. Inserting rigid fillers after the components will be compromised, which
assembly is also not recommended. makes component assembly virtually impossible.
Installation of fillers after assembly results in a
poor quality joint.

5.2.3 Mechanical Grouted Splices

Only grout specified by the mechanical splice


manufacturer should be used.

The type of grouting operation is usually A sleeve cast in the upper component is a post-
dependent on the orientation of the sleeve. A grouted connection. The grouting operation takes
training session on proper grouting techniques place after the upper component is in place.
should be required for field personnel. Grout is typically hand-pumped into the lower

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
5-4 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Guidelines Commentary

port filling the sleeve from bottom to top.


Manufacturer recommendations shall be followed.
The manufacturer will typically require special
equipment to mix and install the grout. The
amount of grout being pumped into a sleeve
should be watched closely to detect any excess
which indicates a void in the key grouting job. If
this occurs care must be taken to fill the void
which normally can only be done by pumping
through a sleeve inlet hole.

A sleeve cast in the lower component is a pre-


grouted position. The sleeve is filled with grout
from the top and the ports are plugged after the
sleeve has been purged of air. The upper
component is lowered into position and the bars
extending from the component are pushed into the
sleeve displacing the grout into the surrounding
joint.

5.3 PILE CAPS

Self-consolidating concrete is recommended to These connections are typically at integral


fill the void around the piles. The concrete should abutment caps, pile bent caps, or pile supported
either have limited shrinkage characteristics or be footings. Self consolidating concrete is used to
made with a shrinkage compensating admixture. ensure adequate consolidation without segregation
Refer to Figure 4.3.3-1for more detail on the pile around the piling.
void.

The concrete should be placed through fill Having two ducts per blockout allows for
ducts into pile blockouts. Vent ducts shall also be concrete to be placed in one duct, while
provided into the blockout. When fill and vent placement is being monitored in the other duct.
ducts are used they should be corrugated. At least
one fill and one vent duct should penetrate into
each pile blockout.

5.4 POST TENSIONING DUCTS

Grouting of post tensioning ducts should be There are several grouts available that are
done using a grout designed for pressure grouting designed for this purpose. These grouts have
the annular spaces around post tensioning bars or been designed to be pumped through small
cables. annular spaces over long distances without
segregating. If a grout is used that has not been
designed for this purpose it is likely that the
aggregates will segregate and result in plugging
the grout ports, lines or pump, and possibly
compromising the grouting operation.

Post tensioning ducts should be corrugated Using a corrugated duct in combination with a
metal and kept to the minimum size practical grout allows the post tensioning tendon to become
while still allowing adequate room for developed along its length in the event of any loss

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 5-5

Guidelines Commentary

construction tolerances. of end anchorage due to corrosion. The designer


should select a duct size and grout that is
consistent with the grout manufacturer’s
recommendations. In most applications allowing
a total of ¾” of tolerance should be adequate. (for
example using a 3 inch duct for a 1-3/8” post
tensioning bar)

Special care should be taken for grouting of There have been problems with excess bleed
ducts in either vertical or sinusoidal patterns. water in post tensioning ducts that have led to
severe corrosion of the tendons. These problems
primarily occur at high points in duct runs.

5.5 BLOCKOUTS FOR ANCHORING


DEVICES

Blockouts are used to recess bolting


mechanisms such as those for post-tensioning
strands in butted beam decks or for the anchoring
bolts in precast rail. All open blockouts on the
structure shall be filled with a stiff non-shrink
grout. First ensure the recess is free of dust and
other construction debris. Apply the grout using a
trowel into the recess in layers to ensure the cavity
is completely filled. The final layer shall be
troweled smooth with the face of the component.
The grout color and texture shall closely match the
component.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
5-6 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 6-1

SECTION 6: SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS


Guidelines Commentary

6.1 GENERAL CRITERIA

In general, the design and details of precast All provisions specified in AASHTO need to
concrete components for seismic forces should be be satisfied in a precast concrete bridge. This
consistent with cast-in-place concrete includes but is not limited to reinforcing steel in
construction. footings, column confinement, and connections
between the superstructure and substructure.

The process of designing seismic


reinforcement is the same as for a cast in place
concrete structure. Slight variations in detailing
may be required because of the use of precast
components. These issues are covered in this
section.

6.2 CONNECTION OF SUPERSTRUCTURE


TO SUBSTRUCTURE

There are several methods of connecting In most states, the connection of the
normal stringer bridges to the substructures. In superstructure to the substructure is detailed as a
most cases, these connections are designed to pinned connection. Integral connections are also
transmit the lateral seismic forces from the specified, but are not as common.
superstructure to the substructure. It is also
possible to make the connection integral. There are other options for seismic restraint
such as cable restrainers and seismic isolation
devices. These methods are also acceptable;
however they are not included in this document.

6.2.1 Keeper Blocks

Keeper blocks consist of concrete keys that are Keeper blocks are usually only used for lateral
placed between two interior beams to transmit seismic forces. Longitudinal seismic forces can
lateral forces from the superstructure to the be resisted by the abutment backwall, or anchor
substructure. Keeper blocks are often the most rods.
cost effective means of restraining a bridge for
seismic events.

Bridges should be designed with only one Concrete keeper blocks have very low
keeper block per superstructure unit. ductility. If two blocks were detailed, it is likely
that one would carry all the seismic demand.
Distribution of seismic forces to other keeper
assemblies would most likely only occur after
failure of the first keeper.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
6-2 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Guidelines Commentary

If keeper blocks are precast, the connection of Keepers can be installed using grouted
keeper blocks can be made using several of the mechanical splices, or can be cast integral with
methods outlined in this document. the precast substructure component.

Consideration should be given for casting See Section 4.3.4.


keeper blocks in place.

6.2.2 Pilasters

Pilaster are used on adjacent box beam bridges Pilasters are usually only used on adjacent box
near the fascia beam ends. They resist lateral beam bridges since there is no gap between
seismic forces. adjacent beams. On stringer bridges, keeper
blocks are probably more cost effective, since
The design of pilasters is similar to keeper only one keeper is required to resist lateral
blocks. Each pilaster must be capable of resisting seismic forces in both directions.
the entire lateral seismic force at each substructure
unit, since only one pilaster will engage the The commentary from Section 6.2.1 is also
superstructure at a time. applicable to this section. Also, see Section 4.3.4
for information on pilasters.

6.2.3 Abutment Backwall

Longitudinal seismic forces can be resisted by The design of seismic restraining systems is
the abutment backwall. The design of abutment based on limited and repairable damage. Using
backwalls for seismic forces is similar to keeper backwalls for restraint will inevitably result in a
blocks. structure that has shifted longitudinally during the
seismic event. The structure may need to be
jacked back into position after seismic events.

Designers should verify that the distance One of the most important aspects of seismic
between the backwall and the beam/slab is design is to prevent superstructures from sliding
sufficient for thermal movement, but small enough off foundations. This issue becomes more
so that the beams do not slide off the pronounced on multiple span bridges where all
substructures. joints between spans are assumed to be closed in
one direction.

6.2.4 Anchor Rods

The design of anchor rods for lateral load The AASHTO specifications do not address
should take into account the bending capacity of the design of embedded anchors loaded in shear.
the rod, edge distance to the concrete foundation, Designing for the shear capacity of the rod is not
internal reinforcing around the embedded portion, acceptable. The rods tend to fail in combined
strength of the concrete, and group action of the bending and crushing of the concrete around the
rods. rod. The American Concrete Institute publication
“Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete (ACI 318-02) is recommended.

Anchor rods should be designed to be ductile. During a seismic event, it is inevitable that
The use of high strength heat treated rods is only a percentage of the rods will initially see
discouraged due to low ductility. load due to construction tolerances. Ductility in
the rods will ensure that all rods will work

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 6-3

Guidelines Commentary

together to resist seismic forces.

The embedded portion of the rod shall be The anchor rods should normally be
properly reinforced in order to prevent brittle surrounded by lateral reinforcing steel near the
fractures of the surrounding concrete. surface of the concrete. This will allow lateral
forces to be resisted after the initial cracking of
the concrete.

Material for anchor rods should be ASTM This material is specifically designed for
F1554, and should be either threaded (with nuts) anchor rod applications. Other materials have
or swaged on the embedded portion of the rod. been used, but do not offer the economies of
The design yield strength of this material may be ASTM F1554. The designer should offer options
specified as36ksi (250MPa), 55ksi (380MPa), or of swaging or threading the anchor as different
105ksi (725MPa), depending on the design. The suppliers supply one or both of these options.
yield strength should be given in the specifications
or on the plans.

6.2.5 Integral Connections

Superstructure can be connected to The most common form of integral connection


substructures using integral moment connections. is between beams and abutments in stringer
In most cases, this connection will be made with a bridges. In these cases, the end diaphragm is
cast-in-place closure pour or by using grouted usually cast in place between the beams due to the
mechanical splices. complexity of the shapes.

Integral connections have successfully been


made between beams and abutments using
grouted mechanical splices cast into the beam-
ends.

6.3 COLUMN CONNECTIONS

Columns are often the most heavily loaded In high seismic regions, columns are designed
components during a seismic event. Special care to form plastic hinges and contribute to
shall be taken to properly detail connections in dissipation of seismic forces. The high demand
precast column components. region on a typical column is at the ends where
the column connects to the footings and pier caps.

6.3.1 Column Base and Cap Connections

Moment connections can be made in precast The FHWA has recently approved grouted
column components by using grouted mechanical mechanical splices for use in seismic column
splices for longitudinal reinforcing steel confined connections in low to moderate seismic zones.
by transverse reinforcing steel. Research in Japan has shown that the grouted
mechanical splices can fully develop the
longitudinal reinforcing bars as well as contribute
to shifting the plastic hinge away from the
extreme end of the column.

Grouted mechanical splices are capable of The 125% development is normally required
developing 125% reinforcing steel yield strength. for all mechanical reinforcing couplers. Some

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
6-4 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Guidelines Commentary

These devices are different than a lap splice. The states require at least 150% of the specified steel
strength of the splice is not dependent on the yield strength of the bar for splices in plastic
concrete surrounding the sleeves. Therefore hinge zones. Some grouted mechanical splices
limitations for locations of lap splices in should can also achieve this level; however this must be
not be applicable to mechanical connectors. specified in the contract.

According to the current AASHTO codes, This requirement is partially due to concerns
mechanical splices should be staggered a about the effect of the mechanical splices on the
minimum of 24” for bridges in high seismic zones. location and stiffness of the plastic hinge zone.
(Section 7.6.2, Div IA of the Standard
Specifications and Section 5.10.11.4.1f of the High seismic zones are defined as Categories
LRFD Specifications). C and D in the Standard Specifications and Zones
3 and 4 in the LRFD Specifications. One way to
achieve this is to put ½ of the mechanical splices
on one side of the connection and ½ of the
mechanical splices on the other side of the
connection. Another way to accomplish this is to
place the mechanical connectors within the
footing where plastic hinging is not a factor;
however the pier cap connection should be
staggered as noted above.

The AASHTO specifications for low to


moderate seismic zones allow for splicing 100%
of the longitudinal bars with mechanical splices at
one location.

The details in this guideline are based on non-


staggered mechanical grouted splices, since the
majority of the bridges in the US are in low to
moderate seismic zones. Designers can modify
the details in this document to satisfy these
requirements for higher seismic zones.

6.3.2 Splices Along Column Length

The connection of column-to-column splices is


similar to that used for column-to-footing and
column-to-cap connections.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 6-5

Guidelines Commentary

6.3.3 Confinement Reinforcement

It is possible to provide confinement for


longitudinal reinforcing in precast concrete
columns. AASHTO provisions for confinement
based on cast-in-place concrete construction
should be followed.

Longitudinal bars can be confined with Transverse ties need to be properly detailed in
transverse ties detailed in accordance with the order to achieve confinement. The following is
AASHTO code. an excerpt from Section 6.6.2. Division IA of the
17th edition of the “Standard Specifications for
Highway Bridges:
“Transverse reinforcement shall be
extended into the top and bottom
connections for a distance equal to one-
half the maximum column dimension but
not less than 15 inches from the face of
the column connection into the adjoining
member.”

The same section also states:


“A closed tie may be made up of
several reinforcing elements with 135O
hooks with a six-diameter, but not less
than 3 inch, extension that engages the
longitudinal reinforcement.”

These provisions do not require the


confinement steel to pass through the joint
between the column and pier cap or footing. It is
acceptable to properly terminate the transverse tie
confinement steel at the end of the column, and
also in the adjoining member.

6.4 FOOTINGS

The design of precast footings for seismic forces


should follow normal procedures for cast-in-place
concrete footings.

6.4.1 Internal reinforcement

Column confinement reinforcement shall Refer to the discussion in Section 6.3.3


extend into the footing as noted in the AASHTO
design specifications.

6.4.2 Pile Uplift

Special details are required to provide pile See Figure 4.3.3-2. Note that this detail is

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
6-6 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Guidelines Commentary

uplift capacity in precast footings. Several conceptual and is based in an interpretation of the
methods are available: AASHTO code. The committee is not aware of
any projects where this detail has been used.

Reinforcement from concrete piles (precast or Reinforcement for concrete pile uplift should
cast-in-place) can be extended into pockets in the be similar to cast in place footing construction.
precast footing. This reinforcement can also be
installed on the top of the pile by drilling and
grouting.

Weldable steel reinforcement can be welded to It is important to use weldable reinforcement


the top of steel piles after cut-off. These bars can when making welded connections.
be extended into pockets in the precast footing.

Pockets for uplift reinforcement should be Tapered pockets have been successfully used
tapered to provide wedging effect with the for the connections between full depth precast
surrounding precast concrete. The pockets should slabs and stinger beams. The tapered pocket can
extend through the footing to facilitate grouting. transmit the uplift force to the precast footing
without relying solely on the bond of the grout to
the precast footing.

The size of the pocket should be kept to a minimum The pocket size should be just large enough to
so that pile compression can be transferred as well. account for the size of the reinforcing, but allow
for bearing of the pile on the precast footing. The
location of drilled bars (concrete piles) or welded
bars (steel piles) should be adjustable so that the
pile driving tolerances can be accounted for in the
connection. The drilled bars can be located
anywhere within the center core of the concrete
pile. The steel bars can be welded on either the
web or flanges of the pile. Minor bending of the
welded bar is also acceptable. The uplift bars will
most likely need to be installed before the footing
is set; therefore care should be taken in
determining the location of the bars so that the
footing pockets line up with the bars.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 7-1

SECTION 7: FABRICATION/CONSTRUCTION
Guidelines Commentary

7.1 CONTRACTOR OPTIONS

7.2 LIFTING DEVICES

The location and design of lifting devices is the


responsibility of the precast manufacturer.

Locations that are visually sensitive should be


identified on the contract drawings. Lifting
devices should not be used in these areas if
possible. Lifting devices in these areas need to be
recessed, easily removed, and patched to match
the surrounding concrete.

7.2.1 Corrosion Protection

Provisions shall be made to protect the device While some lifting devices may be located in
from corrosion when the device is to be exposed areas that will be hidden, most will need to be
to the environment in the finished construction. removed. This will likely result in a portion of
the lifting device being exposed. The exposed
steel will in time allow corrosive materials to
leach into the concrete. To prevent this, the
contractor should apply a patch to seal the
exposed steel from corrosion.

Lifting devices that will remain in place in


highly corrosive environments (such as parapets)
may require the use of galvanized steel or
stainless steel. This approach is very expensive
and not recommended for substructure
components.

7.3 EQUIPMENT

7.3.1 Handling and Shipping

The size of precast components should be Most components can be shipped on flat bed
finalized by the precaster and contractor with trailers. Unusual trailer configurations and support
consideration for shipping restrictions, equipment frames should be avoided unless the quantity of
availability and site constraints. The final pieces justifies the special equipment.
component sizes will be shown on the assembly
plan.

7.3.2 Skidding

On certain substructure units, it may be It has been proven that structures with weights
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE
GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
7-2 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Guidelines Commentary

desirable to assemble the entire structure or a as high as 6 million pounds can be skidded into
portion of the structure adjacent to the final place using specialized skidding equipment,
installation location and jack it horizontally into hydraulic jacks, or cable systems. This is very
its final position. This should only be considered expensive specialized work; therefore it should
for complex locations where traffic disruption is only be used in areas where the time of change-
very limited. out from an old structure to a new structure is
very limited.

7.4 ASSEMBLY PLAN

This plan is created by the Precaster and The assembly plan is one piece of a project
Contractor and submitted to the Owner for delivery concept devised for accelerated bridge
approval. It provides detailed information on the construction. This concept allows the Owner to
Contractor’s means and methods for assembling design the structure and gives the contractor the
the components. ability to decide the most suitable means to
assemble the components.

The assembly plan should at the very least, The contract drawings provide a design and
include all information required to complete the standard details for joints within the structure and
work such as: performance requirements for materials that are
• Engineer of Record for the assembly plan. used to assemble the components.
• Shop drawings of all components.
• Specific product names and other material
requirements for all grout products proposed
for use.
• Proposed method of erection and the amount
and character of equipment required.
• Temporary support requirements for
substructures including leveling screws and/or
shims and lateral load and moment resistance
requirements for vertical components during
assembly.
• Component assembly sequence.
• Tolerance requirements for the assembly of
the components.
• Grouting plan.

7.5 COORDINATION

Coordination between all parties is paramount The importance of establishing lines of


with accelerated construction. communication between all parties involved
cannot be overstated. The decision makers in
each discipline must be identified early, and they
must be available by phone to make timely
decisions when things don’t go completely as
planned.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 7-3

Guidelines Commentary

7.6 TOLERANCES

7.6.1 Fabrication

Fabrication tolerances shall be according to


standard precast practice. See PCI MNL-116,
Manual for Quality Control for Plants and
Production of Precast and Prestressed Concrete
Products or PCI MNL –135-00 Tolerance Manual
for Precast and Prestressed Concrete
Construction for more detailed tolerances for
precast components. Tolerances for project
specific requirements should be detailed in the
project specifications.

7.6.2 Vertical Control in the Field

Horizontal joints shall follow appropriate Errors in horizontal joints will accumulate
tolerances to ensure final elevations are as with each joint. The designer should limit
specified on the contract plans. horizontal joints to as few as possible. Horizontal
joints should be detailed to allow for minor
adjustments as required during construction.

7.6.3 Horizontal Control in the Field

Gaps between adjacent wall components Grouted shear keys can be introduced as
should provide for fabrication and construction required to provide additional fabrication and
tolerances. Contractor should survey and layout assembly tolerances if needed.
location of components prior to installation.
Layout control should continue throughout
assembly.

7.7 INSPECTION

7.7.1 Grouting of Horizontal Post-Tensioning


Ducts

The post-tensioning duct grout should be In order for the grout to work properly it must
mixed according to the grout manufacturer’s be mixed to the consistency intended by the
published mixing instructions. manufacturer.

Sufficient grout should be on site to completely Particular attention should be paid to the
grout an entire unit prior to commencing the published recommended pot life of a mixed batch
mixing of any grout. of grout. Once the process of grouting has begun
it must continue without interruption until it is
complete, or there is a risk of leaving ungrouted
ducts, or portions thereof, in the completed work.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
7-4 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Guidelines Commentary

Grouting of post-tensioning ducts should be Grouting should be continuous from one end
done from one end only. of the post-tensioning duct, and should be
continued until grout flows from the grout port at
the opposite end of the duct being grouted.

7.7.2 Mechanical Grouted Splices

A template will be required for accurate Templates should be used during fabrication to
mechanical splice placement during component ensure fit-up between joined components. Proper
fabrication and/or field cast conditions to ensure dowel extensions are required to develop the full
component compatibility. capacity of the grouted mechanical splice.
Placement tolerances should be as recommended
by the mechanical splice manufacturer.

The grouting process should follow the A minimum of two inspectors should be
manufacturer’s published recommendations for required for the mechanical splice grouting
materials and equipment. operation: one to watch the grout preparation and
one to watch the grouting process.

7.8 BACKFILL

The plans and specifications should allow for In many cases, there may not be an obvious
contractor alternates for backfill materials. The solution to the most cost effective backfill
plans should indicate which of the backfill options material. Contractor alternates will facilitate the
are acceptable for each substructure unit. most cost effective solutions.

7.8.1 Flowable Fill

This material has the ability to rapidly backfill Flowable fill can be installed quickly, however
a structure without the need for compaction. The it has several drawbacks. The actual material is
designer should investigate the effects of the more expensive than granular fill, and the area to
flowable fill on the substructure. be filled will need to be secured with either
formwork or embankments. In some cases, the
cost of these items may outweigh the cost of
compacting traditional granular fill.

Flowable fill will exert significant fluid


pressure on the substructure prior to setting. This
loading condition should be checked in the
design, if flowable fill is specified.

7.8.2 Compacted Granular Fill

Normal compacted granular fill may be used


for backfilling operations.

7.8.3 Foam Products

Foam products can be used to facilitate Stacking of these blocks can progress very
backfilling operations. These products consist of fast. These blocks are normally supplemented

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 7-5

Guidelines Commentary

lightweight (3 pcf) polystyrene blocks that are with flowable fill and/or granular backfill.
stacked behind a substructure unit.

The designer should investigate the effects of The light unit weight may affect the design of
this material on the design of the substructure structures where the dead load of the backfill is
since the unit weight is much less than traditional used to counteract overturning forces.
granular backfills.

The elevation of the water table should also be There are two issues with these products.
studied since these products can float. First, the compressive strength of the blocks is
limited; therefore a layer of granular material
above the blocks will be required in order to
distribute the wheel loads to the blocks. Second,
the designer should investigate floatation of the
blocks in areas where the water table is above the
bottom of the blocks. Often the buoyancy can be
offset by the weight of the granular fill over the
blocks.

Another problem is that polystyrene blocks


tend to be very reactive to petroleum products. In
some cases, polystyrene blocks can dissolve
rapidly when in contact with petroleum fuels.
Caution should be used when installing in
locations where fuel is stored.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
7-6 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 8-1

SECTION 8: CASE STUDY 1, UPTON, MAINE

CASE STUDY 1
East B Hill Road in Upton, Maine

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
8-2 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

INSTANT BRIDGE – JUST ADD WATER

Nathaniel D. Benoit, PE, Maine Department of Transportation, Augusta, ME


Eric T. Calderwood, PE, Calderwood Engineering etc, Richmond, ME
Wayne L. Frankhauser, Jr., PE, Maine Department of Transportation, Augusta, ME
Dennis R. Hanson, EIT, Technical Construction Inc., Turner, ME
Kenneth R. Heil, PE, Figg Bridge Engineers Inc., Exton, PA
Jeffrey J. Tweedie, PE, Maine Department of Transportation, Augusta, ME

ABSTRACT

This report is a case study on a project under taken by the Maine Department of Transportation in 2004.
In September of 2004 the Maine Department of Transportation completed construction of the Andover
Dam Bridge in Upton, Maine. The design of the bridge consists of a 65-ft single span, precast, butted
box beam superstructure, founded on pile-supported, integral abutments. The bridge is located on a
local road in rural Maine, and the use of a long detour and rapid bridge construction techniques were
determined more cost effective than the use of a temporary bridge. For this project the use of self
consolidating concrete combined with a precast concrete substructure and superstructure enabled the
bridge to be constructed while the road was closed for a total duration of 96 hours. This case study
discusses the background information, specifics of the new construction, traffic considerations,
construction sequence, precast components, and lessons learned by the Department during the
construction of this project.

Keywords: Rapid Bridge, Precast Substructure, Integral Abutments, Self Consolidated Concrete

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 8-3

INTRODUCTION

In 2003 Maine Department of Transportation needed to replace an 18 ft wide posted bridge on the East B Hill
Road in Upton, Maine. The existing bridge was a pony truss that had been strengthened with steel kickers from
the abutments up to the first panel point, at a later date MaineDOT Bridge Maintenance had further stiffened the
truss with the addition of two rolled beams at the roadway grade which were then connected to the truss
floorbeams. A new, wider structure, capable of carrying all legal loads was needed. Due to the remote location,
long detour, small traffic volume, and cost of a temporary bridge, the project was identified after preliminary
design as a potential candidate for the implementation of rapid bridge technology. With the national move, and
all the hype concerning rapid bridge construction, it became apparent to MaineDOT that it was only a matter of
time before the driving forces of traffic concerns and environmental impacts would require the use of expedited
construction techniques. MaineDOT was interested in using techniques that could be easily evaluated and
duplicated or modified to suit other bridge construction projects. The effectiveness of the techniques would need
to be evaluated both from the standpoint of cost savings, or lack thereof, and for its feasible use in other similar
applications.

BACKGROUND

Maine was looking for a location to try a rapid bridge construction project, but one that MaineDOT could
undertake on its own terms. Andover Dam Bridge in Upton, Maine crosses a pristine stream that is home to
native brook trout. The site is relatively remote and shrouded in spruce trees. While there are only
approximately 120 vehicles per day, a significant number of them are logging trucks. The destination of most
vehicles is either the famous fly fishing on the Rapid River, as this is the easiest access point to the Pond in the
River, or the Andover Wood Products Mill, one of the major employers in the Andover area. Any shut down of
the East B Hill Road would result in a 55 mile detour (see figure 1), which would directly affect both delivery of
logs to the mill, and travel time of workers at the mill who live on the other side of the bridge. Limiting the
closure time to a matter of days would be a real benefit to the users of the East B Hill Road. Yet with only 120
vehicles per day if unforeseen consequences delayed the project there would not be a tremendous public outcry.
The site was the perfect location to attempt rapid construction.

Contracting Techniques combined with precast concrete superstructure, substructure and approach slabs were
seen as the keystones to decreased construction time. The elimination of a temporary bridge limited the right of
way takings required, as well as the clearing for temporary approaches. It was estimated that a temporary bridge
at this site would cost approximately $75,000 and the anticipated savings would be used to finance an incentive
for early completion. Both the incentive and disincentive would need to be sizable to cover the contractor’s
additional cost to accelerate the work. Precast concrete superstructures have a long history of rapid fabrication
and erection in the State of Maine and MaineDOT was very comfortable with their use on a span such as this
one. Precast substructures were a new element to add to the equation, but without them it would have been
impossible to reduce the road closure to much less than 40 days.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
8-4 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Figure 1

MaineDOT had experimented with a project similar to this the year before when they eliminated the temporary
bridge and coupled that with a long detour. The biggest difference was that cast in place abutments were used,
and the road was closed for approximately 45 days. This project had to take that next step, and reduce or
eliminate any formwork, stripping and curing to be done in the field.

SPECIFICS OF NEW CONSTRUCTION

The bridge in preliminary design was a very different structure than the one that was eventually to be
constructed. Initially the proposed structure was a 65 foot prestressed precast butted box beam superstructure
with a leveling slab, waterproofing membrane, and bituminous wearing course founded on spread footings on
dense native soils. Although this was the optimum substructure unit given the site specific soil conditions,
MaineDOT Bridge Maintenance prefers integral abutment type structures because they have no joints and

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 8-5

therefore ease the maintenance of the structure. Because of this preference coupled with site specific scour
concerns the decision was made to make the change to integral abutments founded on driven H-Pile. This
opened the door to facilitate the implementation of rapid bridge technology. The leveling slab on the box beams
was eliminated; the crown of the roadway was introduced in the abutments. The abutments and approach slabs
would have to be precast in order to eliminate concrete curing times in the field. The abutments would be in
segments to reduce their weight and bond outs would be provided to allow the driven H-Pile to penetrate into the
abutment (see figure 2 for abutment configuration). Concrete could then be placed around the piling through fill
sleeves to each bond out and the segments would then be post tensioned together. The new abutments were
located sufficiently behind the existing abutments such that the piling could be driven behind the abutments, cut
off below grade, and the existing abutments could then be backfilled again to carry traffic on the old bridge while
new equipment was brought in to erect the superstructure and substructure units (see Figure 4 for construction
sequence).

Figure 2

Several factors would determine the geometry of the precast abutment segments. Conceptually the units would
be required to:
1. have sufficient post tensioning to carry the passive earth pressure required of integral type abutments
2. be light enough to ship and handle

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
8-6 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

3. have bond outs of sufficient size to allow for out of position piling, and the cumulative effects of several
pile out of position
4. have joints that are impervious to water flow
Due to a layer of boulders and cobbles, pile driving required pre-excavation through the boulder and cobble
layer. Given the consistency of the remaining material through which the pile would need to be driven, coupled
with MaineDOT’s construction experience, a practical out of position limit of 6” around each pile was used to
develop the pile bond outs within the abutment sections. After cutoff, a 1” plate (see Figure 3) was welded to the
top of each pile to facilitate bond with the concrete to be cast through the fill sleeves in the abutments.
Conceptually it was anticipated during the design phase that the precast segments would bear directly on these
bearing plates; however the contractor proposed supporting the bottom of the abutment with a steel frame welded
to the piling. The bottom of the precast abutment segments would set the vertical control for the entire bridge.
This had the advantage of allowing some additional vertical tolerance in the bond outs for the piling, as well as
being easily adjustable in the field during the
initial closure period. Using a 14 inch H-pile
section with 6 inches of tolerance for out of
position piling led to a bond out dimension of
26 inches square. Leaving 11 inches for the
minimum wall thickness at the bond out
sections yielded a total abutment width of 48
inches (see figure 2 for abutment geometry).
To facilitate fabrication and shipping, each
abutment was to be cast in two separate
pieces, an A segment and a B segment. Each
segment weighed approximately 33 Tons.
Shear keys were constructed between the
A & B segments, and the segments were Figure 3
match cast against the mating segment. A
structural adhesive epoxy was applied to each joint prior to post tensioning the abutment segments together; this
provided a waterproof bond at the match cast joint between the segments. Six 1-3/8” diameter galvanized post
tensioning bars would become the main reinforcing steel within the abutment components and carry the full
passive pressure of the backfill during thermal expansion cycles maintaining a minimum of 100 psi of
compression at the joint. Self consolidating concrete, modified with a shrinkage compensating admixture, was
placed through fill sleeves in the abutment. This assured adequate consolidation around piling sections and
completed the connection of the abutment segments to the piling.

Facets of the superstructure were customized to allow rapid construction as well. Neither a structural slab nor a
leveling slab were considered because setting up screed rails, casting, and curing them would unnecessarily slow
down construction. The crown of the roadway then had to be introduced into the structure at the abutments. In
order to achieve the proper roadway profile a shim course of pavement was placed between the base course and
finish course. The additional dead load of the shim course was accounted for during the design of the
superstructure. The initial plan called for the construction of permanent curb and railing during single lane
closures during the day after the new bridge was opened to traffic, but the contractor opted to precast the curb
sections on the beams. This saved time and cost and allowed the permanent railing to be installed without the
need for temporary traffic barrier except at the ends of the structure. The shear keys between boxes were wider
than MaineDOT’s standard width, and were filled using a self consolidating concrete modified with the addition
of a shrinkage compensating admixture. This allowed the shear keys to be grouted very rapidly. In order to
facilitate a rapid closure the approach slabs could not be cast in place either, but were in fact precast in 4 sections
and pitched to drain runoff away from the structure in both directions. (A below grade approach slab is the
preferred method of constructing approach slabs in Maine.) Traffic was allowed directly on top of the precast
units. Waterproofing membrane and bituminous pavement were applied during single lane closures after the
structure was opened to traffic.
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE
GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 8-7

CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE

The contractor was given 192 hours of total allowable closure time. The number of closures and duration of each
were left to the contractor to decide. In order to ensure the closure was limited to the minimum time required an
incentive of $200.00 per hour was offered if the closure took less than 192 hours. An additional incentive of
$10,000 was provided for simply meeting the 192 hour deadline. The incentives were combined with a
graduated disincentive beginning at $300.00 per hour and ending at $600.00 per hour for each hour the road was
closed in excess of the allowable 192 hours. In order to be effective the incentive and disincentive had to be by
the hour, if we had used a per day rate it would be easy to use the whole day once a part of it had been used, but
using a per hour rate made it even more imperative to make the road opening requirements very clear to the
contractor.

THREE INITIAL CLOSURE PERIODS

The first closure period was used to remove obstructions to pile driving and install the driven H-pile at abutment
#1. The pre-excavation was required to be moderately deeper than shown on the plans, and although we came
close to the water table, we were not required to drastically modify the construction procedure with the addition
of a separate cofferdam, pumps and sedimentation basins. Once the pile driving was complete the driving frame
was welded to the driven pile at exactly the proposed elevation of the bottom of the abutments. This would serve
to support the abutment segments during the final closure. Careful measurements to each pile were taken from
the centerline of construction. These would be used during fabrication of the abutments to verify the locations of
the bond outs in the precast units. The elevation to remove the existing abutment to was carefully located on the
abutment face. This would be used later to perforate the abutment facilitating easy removal during the final
closure. The installation of piling went over without incident, and the native soils were placed back into the hole
and compacted adequately to open the road to traffic. The total road closure period for the first closure period
was 12 hours.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
8-8 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 8-9

Figure 4
The second closure period was used to remove obstructions to pile driving and install the driven H-pile at
abutment number two. Although, after the initial closure’s success, spirits were high it became apparent early on
that we would not be quite so fortunate on the second day. Once the hole was opened up and we excavated
below the existing road gravel, the excavator began to take out buckets full of nothing but rock, we had found the
remains of the bridges namesake, the Andover Dam. Nonetheless we were fortunate not to find any log crib
below the stone, or what our biggest fear was, below the existing abutment. Once we had excavated through the
obstruction layer we found that the existing abutment had a heel that projected into and interfered with the pile
driving locations. The contractor had to get a Hoe Ram on site. At this point it was clear that we would not be
driving pile today. The pile driving subcontractor had serious, well founded, safety concerns regarding driving
pile after dark, and we would therefore have to fill the excavation with material through which we could drive the
pile up to the bottom of the new abutment location. The remainder of the hole was filled in with native soils and
compacted sufficiently to open the road to traffic. The total road closure period for the second closure was 12
hours.

The third closure period was used to complete the preparatory work at abutment number two. The existing
abutment had been marked during the previous closure to indicate when we could stop digging. The pile driving
frame was installed and the piles were driven to the required resistance, although one of the pile encountered an
obstruction causing it to deviate significantly from its theoretical position, it was pulled and restarted several
times with the same results. Finally, although not exactly in the right position the last pile was driven. Careful
measurements were taken to the actual piling locations. The frame was then erected and welded to the piling at
the exact elevation required for the bottom of the abutments. Native materials were used to backfill the existing
abutment and the road was opened to traffic. The total road closure period for the third closure was 12 hours.

SIX WEEKS OF PREPARATION

During the 6 weeks following these initial closure periods, preparations were being made to facilitate an
expedited schedule during the last closure period. The existing abutments were perforated with two inch
diameter holes at a two foot spacing located at the required cutoff elevation. While this did not impact the
structural capacity of the existing bridge it facilitated easy removal during the fourth and final closure. Granular
backfill and riprap were stockpiled just off site. Coordination between the contractor and his subs and suppliers
was critical. Everything had to come together at the same time.

The Abutments were under fabrication. No modifications were required at the bond out locations for abutment
#1; abutment #2 was moderately modified to better reflect the actual location of the driven H-pile. The pile that
had encountered an obstruction that altered its final location was out of position by exactly the six inch tolerance
that we had allowed for in the bond outs. While theoretically it would be possible to erect the segments if they
were constructed as designed, we decided to shift the bond out for that piling sufficiently to allow the greatest
flexibility in the field.

Once all the preparations were made, materials stockpiled, concrete trial batched, precast concrete boxes and
abutments were all fabricated and were either delivered or on the road. The stage was set for the fourth and final
closure.

THE FINAL CLOSURE PERIOD

The first day of the final closure period was full of activity. Work was taking place on both sides of the river
simultaneously. One large excavator worked at removing the soil down to the driving frame, carefully
uncovering it to reveal the support for the abutment segments at abutment #1. Simultaneously, a second
excavator removed the grade beams and concrete deck from the truss. A hydraulic crane set up to place the
abutment segments at abutment #1. At this point it was critical that the segments be erected at abutment #1 early
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE
GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
8-10 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

in the day to allow the crane time to break down and travel all the way around the detour in order to be prepared
to set the abutment segments at abutment #2. The abutment segments were erected very smoothly, and post
tensioning began immediately. Once the post tensioning was complete, backfill was placed carefully on both
sides of the abutment keeping the elevation approximately the same so as not to shift its alignment at all. The
existing truss was removed and the old abutments were removed to their final elevations, 1 foot below the
finished slope line. Riprap was placed in areas that would be located underneath the new superstructure. Self
consolidating concrete was placed through the fill sleeves to permanently connect the abutment to its foundation
piling. The first day was complete after about 14 hours of the final closure period.

The second day of the final closure was similarly exciting. Abutment #2 segments were placed and post
tensioned. Abutment #2 was backfilled, and self consolidating concrete filled the pile bond outs. Rip rap was
placed in front of abutment #2. The precast box beams were erected, and the hydraulic crane was broken down
and sent home. The second day of the final closure period was complete after about 38 hours of the final closure
period.

The third and final day of the final closure cleaned up most of the details. The approach slabs were set at the
appropriate grade, the precast box beam superstructure was anchored into the abutments, lateral post tensioning
strands between box beams were installed, and the shear keys between the box beams were filled with self
consolidating concrete. Bond outs in the curb were filled with the same concrete mix. Bridge rail was installed,
gravel was placed and the approaches were graded, and the structure was opened to traffic. The final closure
period lasted a total of 60 hours. The total elapsed road closure time for the bridge replacement was only 96
hours.

FINAL COMPLETION

Several elements were then completed under traffic with only single lane closures. This included grouting the
post tensioning tendons within the abutments, installing waterproof membrane and bituminous pavement,
grouting the post tensioning pockets. Completing the approach work also was done under traffic.

LESSONS LEARNED

MaineDOT learned several lessons during the construction of the Upton Andover Dam Bridge. Operations
taking place simultaneously tend to be extremely equipment intensive, and there is a tremendous amount of real
estate required for lay down areas, storage, and equipment in order to keep multiple operations going
simultaneously. Plan on separate closures for pile driving and make sure there is plenty of room behind the
existing abutments to avoid piling and the bottom of a battered mass concrete abutment sharing the same
physical space. Take more borings than you think you need, because once the road is closed you are committed.
Keep the details simple and clean, nothing fancy. Don’t pin the box beams to the abutments, pin the approach
slabs instead. Don’t be tempted to reduce the incentive, or to cut the allowable closure time significantly,
because it must be possible for the contractor to achieve a bonus significant enough to account for the additional
expenses of accelerating the work.

CONCLUSIONS

The experimental rapid bridge in Upton, Maine was a very successful project and will lead to the use of similar
techniques on other bridge replacement projects where a reduction in traffic disruption is beneficial. MaineDOT
was initially concerned that even though we would be eliminating a temporary bridge with significant cost
PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE
GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 8-11

associated with it, the accelerated schedule, incentive, and precast substructure would drive the cost above that of
a more conventionally constructed bridge. That concern proved to be unfounded, and although it is difficult to
say for certain, it’s generally agreed within the Department that the project resulted in a cost savings. Part of the
reason for this may lie in the equipment intensive operations which lend themselves well to rental equipment.
Additionally, when the construction duration is limited, the contractor has less overhead cost associated with the
project.

The environmental benefits seem to be very promising. The area which would have been cleared and used for
temporary approaches to a temporary bridge could remain wooded. Areas that were destabilized by excavating
for the new abutments were completely stabilized with the final rip rap placement the same day. The excavation
only stayed open for a matter of hours.

While vehicular travel time was significantly impacted during the closure periods, people had sufficient
advanced warning and could plan their schedules accordingly. They did not seem to mind the bridge closing for
a few days.

MaineDOT has realized that rapid bridge construction can save the state money and limit inconvenience for the
traveling public. In a state where much of the economy is dependent on tourism it is sometimes beneficial to
shift the disruption caused by construction to a period more acceptable to the local business community.
MaineDOT has already put these same techniques to work on two other projects which are under construction
during the writing of this paper. Both of these projects have more significant traffic volumes and are in more
prominent locations. Although this is not going to become the standard construction methodology in the state, it
is going to be another tool that the bridge designer can have in his toolbox to be applied in the right
circumstances to save money, traffic disruption, and environmental impacts.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
8-12 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 9-1

SECTION 9: CASE STUDY 2, BROOKSVILLE, MAINE

CASE STUDY 2
Davis Narrows Bridge in Brooksville, Maine

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
9-2 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Davis Narrows Bridge in Brooksville, Maine: Fast Track Solution to and Environmentally
Sensitive and Tourist Location

M. Asif Iqbal, P.E.


Maine Department of Transportation
Augusta, Maine

ABSTRACT

The unique features of the existing Bridge, the sensitive environmental habitat, and the tourist attraction
at the Davis Narrows Bridge over the Bagaduce River in Brooksville, Maine created a set of issues that
demanded a fast track approach to bridge design and construction. The Maine Department of
Transportation after considering several options decided to custom design a single span bridge using all
precast elements. The Precast abutments and wingwalls were designed as post-tensioned units over
driven piles to reduce excavation, forming and curing time, and to eliminate the use of cofferdams.
Extensive geotextiles were used to stabilize the causeways and reduce impacts to Eelgrass patches.
The new abutments were installed behind the existing granite block abutments to avoid changes to
hydraulics favored by locals and tourists. Precast Box-beams were erected efficiently using a launching
girder. The entire project from demolition of the existing bridge to pavement and guardrail installation on
the new 89 foot, $1 million Bridge was completed in only 30 days. The ease with which the bridge was
constructed not only impressed the locals but also the Contractor and the Owner.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 9-3

INTRODUCTION

The Davis Narrows Bridge spans the Bagaduce River and connects the towns of Penobscot and
Brooksville along the rugged coastline of Downeast Maine. The bridge site posed a number of
challenges due to its unique wildlife habitat, pristine waters, local oyster farm, tourism, poor sight
distance, and long detour to mention a few. These issues motivated the Maine DOT to consider a fast-
tract and low-impact design that would not only address the issues at hand but also one that would
prove to be an effective solution to similar problems at other locations.

The existing Bridge was constructed back in 1941 using painted rolled steel beams on dry laid
granite blocks. The granite blocks were constructed on rock fills that form the 100 foot long causeways
on both approaches leading to the bridge. The paint on the beams had failed and corrosion was
hastened by the salt water underneath. The FHWA Sufficiency Rating had dropped to only 31. It was
thus programmed for replacement in the 2004-2005 Work Plan.

The causeways create a constriction on the daily tide cycle which in turn produces a hydraulic
head of about three feet in each direction at the abutments between high and low tide. The rapids from
this phenomenon have become one of entertainment value on which many tourists and locals ride their
kayaks and inflatables during the summer months. The locals were thus not in favor of changing any of
the hydraulic characteristics.

The Bagaduce River near the Bridge site is also one of few areas in Maine where the Horseshoe
crab breeds. The Horseshoe crab is an ancient creature that is said to predate the Dinosaurs by 100
million years. Another concern was the presence of Eelgrass on two corners of the bridge. Eelgrass,
which is a salt water seagrass, is protected by the Federal Clean Water Act. It provides natural habitat
and food to marine organisms. The Bagaduce Watershed Conservation Association had requested the
complete transplant of Eelgrass that would have been affected by the causeway riprap. The Maine DOT
biologist was able to precisely mark the Eelgrass patches on survey plans using backpack GPS units.
Prior to construction, these patches were hand transplanted by divers and volunteers.

The bridge site is also a natural fishing ground not only for the local people but also for
cormorants, larks, and the Blue Heron besides other species of birds. Throughout the construction,
these birds provided a natural sight for the construction crew. The oyster farmer just upstream of the
bridge had requested that the silt and sediments from the construction be reduced to an absolute

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
9-4 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

minimum. This was achieved by using precast abutments instead of cast-in-place which significantly
reduced equipment movement, excavation, and flow of any concrete into the tidal area. Use of precast
units for abutments also eliminated the need for cofferdams which would have disturbed the river
sediments. The use of silt booms at both abutments was all that was needed with the precast system.

Given the sensitive nature of the project surroundings, the design team considered the options
available and decided on an all-precast system to quickly install the bridge, address the issues at the
site, and open the road to traffic in the shortest time possible.

BRIDGE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

The bridge was designed by the Maine DOT Bridge Program design team during the winter of 2004-
2005 according to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Some of the precast features were
conceived from the Andover Dam Bridge in Upton which is the only other bridge in the state with precast
abutments. The new bridge is single span, 89 feet long and 32 feet wide with integral abutments. The
design theory for the precast abutment was based on using conventional integral-abutment dimensions
and then splitting the abutment into segments that can be easily transported and erected. Since the
abutment units are supported on piles, the entire abutment needed to act as a single unit which was
accomplished by post-tensioning the units with threaded bars. The project was advertised in May of
2005 and awarded to Reed and Reed Inc. contractors of Woolwich, Maine in July, 2005 for a total bid
price of $1.06 million. All precast abutment units and box beams were manufactured by Strescon Ltd. of
New Brunswick, Canada. The construction was expected to be quite challenging because the work
schedule needed to be synchronized with the daily tide cycles. The Maine DOT principal designer also
spent the entire 30 days of bridge closure at the construction site to help address issues as they came
up. The project was completed 5 days ahead of the allotted 35 day closure. The details of the
construction process are given below.

Abutments and Wingwalls

Since the hydraulics of the bridge could not be changed, the existing granite block abutments
could not be removed entirely. As a result the new integral abutments were designed twelve feet behind
the existing abutments (See Figure 1-3). It would have been nearly impossible to drive conventional

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 9-5

steel sheet-pile cofferdams because of the rocky river-bottom and the long causeway that allowed
significant flow of water through them. As a result, the excavation for the abutments was done within
controlled embankments and at low tide. Silt booms were used on the outside to reduce seepage of silt
and sediments. The dimensions of the precast and post-tensioned abutment units are similar to that of
conventional cast in place integral abutments in Maine.

The integral abutments of the bridge are supported on four piles which are driven to bedrock
(See Figures 2, 5). Light I-beams were placed transversely on each side of the piles to ensure that the
abutments were seated level. The HP 14x89 piles were one size heavier than required to account for
some section loss due to salt water conditions. The piles are expected to be wet at all times. The
abutments consist of two 16 foot long precast center units and two 4 foot long precast extended wing
wall units. All contact surfaces were specified to be match cast at the precasting plant and coated with
epoxy concrete adhesive just prior to post-tensioning in the field. All four units are post-tensioned (PT)
together with six threaded bars. The PT bars were designed to resist biaxial loads on the center units
from traffic and earth pressure, and cantilever loads on the wingwalls due to earth pressure. The match
cast joints also consisted of four shear keys to help align the precast units during erection. Voids were
designed into the abutment units to receive the piles. These voided areas were enlarged to reduce the
shipping weight of the precast units. Once the abutments were lifted into place and the post-tensioning
was completed, the voids were filled with Self Consolidating Concrete (SCC) through six inch ducts on
top of the abutment units. The six PT ducts were pumped with conventional grout. The final lock off
tension in the PT bars was designed to prevent any cracks due to Service Loads. Although the PT bars
provided bending resistance, the steel reinforcement in each unit was designed for deep beam bending
action, and punching shear resistance over the voided areas. All steel reinforcement in the abutment
units were epoxy coated.

Only the small tapering top portions of the wingwalls that abut the box beams were cast in place.
This was necessary to obtain a tight fit of the beams against the abutments. The use of precast
abutments significantly reduced impact to the river and tidal areas, and reduced the construction time by
a third.

Superstructure and Approach Slabs

The superstructure is made of eight butted Precast Pre-stressed Box Beams (B-II 48) that were

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
9-6 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

post-tensioned transversely to act as a single unit (See Figure 4). They were delivered three per day
which was also the beam erection rate. A 110 ton and an 80 ton crane erected the beams in place. The
contractors were very innovative in their approach to erecting the box beams. The heavy beams would
have required widening the causeways with temporary fills to swing the beams into place and thereby
causing significant impact to the natural habitats. This was eliminated by the use of custom made steel
launching beam with a trolley supported on Hilman rollers. The contractors used the truck that brought
the beams to back-up the beams across the channel thereby eliminating the need to lift an entire beam
off the truck with one crane. The use of pea stone concrete mix in the shear keys instead of the
conventional sand grout reduced the possibility of discharging material into the river. As an additional
measure, the foam backer rods in the shear keys were bonded to the beams prior to erection and then
compressed into place during erection of adjacent beams.

Transverse post-tensioning strands were located at five points along the length of the beam.
Although the designers intended the curbs to be precast with the beams, it was determined that cracks
would have developed during transportation through the rough local roads. Thus the curbs were cast in
place, and this operation started as soon as only two beams were erected. The precast approach slabs
were erected next and these were positively connected to the abutments using six #6 loops providing
longitudinal restraint to the beams. The loops were placed through pockets in the approach slabs and
into precast holes in the abutment units. The pockets were later filled with sand grout. All steel
reinforcements except for the pre-stressing strands were epoxy coated.

The use of precast pre-stressed butted box beams significantly reduced erection time.
Substantial time was also saved by not having to construct a leveling slab. High Performance Membrane
was torch-applied on the beams by a subcontractor followed by a three inch Hot Mix Asphalt pavement.

PROJECT SCHEDULE AND COST

The contractors were given a total of thirty five days of road closure to complete the project with
incentives of $1000 per day and equal disincentives. They decided to work on causeways leading to the
bridge first and then close the bridge for completing the rest of the project. The causeways were built
back in 1941 with massive rocks and boulders that allowed significant flow of water through them. To
reduce impact to existing flow characteristics, the new approach roads on the causeways were built on
choke stone layers stabilized with high-flow geotextiles. This took three weeks to complete followed by

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 9-7

the bridge closure on September 6th, 2005.

The first week of closure was used to remove the tops of the existing abutments followed by
excavation at the new abutment locations. The second week was used for driving the piles and erecting
the abutments. Some time was lost when two of the pile locations were blocked by large boulders in the
excavation. The contractors did not claim addition time because the presence of boulders was clearly
indicated in the boring logs. The contractors brought in a larger excavator to removes the large boulders.
The four precast units that make up an abutment took only two hours to erect and post-tension. The
grouting operation was done the following day at low tide. During the third week, the beams were
erected using a steel launching beam structure and a crane on either end. The curbs were constructed
as soon as the first fascia beam and an adjacent beam were in place. The wingwall tops were cast early
fourth week followed by installation of bridge rail and application of the high performance membrane.
The heavy cranes were also disassembled during this week and removed from site. Pavement was
applied during the last two days leading to bridge opening. The bridge was opened to traffic on October
5th, 2005. The approach guardrails were installed during the two days following the bridge opening and
no lane closures were needed due to the low traffic volume at that time. The contractors also left the site
four days after the bridge was opened to traffic.

The Davis Narrows Bridge was constructed on a very unique site which posed some significant
construction challenges. The structure itself is one of a kind and as such the cost of this bridge cannot
be easily compared to other bridges in Maine. The unit cost of the structure itself was $233 per square
foot. The price of the Box beams were 56% higher than the estimated price and this was attributed to
the high demand for Box beams during that particular time, besides the temporary shortage of cement.
The increased cost of transportation was also a factor. The bid price of the precast abutments per cubic
yard of concrete was 80% higher than conventional cast in place concrete.

CONCLUSION

Overall, the precast systems were fabricated as designed and erected efficiently as expected.
The contractors were very pleased with the swiftness with which they could handle the precast units and
also the ease of installation. At final inspection and finalizing submittals, the contractor and Maine DOT
gave each other high marks for job satisfaction. This was truly a project which had many challenges but
finally came together with the help of dedicated teams from both the Maine DOT and the contractors,
and certainly with the technology of precast units. The success of this project and that of the Andover

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
9-8 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Dam Bridge has motivated other designers at Maine DOT to consider similar All-Precast solution on
their projects.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 9-9

Figure 1: Precast Abutment Section showing void and PT bar locations.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
9-10 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Figure 2: Precast Abutment dimensions.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 9-11

Figure 3: Embankment details showing new and existing abutment.


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
9-12 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Figure 4: Typical Superstructure Cross-Section.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 9-13

Figure 5: Typical Abutment Elevation.


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
9-14 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Photo 1: Removal of Existing Steel Girder Bridge.

Photo 2: Extensive use of Geotextiles to stabilize Causeway.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 9-15

Photo 3: Placement of Center Precast Abutment units.

Photo 4: Precast Abutment voids being aligned with Pile tips.


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
9-16 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Photo 5: Self-Consolidating Concrete poured into the voids.

Photo 6: All four Precast Abutment units in place

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS 9-17

Photo 7: Launching Beam and first Precast Box beam in place.

Photo 8: Completed Bridge showing causeways.


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
9-18 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Photo 9: Completed Bridge photo taken 9 months after completion.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS R-1

SECTION 10: CASE STUDY 3, MILL STREET BRIDGE, EPPING, NEW HAMPSHIRE

Article Download: http://www.pci.org/pdf/publications/journal/2005/may-june/jl-05-may-june-4.pdf

CASE STUDY 3
Mill Street Bridge
Epping, New Hampshire
PCI Journal Article JR-449
GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
R-2 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

References and Resources

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 3rd Edition with 2006 Interim Revisions, American Association
of State Highway and Transportation Officials.

AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 17th Edition, American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials.

PCI, Manual for Quality Control for Plants and Production of Precast and Prestressed Concrete Products PCI
MNL-116. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL.

PCI. 2000. Tolerance Manual for Precast and Prestressed Concrete Construction, First Edition, MNL 135-00.
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL.

PCI. 1997. Bridge Design Manual PCI MNL-133-97. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL.

ACI, 2001. Emulating Cast-in-Place Detailing in Precast Concrete Structure ACI 550.1R-01, American
Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI

ASBI, Construction Practice Handbook For Segmental Concrete Bridges, American Segmental Bridge Institute

FHWA, Decision-Making Framework for Prefabricated Bridge Elements and Systems (PBES), May 2006,
Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Design Guidelines (available at www.pcine.org)


New England Bulb Tee (NEBT) Post-Tensioned Design Guidelines (June 2001)
This report covers design, detailing and construction specifications for post-tensioning and splicing of the New
England Bulb Tee (NEBT) girder. Splicing of the girders allows for longer span lengths and the elimination of
intermediate bridge piers. Post-tensioning can be used to make bridges continuous. If a State standard exists it
will take precedence over these guidelines & details.

Load Charts for New England Bulb Tee - LRFD Load Charts (1998)
Preliminary Design charts for designing the New England Bulb Tee Girders. Charts will help you determine
span capabilities, spacing and preliminary number of prestressing strands required. If a State Standard exists it
will take precedence over these guidelines and details.

Load Charts for New England Bulb Tee - HS25 Load Charts (1998)
Preliminary Design charts for designing the New England Bulb Tee Girders. Charts will help you determine
span capabilities, spacing and preliminary number of prestressing strands required. If a State Standard exists it
will take precedence over these guidelines and details.

Load Charts for New England Bulb Tee - HS20 Load Charts (1998)
Preliminary Design charts for designing the New England Bulb Tee Girders. Charts will help you determine
span capabilities, spacing and preliminary number of prestressing strands required. If a State Standard exists it
will take precedence over these guidelines and details.

Load Charts for New England Bulb Tee - Instructions for Use and Section Properties (1998)
Preliminary Design charts for designing the New England Bulb Tee Girders. Charts will help you determine
span capabilities, spacing and preliminary number of prestressing strands required. If a State Standard exists it
will take precedence over these guidelines and details.

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS R-3

Full Depth Precast Concrete Deck Slabs (June 2002)


Design Guidelines for the use of Full Depth Precast Deck Slabs used for new construction or for replacement of
existing decks on bridges. This guideline has been reviewed and approved by the New England Technical
committee. Several projects have already used these details and specification. If a State Standard exists it will
take precedence.

High Performance Concrete for Prestressed Concrete Bridges (September 2001)


Guide specification for High Performance Concrete developed by New Hampshire DOT. New Hampshire is the
lead state under the Federal Highway demonstration project for HPC in our region. This guideline has been
reviewed and approved by the New England Technical committee. Several projects have already used this
specification. If a State Standard exists it will take precedence.

Bridge Member Repair Guidelines (January 2003)


This report is intended to serve as a guide to identify defects that may occur during the fabrication of bridge
elements. The report gives guidance on possible cause and prevention. It will help determine the consequences of
the defects and assist in making a judgment as to acceptance/repair or rejection. This report can be utilized by
State Inspectors, Designers, Plant Production Managers, Plant Quality Control Inspectors and Plant Engineers.

Prestressed Concrete Girder Continuity Connection (May 1998)


Guidelines for simple span members made continuous in Multi-span bridges. This specification and its sample
details shall be used as a guide when designing for continuity. The PCI New England Technical committee has
recommended that strand extensions be used to make the positive moment connection in beams. If a State
Standard exists it will take precedence over these guidelines & details.

Precast Deck Panel Guidelines (May 2001)


Guidelines and details for Precast Prestressed Concrete Deck Panels or Stay-in-Place (SIP) decking used as a
permanent form spanning between girders and designed to act composite with the remaining cast-in-place deck.
If a State Standard exists it will take precedence over these guidelines & details.

Web Sites
AASHTO Website bridges.transportation.org

PCI National Website www.pci.org

PCI-NE Website www.pcine.org, Belmont, MA

FHWA Accelerated Bridge Construction Website: www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/accelerated, New Brunswick,


New Jersey
GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS I-1

INDEX
Anchoring Details Staged............................................................... 4-1
Anchoring Bolts ............................................... 4-7 Substructure ............................... 3-1, 3-2, 3-2, 3-3
Bearing Assemblies.......................................... 4-8 Tolerance............................. 4-5, 4-8, 5-5, 7-3, 7-4
Devices............................................................. 4-7 Contractor ................ 3-1, 3-4, 4-1, 5-1, 7-1, 7-2, 7-4
Elastomeric Bearing Pad .................................. 4-7 Corrosion Protection .....................................2-3, 5-1
For Deck Components...................................... 4-8 Costs
Raised Pedestal................................................. 4-7 Increases........................................................... 2-1
Steel Rail System ............................................. 4-8 Design
Assembly Plan....................................... 5-1, 7-1, 7-2 Assumptions..................................................... 2-1
Beam Type Emulation......................................................... 2-1
Box Beam......................................................... 1-5 Detours................................................................. 1-1
Deck Slab ......................................................... 1-5 elastomeric bearing pad
Voided Slab...................................................... 1-6 Elastomeric Bearing Pad.................................. 4-7
Component Environmental Impacts ........................................ 1-1
Abutment.......2-1, 2-2, 4-1, 4-5, 4-5, 4-8, 5-1, 5-4 Fabrication .............................. 2-1, 2-2, 4-8, 7-3, 7-4
Assembly..................... 2-1, 5-1, 5-3, 7-1, 7-2, 7-3 Tolerance.......................................................... 7-3
Backwalls ......................................................... 4-8 Field Drilling........................................................ 4-7
Battered ............................................................ 2-2 Fill
Cheek Walls ..................................................... 4-8 Flowable....................................................7-4, 7-5
Installation............ 2-3, 3-1, 3-2, 3-2, 3-3, 7-2, 7-3 Geometry
Keeper Block.................................................... 4-8 Battered ............................................................ 2-2
Pier Caps .......................................................... 4-3 Footing Widths................................................. 2-2
Precast Concrete Rail ....................................... 4-7 Layout ........................................ 2-1, 4-1, 4-2, 7-3
Recessed Key ................................................... 5-1 Repetition..................................................2-1, 2-2
Retaining Wall ............ 4-1, 4-3, 4-8, 5-1, 5-3, 7-3 Skew................................................................. 2-1
Shape ................................................................ 2-2 Tolerance.................................... 3-1, 5-3, 5-5, 7-3
Size......................................2-2, 4-5, 5-4, 5-5, 7-1 Grout
Spread Footing 3-1, 3-2, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4, 4-1, 4-4, 5- Availability ...................................................... 7-3
1 Cable Grout...................................................... 7-3
Spread Footings................................. 3-4, 4-5, 4-8 Flowable....................................................5-1, 5-3
Stems .........................................................2-2, 4-3 Footing ............................................................. 3-4
Substructure..2-1, 2-2, 3-1, 3-3, 4-8, 7-1, 7-2, 7-4, Installation.................................. 3-2, 5-1, 5-2, 5-4
7-5 Instruction ........................................................ 7-3
Wingwall .................................... 2-1, 2-2, 4-1, 4-8 Joint...........................................................5-1, 5-3
Concrete Placement Key................................................................... 5-2
Cast-in-Place ...................1-5, 2-1, 3-2, 4-2, 5-1, 1 Keys ..........................................................4-3, 4-4
Precast ......................1-6, 2-1, 2-2, 3-3, 4-2, 7-3, 1 Operation.................................... 3-4, 5-3, 5-4, 7-4
Conflicts ............................................................... 4-7 Post-Tensioning Ducts ..............................5-4, 5-5
Connections.......2-1, 4-1, 4-3, 4-5, 4-7, 5-1, 5-3, 5-4 Prepackaged ..................................................... 5-1
Construction ................................... 2-2, 3-1, 7-1, 7-3 Preparation ....................................................... 7-4
Accelerated................................................3-1, 7-2 Pressure ............................................................ 5-3
Concerns........................................................... 4-8 Pumping .............................. 3-4, 5-1, 5-2, 5-4, 5-4
Conventional .................................................... 4-8 Sealing.............................................................. 4-8
Costs................................................................. 1-1 Shear Key..................................................4-3, 4-4
Joints ................................................................ 2-1 Sleeve........................................................4-2, 5-4
Sequencing ....................................................... 4-1 Specifications ................................................... 7-2
Specification..................................................... 4-5 Spicer ............................................................... 5-3
Speed .........................................................1-6, 4-2 Splicer .............................................................. 5-2
GUIDELINES FOR ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION USING
I-2 PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

Strength .....................................................3-4, 5-1 Lateral forces ....................................................... 4-8


Structural .......................................................... 5-3 Movement ............................................................ 4-8
Type ..........................................................5-1, 5-3 Overturning Loads ............................................... 5-1
Under Footing ...........................................3-1, 3-2 Political Pressures ................................................ 1-1
Handling............................................................... 2-2 Post-tensioning..................................................... 2-1
Integral Abutment ................................................ 4-3 Precast Plant......................................................... 4-7
Joints Rapid Bridge Construction............................1-1, 1-6
Construction ..................................................... 2-1 Settlement ............................................................ 4-8
Contraction....................................................... 4-8 Shear Capacity ..................................................... 5-1
Expansion......................................................... 4-8 Shipping ............................................................... 2-2
Filler Installation .............................................. 5-3 Equipment ............ 2-2, 3-4, 5-4, 7-1, 7-2, 7-2, 7-4
Non-Structural Joints ....................................... 4-8 Temporary Facilities ............................................ 1-1
Sealing.............................................................. 4-8 Transportation ...................................................... 2-2

PCI – NORTHEAST TECHNICAL BRIDGE COMMITTEE


NOTES
NOTES
NOTES
116 Radcliffe Road, Belmont, MA 02478
Phone (888) 700-5670
http://www.pcine.org